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Children are valuable and childhood is an important part of their lives
Belief in the innate goodness of children and education should be integrated with life and provide a training ground for cooperative living
Non-traditional Perspectives Encourage self-expression; teach about feelings and how to show Europ-Am Expressiveness Encourage small group projects, teamwork, older children helping, familial ties Hispanic Cooperative work Invite elders into class; include in dramatic play, puzzles, books; manners Pacific islands Respect for elders Provide strong outdoor program, include nature walks Native American Ties with nature Encourage family participation; make family trees African Kinship networks Provide an unhurried environment; be aware of tension spots Asian Harmony In Early Childhood Practice Roots Perspective
Development is described in terms of eight stages that span childhood and adulthood, each offering opportunities for personality growth and development. Each stage focuses on specific tasks that need to emerge for healthy development in each stage.
The development of competence Industry vs. inferiority 6-12 years Exploration and learning about the world. Rules and expectations are established Purpose Initiative vs. guilt 3-5 years Independence Willpower Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 18 months-3 years Needs must be met consistently Hope Trust vs. mistrust Birth-18 months Focus/Strength Stage Age
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Think conceptually and hypothetically Fomal operations 12 years and older Form ideas based on reasoning Limit thinking to objects and familiar events Concrete Operational 6 years-12 years Form ideas based on their perceptions Can only focus on one variable at a time Overgeneralize based on limited experience Preoperational 18 months-6 years Learn through senses Learn through reflexes Manipulate materials Sensorimotor Birth-18 months Behaviors Stage Age