Chapter 19 & 20Saleha, Dorsa & Anita
Adapting to a Bilateral Lens
   Concerned with those children who    frequently use aggression and other forms of    antisocial behaviour to meet thei...
   Aggression heightens a child’s risk for serious    maladjustment such as juvenile delinquency,    adult criminality, s...
   PMT is a therapeutic strategy in which    parents are trained to use skills for managing    children’s problem behavio...
   Cavell and Strand argue that we need to update    and expand parent based interventions on four    points:    1. Naggi...
   PMT is most effective when used to treat    oppositional preschoolers whose parents are    not overly burdened by soci...
   Kerr & Stattin (2000) found that when    parents were aware of their child’s    whereabouts (based on child’s informat...
1.   Matching Law (Patterson’s Coercion     Hypothesis):     ▪   Children use coercion to escape from the demands         ...
2.   Wahler’s Social Continuity Hypothesis:     ▪   Behavioural problems arise from an absence of         continuity or pr...
What are some other non-violent forms of discipline that parents can use with their                  children?
   3 influences:    1. Genetic influence – nature vs. nurture    2. Peer influence    3. Macro-level influence           ...
   Emotionally harsh and overly punitive    parenting is a by-product of children’s    coercive actions   Adults who fee...
 Committed compliance – children appear to accept parents agenda on their own Situational compliance – children although...
   Cavell and Strand outline 10 principles to    guide parent based interventions for families    with aggressive childre...
1.   Long term socialization of aggressive children     takes precedence over the short term     management of behaviours2...
4. Ratio of emotional acceptance to   behavioural containment is a key parameter   of the socializing relationship5. Chara...
6. Primary goal of parent based interventions  for aggressive children is helping parents  establish and sustain a sociali...
9. Prosocial values begin with explicit  statements against antisocial behaviour10. Effective parent based interventions f...
The purpose of parent based interventions for aggressive children such as the PMT is to help   parents establish and susta...
Metaphors of Bidirectionality in   Parent-Child Relations.
   children cognitively construct their    knowledge (Piaget)   infant shapes the child-rearing practices of    the pare...
   We do not have ready made cultural    metaphors for bilateral perspectives on    parent-child relations   Many of the...
Western and Japanese proverbs and aphorisms concerning parent- child relation
“Like mother,   “Chip off the old     “An apple“Spare the rod and                          like            block”         ...
Unilateral or Unidirectional conception ofsocializationPARENT        pj                    CHILD
The metaphor of Rice Farming        <Shitsuke>
“A parent’s hearts gets lost in children”“children grow up somehow even without   parents”“I only gave birth to your shape...
What type of parenting style do you think is      more efficient in child-rearing?
   Early socialization research used    unidirectional approach to understand    parent-child interaction   Limitations ...
   Bidirectional processes can be understood    through three categories:       1) Automatic processes       2) Thoughtfu...
1.    Reaction:    response to stimulus2. Script:  Parent-child interactions is predetermined  A coherent sequence of e...
1.  Proaction:  Conceives of parents as engaging in future-   oriented behaviour in order to prevent   problems before th...
3. Adaptation:  Provides an alternative to conception of   parenting  Parents adapt their thoughts and behaviour   to th...
5. Relationship:  Formed overtime   through social   interaction  Integrate cognition   and behaviour
   Most models of parent-child interactions and    relationship have not developed much    beyond the metaphorical stage...
Should themetaphors becombined togetherto have a full senseof parent-childinteraction or arethe effectiveindividually?
Final soci 4060 presentation
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Final soci 4060 presentation

  1. 1. Chapter 19 & 20Saleha, Dorsa & Anita
  2. 2. Adapting to a Bilateral Lens
  3. 3.  Concerned with those children who frequently use aggression and other forms of antisocial behaviour to meet their needs and influence each other
  4. 4.  Aggression heightens a child’s risk for serious maladjustment such as juvenile delinquency, adult criminality, substance abuse, impaired occupational and marital functioning
  5. 5.  PMT is a therapeutic strategy in which parents are trained to use skills for managing children’s problem behaviour Goal is to enhance parental control over children’s behaviour, this can be done by:  Issuing clear commands  Extinguish or ignore minor misbehaviours  Reinforce desirable behaviours
  6. 6.  Cavell and Strand argue that we need to update and expand parent based interventions on four points: 1. Nagging concerns about benefits and mechanism of PMT 2. Revisions in behaviourally based assumptions that underlie PMT 3. Greater appreciation of the role of non-parenting factors in the development and course of childhood aggression 4. Recent advances in conceptualization of parental influence
  7. 7.  PMT is most effective when used to treat oppositional preschoolers whose parents are not overly burdened by socioeconomic disadvantages, familial stress or individual psychopathology Lack of research on PMT being effective to treat children who are at greatest risk for negative ‘sequelae’ of childhood aggression
  8. 8.  Kerr & Stattin (2000) found that when parents were aware of their child’s whereabouts (based on child’s information) they became more predictive of their problem behaviour. Cavell & Strand have outlined a two factor model:  Parental supervision  Child wandering
  9. 9. 1. Matching Law (Patterson’s Coercion Hypothesis): ▪ Children use coercion to escape from the demands associated with parent’s requests, prohibitions and instructions ▪ Findings: Parents of aggressive children do a poor job of disciplining their children which is why children get used to using coercion.
