Introduction to Bloodborne Pathogens


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This is a training module for volunteers at the Open Door clinic.

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Introduction to Bloodborne Pathogens

  1. 1. Introduction to Bloodborne Pathogens Volunteer Training Module Open Door Clinic
  2. 2. What are Bloodborne Pathogens? Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms that are present in human blood and can infect and cause disease in people who are exposed to blood containing the pathogen. These microorganisms can be transmitted through contact with contaminated blood and body fluids.
  3. 3. Some Common Bloodborne Pathogens
  4. 4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV • HIV can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) • HIV is passed from one person to another through: • blood-to-blood contact • sexual contact • pregnancy, delivery, and breast-feeding
  5. 5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV • People with HIV have what is called HIV infection. • Most of these people will eventually develop AIDS as the result of their HIV infection. • HIV progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers. • People diagnosed with AIDS may get life- threatening diseases called opportunistic infections • Caused by microbes such as viruses or bacteria that usually do not affect healthy people.
  6. 6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV • Symptoms range from asymptomatic to severe immunodeficiency • Initial infection can have symptoms such as: • fever • sweats • myalgia • rash • sore throat • lymphadenopathy
  7. 7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV The fight is not over
  8. 8. Hepatitis Acute Viral Hepatitis Acute viral hepatitis is a common, sometimes serious infection of the liver leading to inflammation and necrosis. There are at least five distinct viral agents that cause acute viral hepatitis:
  9. 9. Hepatitis B Virus HBV • About one-third of persons infected with HBV have no signs or symptoms. Symptoms can include: • Jaundice • Fatigue • Abdominal pain • Loss of appetite • Nausea, vomiting • Joint pain • Transmission of the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) occurs when an infected person's blood or body fluids enters the body of a person who is not immune. • The Bloodborne Pathogen standard requires employers to make the hepatitis B vaccine and vaccination series available to all employees that have occupational exposure to HBV.
  10. 10. Hepatitis C Virus HCV • Approximately 80% of the persons infected with Hepatitis C have no signs or symptoms. Those that have symptoms and signs may exhibit the following: • Jaundice • Fatigue • Dark Urine • Abdominal Pain • Loss of Appetite • Nausea • Chronic infections occur in 75-85% of infected persons, and chronic liver disease occurs in 70% of infected persons. There is no vaccine for Hepatitis C.
  11. 11. Transmission of Bloodborne Pathogens Bloodborne pathogens are transmitted when contaminated blood or body fluids enter the body of another person. In the workplace setting, transmission is most likely to occur through:
  12. 12. Transmission of Bloodborne Pathogens Unbroken skin forms an impervious barrier against bloodborne pathogens. However, infected blood or body fluids can enter your system percutaneously through: • Open sores • Cuts • Abrasions • Acne • Any sort of damaged or broken skin such as sunburn or blisters
  13. 13. Safe Healthcare There are also many ways that bloodborne pathogens are not transmitted. For example, bloodborne pathogens are not transmitted by: • touching an infected person • coughing or sneezing • using the same equipment, materials, toilets, water fountains or showers as an infected person.
  14. 14. Quick Check Summary What is a bloodborne pathogen? We vaccinate against which forms of Hepatitis? How are bloodborne pathogens transmitted?