Concerned with those children who frequently use aggression and other forms of antisocial behaviour to meet their needs and influence each other
Aggression heightens a child’s risk for serious maladjustment such as juvenile delinquency, adult criminality, substance abuse, impaired occupational and marital functioning
PMT is a therapeutic strategy in which parents are trained to use skills for managing children’s problem behaviour Goal is to enhance parental control over children’s behaviour, this can be done by: Issuing clear commands Extinguish or ignore minor misbehaviours Reinforce desirable behaviours
Cavell and Strand argue that we need to update and expand parent based interventions on four points: 1. Nagging concerns about benefits and mechanism of PMT 2. Revisions in behaviourally based assumptions that underlie PMT 3. Greater appreciation of the role of non-parenting factors in the development and course of childhood aggression 4. Recent advances in conceptualization of parental influence
PMT is most effective when used to treat oppositional preschoolers whose parents are not overly burdened by socioeconomic disadvantages, familial stress or individual psychopathology Lack of research on PMT being effective to treat children who are at greatest risk for negative ‘sequelae’ of childhood aggression
Kerr & Stattin (2000) found that when parents were aware of their child’s whereabouts (based on child’s information) they became more predictive of their problem behaviour. Cavell & Strand have outlined a two factor model: Parental supervision Child wandering
1. Matching Law (Patterson’s Coercion Hypothesis): ▪ Children use coercion to escape from the demands associated with parent’s requests, prohibitions and instructions ▪ Findings: Parents of aggressive children do a poor job of disciplining their children which is why children get used to using coercion.
2. Wahler’s Social Continuity Hypothesis: ▪ Behavioural problems arise from an absence of continuity or predictability in a child’s relationship with important others such as peers, extended family members, siblings but particularly with parents ▪ Observational learning is crucial in the development of children’s aggressive behaviour as children will imitate these aggressive behaviours that they see around them
What are some other non-violent forms of discipline that parents can use with their children?
3 influences: 1. Genetic influence – nature vs. nurture 2. Peer influence 3. Macro-level influence Discussion: Can you think of any other influences that may influence a child’s aggressive behaviour?
Emotionally harsh and overly punitive parenting is a by-product of children’s coercive actions Adults who feel powerless regard children as hostile and threatening Aggressive children lack a ‘sense of containment’
Committed compliance – children appear to accept parents agenda on their own Situational compliance – children although essentially cooperative, do not appear to embrace wholeheartedly the parental agenda
Cavell and Strand outline 10 principles to guide parent based interventions for families with aggressive children Goal is to suggest a paradigmatic shift in how researchers and practitioners think about the therapeutic task of working with aggressive children and the parents
1. Long term socialization of aggressive children takes precedence over the short term management of behaviours2. Parent- child relationship is a useful vehicle for socializing aggressive children3. Socializing relationships provide aggressive children, over time with emotional acceptance, behavioural containment and prosocial values
4. Ratio of emotional acceptance to behavioural containment is a key parameter of the socializing relationship5. Characteristics of the parent, child and ecology surrounding the parent-child relationship can affect the degree to which socializing relationships are established and maintained
6. Primary goal of parent based interventions for aggressive children is helping parents establish and sustain a socializing relationship7. Behavioural containment begins with strict limits on aggressive, antisocial behaviour8. Emotional acceptance begins with an implicit message of belonging
9. Prosocial values begin with explicit statements against antisocial behaviour10. Effective parent based interventions for aggressive children are multi-systematic
The purpose of parent based interventions for aggressive children such as the PMT is to help parents establish and sustain a socializing relationship, one that takes into account the unique characteristics of the parent, child and the child-rearing context.
Metaphors of Bidirectionality in Parent-Child Relations.
children cognitively construct their knowledge (Piaget) infant shapes the child-rearing practices of the parents (Rheingold) parent-child relationships were both a product of and a context for parent-child interactions (Hinde)
We do not have ready made cultural metaphors for bilateral perspectives on parent-child relations Many of the concepts of parenting are summarized in unidirectional cultural metaphors that facilitate a unidirectional
Western and Japanese proverbs and aphorisms concerning parent- child relation
“Like mother, “Chip off the old “An apple“Spare the rod and like block” does not fall spoil the child” daughter” far from tree”
Unilateral or Unidirectional conception ofsocializationPARENT pj CHILD
“A parent’s hearts gets lost in children”“children grow up somehow even without parents”“I only gave birth to your shape, not to the heart” PARENT CHILD
What type of parenting style do you think is more efficient in child-rearing?
Early socialization research used unidirectional approach to understand parent-child interaction Limitations with the unidirectional research led to bidirectional research
Bidirectional processes can be understood through three categories: 1) Automatic processes 2) Thoughtful processes 3) Mutual processes
1. Reaction: response to stimulus2. Script: Parent-child interactions is predetermined A coherent sequence of events expected by the individual
1. Proaction: Conceives of parents as engaging in future- oriented behaviour in order to prevent problems before they occur2. Reciprocity: Behavioral exchanges in parent-child interaction Interacting partners will attempt to rationally maximize rewards and minimize cost (p.430)
3. Adaptation: Provides an alternative to conception of parenting Parents adapt their thoughts and behaviour to the changing context of their children’s development4.Negotiation: Where people disagree and attempt to resolve their differences by using social strategies
5. Relationship: Formed overtime through social interaction Integrate cognition and behaviour
Most models of parent-child interactions and relationship have not developed much beyond the metaphorical stage Scientific metaphors help increase the strengths and limitations of the models Important to explore the potential of metaphor in the dissemination of new knowledge
Should themetaphors becombined togetherto have a full senseof parent-childinteraction or arethe effectiveindividually?
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