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Basics of Networking

Basics of Networking

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    Hwswb Hwswb Presentation Transcript

    • Hardware and Software Basics With Dr. Poirot
    • Module Objectives
      • Describe the appropriate use of operating systems, software applications, and networking components. 
      • Compare and contrast the use of various input, processing, output, and primary/secondary storage devices.
      • Explain the differences between analog and digital technology systems and give examples of each type of system.
      • Delineate and make necessary adjustments regarding compatibility issues and cross-platform connectivity.
    • Types of Devices
      • Digital versus Analog
      • A digital device uses discrete data.
        • Discrete data is distinct or separate.
        • Ex: Numbers or digits.
      • Most computers today are digital. Their circuits have only two possible states, such as “Off” and “On” or “0” and “1”.
      “ The Journey Inside” from Intel's website provides animation and video along with teacher resources.
    • Types of Devices
      • Digital versus Analog
      • An analog device operates on continuously varying data.
      • Continuously varying data has an infinite number of possible states.
    • Types of Devices
      • Digital versus Analog
      • A digital thermometer will give a specific numerical reading when used to measure someone’s body temperature.
      • An old fashioned mercury thermometer’s reading of someone’s body temperature could be interpreted differently by different users.
    • Computer Hardware
      • Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor
      • Memory (RAM)
      • Storage Devices
      • Input Devices
      • Output Devices
      View an animated illustration on how integrated circuits or “chips” are made.
    • Computer Hardware
      • Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor
      • Memory (RAM)
      • Storage Devices
      • Input Devices
      • Output Devices
    • Computer Hardware
      • Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor
      • Memory (RAM)
      • Storage Devices
      • Input Devices
      • Output Devices
    • Computer Hardware
      • Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor
      • Memory (RAM)
      • Storage Devices
      • Input Devices
      • Output Devices
    • CPU Types
      • CPU or microprocessor is often described as the brain of a computer.
      • CPU is an integrated circuit or “chip” which processes instructions and data.
      • CPU types.
        • Intel Pentium II, III, IV
        • Intel Celeron
        • AMD Athlon
    • CPU types
      • CPU speed is measured by the number of completed instruction cycles per second
        • Currently, CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second).
      • Always check new software’s requirements for CPU type and speed before purchasing
      Watch an animated illustration of a CPU at work.
    • Microcomputer Platforms
      • All microcomputers are based on a small number of designs (interior architecture) or computer platforms .
      • PC architecture is based on the first IBM microcomputers. Generally, PCs use Microsoft Windows as their operating system.
      • Apple computers or Macs are based on proprietary architecture manufactured exclusively by Apple Computer, Inc.
    • Microcomputer Platforms
      • Compatibility refers to computers that operate in essentially the same way.
      • Compatibility across platforms is limited! You must know which platform your computer runs on before purchasing software.
      • All software is designed for a specific platform.
        • Windows, Mac or Unix versions
    • Memory (RAM)
      • RAM or R andom A ccess M emory
      • “ Waiting room” for computer’s CPU.
      • Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data.
      • Ram is measured by:
        • Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)
        • Speed (in Nanoseconds)
    • Memory (RAM)
      • Amount of RAM installed will determine.
        • Which software applications will run (efficiently)?
        • How many software applications can be open simultaneously (multitasking ability)?
      • RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to install.
        • Check your computer manual for RAM type ( DIMM, SDRAM ) and speed ( 100, 90ns ).
    • Memory (RAM)
      • All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging.
      • Many applications list both a minimum and a recommended amount of RAM necessary to run the software.
      • Be cautious about buying software for a system based on minimum requirement.
      Visit the Memory Technology Exhibit at Intel’s Virtual museum.
    • Storage Technology
      • Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data.
      • Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of storage devices .
      • Capacity and speed are important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.
    • Storage Technology
      • Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device.
      • Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span.
    • Storage Devices
      • Hard Disk Drives
      • Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).
      • Typically permanently installed.
      • Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.
      • Magnetic storage device.
      Learn more about how a hard disk drive works from How Stuff Works website.
    • Storage Devices
      • Floppy Disk Drives
      • Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
        • Storage device with the smallest capacity
        • Most portable storage media
      • Magnetic storage device.
    • Storage Devices
      • CD-ROM Drives
      • Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990’s).
      • Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
      • Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD.
    • Storage Devices
      • CD-ROM Drives
      • Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive.
      • Data is read from CD by a laser.
      • Optical storage device.
      Learn how to write data, images, and audio to a CD from Kodak’s website .
    • Storage Devices
      • Other Types of Drives
      • Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available.
      • Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups, becoming less common.
      • DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems.
      Learn more about specific hardware components and their functions from Tom’s Hardware .
    • Input Devices
      • Input is all information put into a computer. Input can be supplied from a variety of sources:
        • A person
        • A storage device on computer
        • Another computer
        • A peripheral device
        • Another piece of equipment, such as a musical instrument or thermometer
    • Input Devices
      • Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands.
      • Primary input device:
        • Keyboard - Most common input device; used to type in commands and data.
        • Mouse or trackball enhances user’s ability to input commands, manipulate text, images.
        • Joystick useful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device.
    • Input Devices
      • Scanners are peripheral input devices which allow users to import:
        • Text
        • Graphics
        • Images
      • Specialized software aids in translating information into a format the computer can understand and manipulate.
    • Input Devices
