Jean Piaget : Maturation evolves from a human organism’s self-motivated efforts to adapt to and make sense of day-to-day experiences. Based on the premise that allows children to build concepts actively rather than providing those concepts through direct teaching. “Development leads to learning”. This theory is also called a “constructivist theory” because it allows for children to “construct” their knowledge from prior experiences.
Behaviorism ; Learning is controlled through by the consequences of behavior. Through careful control of the learning environment through appropriate reinforcement to selected behaviors theorists believe they can affect children’s learning. “Teaching is the art of changing the behavior of students. Thus one focus of …teaching is the systematic management of the consequences of student behaviors” (Bushell, 1982, p. 161)
Matching: The ability to perceive that two items are identical, it depends on the child’s grasping concept of sameness and differences.
“Show me the one that matches” or “Find me one that looks exactly the same”
Grouping/Classification : Sorting objects or pictures into categories that are meaningful to them. “Show me which ones you think should go together” “How come you put those together?” To teach grouping, it is necessary to use materials that possess common properties but are not identical.
Perceiving Common Relations : The ability to identify and pair items that are usually associated together, but not identical. It is similar to grouping because it depends on the identification of a common property or bond. It differs from grouping because it involves pairing such items, rather than working with larger numbers of them.
Cause and Effect : It takes children a long time to develop clear ideas of physical causality, but they can begin to acquire this concept with the use of logical consequences as a primary means of discipline. Questions such as, “What will happen if…?” or “What do you think made ……. Happen?”