  10. 10. 2. Wahler’s Social Continuity Hypothesis: ▪ Behavioural problems arise from an absence of continuity or predictability in a child’s relationship with important others such as peers, extended family members, siblings but particularly with parents ▪ Observational learning is crucial in the development of children’s aggressive behaviour as children will imitate these aggressive behaviours that they see around them
  11. 11. What are some other non-violent forms of discipline that parents can use with their children?
  12. 12.  3 influences: 1. Genetic influence – nature vs. nurture 2. Peer influence 3. Macro-level influence Discussion: Can you think of any other influences that may influence a child’s aggressive behaviour?
  13. 13.  Emotionally harsh and overly punitive parenting is a by-product of children’s coercive actions Adults who feel powerless regard children as hostile and threatening Aggressive children lack a ‘sense of containment’
  14. 14.  Committed compliance – children appear to accept parents agenda on their own Situational compliance – children although essentially cooperative, do not appear to embrace wholeheartedly the parental agenda
  15. 15.  Cavell and Strand outline 10 principles to guide parent based interventions for families with aggressive children Goal is to suggest a paradigmatic shift in how researchers and practitioners think about the therapeutic task of working with aggressive children and the parents
  16. 16. 1. Long term socialization of aggressive children takes precedence over the short term management of behaviours2. Parent- child relationship is a useful vehicle for socializing aggressive children3. Socializing relationships provide aggressive children, over time with emotional acceptance, behavioural containment and prosocial values
  17. 17. 4. Ratio of emotional acceptance to behavioural containment is a key parameter of the socializing relationship5. Characteristics of the parent, child and ecology surrounding the parent-child relationship can affect the degree to which socializing relationships are established and maintained
  18. 18. 6. Primary goal of parent based interventions for aggressive children is helping parents establish and sustain a socializing relationship7. Behavioural containment begins with strict limits on aggressive, antisocial behaviour8. Emotional acceptance begins with an implicit message of belonging
  19. 19. 9. Prosocial values begin with explicit statements against antisocial behaviour10. Effective parent based interventions for aggressive children are multi-systematic
  20. 20. The purpose of parent based interventions for aggressive children such as the PMT is to help parents establish and sustain a socializing relationship, one that takes into account the unique characteristics of the parent, child and the child-rearing context.
  21. 21. Metaphors of Bidirectionality in Parent-Child Relations.
  22. 22.  children cognitively construct their knowledge (Piaget) infant shapes the child-rearing practices of the parents (Rheingold) parent-child relationships were both a product of and a context for parent-child interactions (Hinde)
  23. 23.  We do not have ready made cultural metaphors for bilateral perspectives on parent-child relations Many of the concepts of parenting are summarized in unidirectional cultural metaphors that facilitate a unidirectional
  24. 24. Western and Japanese proverbs and aphorisms concerning parent- child relation
  25. 25. “Like mother, “Chip off the old “An apple“Spare the rod and like block” does not fall spoil the child” daughter” far from tree”
  26. 26. Unilateral or Unidirectional conception ofsocializationPARENT pj CHILD
  27. 27. The metaphor of Rice Farming <Shitsuke>
  28. 28. “A parent’s hearts gets lost in children”“children grow up somehow even without parents”“I only gave birth to your shape, not to the heart” PARENT CHILD
  29. 29. What type of parenting style do you think is more efficient in child-rearing?
  30. 30.  Early socialization research used unidirectional approach to understand parent-child interaction Limitations with the unidirectional research led to bidirectional research
  31. 31.  Bidirectional processes can be understood through three categories: 1) Automatic processes 2) Thoughtful processes 3) Mutual processes
  32. 32. 1. Reaction: response to stimulus2. Script:  Parent-child interactions is predetermined  A coherent sequence of events expected by the individual
  33. 33. 1. Proaction:  Conceives of parents as engaging in future- oriented behaviour in order to prevent problems before they occur2. Reciprocity:  Behavioral exchanges in parent-child interaction  Interacting partners will attempt to rationally maximize rewards and minimize cost (p.430)
  34. 34. 3. Adaptation:  Provides an alternative to conception of parenting  Parents adapt their thoughts and behaviour to the changing context of their children’s development4.Negotiation:  Where people disagree and attempt to resolve their differences by using social strategies
  35. 35. 5. Relationship:  Formed overtime through social interaction  Integrate cognition and behaviour
  36. 36.  Most models of parent-child interactions and relationship have not developed much beyond the metaphorical stage Scientific metaphors help increase the strengths and limitations of the models Important to explore the potential of metaphor in the dissemination of new knowledge
  37. 37. Should themetaphors becombined togetherto have a full senseof parent-childinteraction or arethe effectiveindividually?
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