      • Digital Cameras are peripheral input devices that allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a digital format.
        • Some require specialized software to import images into the computer.
        • Some record digital images directly to a disk that can be read by the computer.
    • Output Devices
      • Monitors are the most commonly used output device.
      • Most monitors use a bitmap display.
        • Allows user to resize the display.
        • Divides the screen into a matrix of tiny square “dots” called pixels .
        • The more “dots” a screen can display, the higher the resolution of the monitor.
    • Output Devices
      • Monitors are connected to a computer system via a port integrated on the video adapter or graphics card .
      • Graphics cards convert digital data output from software to analog data for display on monitors.
        • Typically have additional memory chips on card, 4MB to 64MB.
    • Output Devices
      • Printers
      • Dot matrix
        • Seldom used in a classroom.
        • Still frequently used in business.
      • Bubble or ink jet
      • Laser
    • Output Devices
      • Projection systems or classroom TVs can display information from a computer system on a larger screen for whole-class instruction.
      View and excellent tutorial on hardware basics at Macromedia’s site . Requires log-in and browser plug-in download.
    • Networks
      • A collection of computers and other devices that communicate to share data, hardware, and software.
      • A stand-alone computer is called a workstation on a network.
      • A workstation provides access to:
        • Your computer’s local resources
        • Network resources
    • Networks Network nodes include workstations, printers, and servers.
    • Networks
      • A server is a computer connected to a network that distributes and stores resources for other network users.
      • With proper licensing, many network users can use the same applications and data files simultaneously and share other resources, such as storage space or a printer.
    • Networks
      • Local Area Network (LAN ) – a network located in a limited area.
        • LANs are found in most businesses.
        • Many campuses use LANs.
      • A network interface card (NIC) – a key hardware component.
        • Connects a workstation to the network.
        • A circuit board that sends data between the workstation and the network.
    • Networks
      • Wide Area Network (WAN) – a network that covers a large geographical area. TENET is a classic example.
      • All types of networks require special networking hardware and networking software to allow different computers to communicate with each other.
    • Networks
      • The Internet - largest of all networks.
      • Communication standards called protocols allow for global exchange of information.
        • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
        • Internet Protocol (IP)
      • Intranets are LANs or WANs that use these communication standards or TCP/IP .
      • Special hardware ( modem ) and software ( browser ) are required.
    • Options and Tradeoffs
      • Speed versus Cost
      • How fast are you able to access and save data on the hard drive?
      • How fast will application software open?
      • How quickly will software respond to commands?
      • How quickly will your printer produce a document?
    • Options and Tradeoffs
      • Capacity versus Cost
      • How many applications can you store on a hard disk drive?
      • How much data can you store on a secondary storage device?
      • How many applications can be opened simultaneously?
    • Options and Tradeoffs
      • Quality versus Cost
      • Pentium versus Celeron
      • Laser printer versus Ink Jet printer
      • Limited functionality editions versus full versions of software
      • 15 inch monitor versus 21 inch monitor
    • Options and Tradeoffs
      • Speed versus Cost
      • Capacity versus Cost
      • Quality versus Cost
      • Cost-Cost-Cost
      PC World online provides hardware reviews and comparison charts that are updated each month.
    • Software
      • Instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish a task.
      • System software helps the computer carry out its basic operating tasks.
        • Operating systems
        • Utilities
    • System Software
      • An Operating System (OS) is the master controller within a computer.
        • EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS, UNIX, Linux
      • An operating system interacts with:
        • All hardware installed in or connected to a computer system.
        • All software installed or running from a storage device on a computer system.
    • System Software
      • Microsoft Windows
        • Most popular operating system.
        • Supports a vast array of application software and peripheral devices.
      • MacOS
        • For Macintosh computers.
        • Proprietary system.
        • Does not have same functionality and support for software and peripheral devices.
    • System Software
      • Network operating system (NOS)
        • Manages network resources.
        • Maintains security.
        • Tracks user accounts.
        • Handles communication between workstations and servers.
      • Popular network operating systems
        • Windows NT, Novell Netware, UNIX
    • System Software
      • Utilities
      • Utilities augment functionality of operating systems. Utilities includes device drivers and Troubleshooting capabilities.
      • Utilities provide file management capabilities such as copying, moving or renaming a file.
      • Norton Utilities includes an undelete function that can recover deleted files.
      • Symantec and McAfee Virus checkers add protection for all system and data files.
    • Application Software
      • Accomplishes specific tasks for users.
      • Enables a computer to become a multi-purpose machine.
      • Produce worksheets and reports.
      • Automate record keeping like attendance and grades.
      • Create flow charts and graphic organizers.
      • Communicate worldwide.
    • Application Software
      • Productivity Software
        • Spreadsheets
        • Databases
      • Presentation Software
      • Document Preparation
        • Word Processing
        • Desktop Publishing
      • Project Management Software
    • Application Software
      • Graphics Creation and Manipulation
      • Animation and 3D Graphics
      • Video Editing
      • Internet Connectivity
      • Website Creation and Management
      • Groupware
      • Financial Management
      • Educational Games and Tutorials
    • Programming Languages
      • Basic building blocks of any software.
      • Programming languages allow a programmer to write instructions that a computer can understand.
      • Programming languages have some resemblance to the English language.
        • BASIC
        • Pascal
        • Fortran
        • C++
        • Java
    • Instructional Support
      • What problems do you need solved and which application software will help solve the problems?
        • Integrated Learning Systems
        • Computer Assisted Instruction
          • Drill, Tutorial, Simulation
        • Textbook Resources
        • Research and Information Access
    • What technology-based resources are available?
      • Technology Plan (District-wide)
      • Technology Plan (Building)
      • Curricula Plan
    • What technology-based resources are available?
      • Stand-alone computer(s) in the classroom
      • Networked computers in the classroom
      • Computer laboratory
      • Computer for every kid