Observations And EvaluationsPresentation Transcript
The Why Of Early Childhood Education Goals, Objectives, and Evaluations
Goals & Objectives
Goals provide an overall, general overview of what you expect the chidren to gain from the program. Broad and general covering large areas of curriculum:
“ Children will increase their fine motor skills, gaining better control in tasks requiring use of the hands”
Objectives are much more specific, often related to a single activity or a select few activities
“ Children will thread one-inch beads on shoelaces”
Types of Objectives
Activities that promote specific aspects of physical, social, emotional, or cognitive development
Subject matter of the curriculum. Activities that promote specific content, usually tied to a unit’s topic or theme
Generally used for individual children. Specifies exactly what the child is expected to master.
What is Observation?
Children are observed for developmental progress through observations. Observations take place primarily through children’s normal daily activities, their use of language, social interactions with others and work samples that demonstrate learning
Four Key Ideas
Observation involves regular intentional watching of children in a wide variety of circumstances that are representative of the child’s behaviors and skills demonstrated over time
Observation of daily, ongoing classroom/home performances and typical activities of the child lead to wealth of reliable information. Valid observations do not place chidlren in artificial situations, interfere or distract children from their natural learning experiences
Observation relies on demonstrated performance during real activities, not actions that are contrived or unnatural
Practitioners need a solid understanding of the meaning and purpose for observation and practice recording children’s behaviors and skills every day
Check Your Lenses!
Practice “Intensive waiting”
Become a scientist-separating what you “think” from what you “see”
Observations can never be completely objective or independent of the observer
Why do we observe?
To improve our teaching
understanding our biases and improving our objectivity
To construct theory
To help parents
To use as an assessment tool
To wonder why and solve a problem
To communicate with children
Understanding What We Observe
The goal of observation is understanding-we can use the information in many different ways to help us in many different areas
Children as individuals-individualized curriculum
Children in general-developmental norms
Developmental relationships-how the “whole child” is developing
Influences on behavior-environment, adult behavior, children’s behaviors
Understanding of self-observe yourself
Common Elements of Observations
What do you want to know?
Whom/what do you want to observe?
What aspects of behavior do you want to know about?
What is your purpose?
What will you do?
How will you record information?
How detailed will you be?
How long will you record?
What will you need for your observation?
How will you record what you want to know?
Where will you watch?
What restraints are inherent in the setting
Types of Observations
Narratives-The most valuable, but also the most difficult.
Running records: keeping track of everything that happens in a specified time period
Anecdotal records: a brief description or “word picture”
Time Sampling-The measuring of a behavior over time. A quantitative method where you count the number of times a behavior occurs at uniform time intervals
Event Sampling-where the observer records a specific behavior only when it occurs. Often used for recording less frequent behavior
Types of Observations
Developmental tests Intelligence tests
Evaluating For Effectiveness
An evaluation is at once a definition, an assessment, a plan.
In education we evaluate:
materials & equipment
Why do we evaluate?
Evaluations monitor growth, progress, and planning
Evaluations provide information by which to rate performance, define areas of difficulty, and look for possible solutions
It helps in goal setting
Components of a Good Evaluation
Select who or what will be evaluated
Have a clear purpose or motive
Decide how data will be collected
Know what you will use the information for
State goals clearly
Concerns of Evaluations
Overemphasis on norms
Too narrow a perspective
Too wide of a range of information
Too little or too much time
The Early Childhood Setting
Evaluation is a broad concept often times confused with testing and measurement.
Through evaluation, teachers link specific goals to larger, more encompassing objectives that focus on the relationship between teaching in the classroom and the overriding educational objectives
The teacher sees the “big picture” and keeps perspective on education that includes the children, the program and the teaching staff
work Sample, anecdotal, notes, photos, videos, frequency counts, class logs, time samples
To establish a baseline and monitor children’s progress
To plan for guidance, interventions, curriculum
To communicate with parents
To make administrative decisions
To describe job responsibilities
To monitor job effectiveness
To clarify strengths and weaknesses
To set professional growth goals
To determine employment
To gain an overview-Is this a good place for children? Would you want your child there?
To establish accountability
To make improvements
To acquire accreditation
Curriculum goals are realistic and attainable for most chidlren in the designated age range for which they are designed. Assessment of individual children's development and learning is essential for planning and implementing appropriate curriculum. Assessment and curriculum should be integrated, with teachers continually engaging in observation for the purpose of improving teaching and learning.