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  • 1. Chapter 19 & 20Saleha, Dorsa & Anita
  • 2. Adapting to a Bilateral Lens
  • 3.  Concerned with those children who frequently use aggression and other forms of antisocial behaviour to meet their needs and influence each other
  • 4.  Aggression heightens a child’s risk for serious maladjustment such as juvenile delinquency, adult criminality, substance abuse, impaired occupational and marital functioning
  • 5.  PMT is a therapeutic strategy in which parents are trained to use skills for managing children’s problem behaviour Goal is to enhance parental control over children’s behaviour, this can be done by:  Issuing clear commands  Extinguish or ignore minor misbehaviours  Reinforce desirable behaviours
  • 6.  Cavell and Strand argue that we need to update and expand parent based interventions on four points: 1. Nagging concerns about benefits and mechanism of PMT 2. Revisions in behaviourally based assumptions that underlie PMT 3. Greater appreciation of the role of non-parenting factors in the development and course of childhood aggression 4. Recent advances in conceptualization of parental influence
  • 7.  PMT is most effective when used to treat oppositional preschoolers whose parents are not overly burdened by socioeconomic disadvantages, familial stress or individual psychopathology Lack of research on PMT being effective to treat children who are at greatest risk for negative ‘sequelae’ of childhood aggression
  • 8.  Kerr & Stattin (2000) found that when parents were aware of their child’s whereabouts (based on child’s information) they became more predictive of their problem behaviour. Cavell & Strand have outlined a two factor model:  Parental supervision  Child wandering
  • 9. 1. Matching Law (Patterson’s Coercion Hypothesis): ▪ Children use coercion to escape from the demands associated with parent’s requests, prohibitions and instructions ▪ Findings: Parents of aggressive children do a poor job of disciplining their children which is why children get used to using coercion.
  • 10. 2. Wahler’s Social Continuity Hypothesis: ▪ Behavioural problems arise from an absence of continuity or predictability in a child’s relationship with important others such as peers, extended family members, siblings but particularly with parents ▪ Observational learning is crucial in the development of children’s aggressive behaviour as children will imitate these aggressive behaviours that they see around them
  • 11. What are some other non-violent forms of discipline that parents can use with their children?
  • 12.  3 influences: 1. Genetic influence – nature vs. nurture 2. Peer influence 3. Macro-level influence Discussion: Can you think of any other influences that may influence a child’s aggressive behaviour?
  • 13.  Emotionally harsh and overly punitive parenting is a by-product of children’s coercive actions Adults who feel powerless regard children as hostile and threatening Aggressive children lack a ‘sense of containment’
  • 14.  Committed compliance – children appear to accept parents agenda on their own Situational compliance – children although essentially cooperative, do not appear to embrace wholeheartedly the parental agenda
  • 15.  Cavell and Strand outline 10 principles to guide parent based interventions for families with aggressive children Goal is to suggest a paradigmatic shift in how researchers and practitioners think about the therapeutic task of working with aggressive children and the parents
  • 16. 1. Long term socialization of aggressive children takes precedence over the short term management of behaviours2. Parent- child relationship is a useful vehicle for socializing aggressive children3. Socializing relationships provide aggressive children, over time with emotional acceptance, behavioural containment and prosocial values
  • 17. 4. Ratio of emotional acceptance to behavioural containment is a key parameter of the socializing relationship5. Characteristics of the parent, child and ecology surrounding the parent-child relationship can affect the degree to which socializing relationships are established and maintained
  • 18. 6. Primary goal of parent based interventions for aggressive children is helping parents establish and sustain a socializing relationship7. Behavioural containment begins with strict limits on aggressive, antisocial behaviour8. Emotional acceptance begins with an implicit message of belonging
  • 19. 9. Prosocial values begin with explicit statements against antisocial behaviour10. Effective parent based interventions for aggressive children are multi-systematic
  • 20. The purpose of parent based interventions for aggressive children such as the PMT is to help parents establish and sustain a socializing relationship, one that takes into account the unique characteristics of the parent, child and the child-rearing context.
  • 21. Metaphors of Bidirectionality in Parent-Child Relations.
  • 22.  children cognitively construct their knowledge (Piaget) infant shapes the child-rearing practices of the parents (Rheingold) parent-child relationships were both a product of and a context for parent-child interactions (Hinde)
  • 23.  We do not have ready made cultural metaphors for bilateral perspectives on parent-child relations Many of the concepts of parenting are summarized in unidirectional cultural metaphors that facilitate a unidirectional
  • 24. Western and Japanese proverbs and aphorisms concerning parent- child relation
  • 25. “Like mother, “Chip off the old “An apple“Spare the rod and like block” does not fall spoil the child” daughter” far from tree”
  • 26. Unilateral or Unidirectional conception ofsocializationPARENT pj CHILD
  • 27. The metaphor of Rice Farming <Shitsuke>
  • 28. “A parent’s hearts gets lost in children”“children grow up somehow even without parents”“I only gave birth to your shape, not to the heart” PARENT CHILD
  • 29. What type of parenting style do you think is more efficient in child-rearing?
  • 30.  Early socialization research used unidirectional approach to understand parent-child interaction Limitations with the unidirectional research led to bidirectional research
  • 31.  Bidirectional processes can be understood through three categories: 1) Automatic processes 2) Thoughtful processes 3) Mutual processes
  • 32. 1. Reaction: response to stimulus2. Script:  Parent-child interactions is predetermined  A coherent sequence of events expected by the individual
  • 33. 1. Proaction:  Conceives of parents as engaging in future- oriented behaviour in order to prevent problems before they occur2. Reciprocity:  Behavioral exchanges in parent-child interaction  Interacting partners will attempt to rationally maximize rewards and minimize cost (p.430)
  • 34. 3. Adaptation:  Provides an alternative to conception of parenting  Parents adapt their thoughts and behaviour to the changing context of their children’s development4.Negotiation:  Where people disagree and attempt to resolve their differences by using social strategies
  • 35. 5. Relationship:  Formed overtime through social interaction  Integrate cognition and behaviour
  • 36.  Most models of parent-child interactions and relationship have not developed much beyond the metaphorical stage Scientific metaphors help increase the strengths and limitations of the models Important to explore the potential of metaphor in the dissemination of new knowledge
  • 37. Should themetaphors becombined togetherto have a full senseof parent-childinteraction or arethe effectiveindividually?