Ch 1 language-Presented by Mr. Kak Sovanna


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Ch 1 language-Presented by Mr. Kak Sovanna

  1. 1. 1 Cambodia International Cooperation Institute Chapter I What is Language? Presented by Lect. Kak Sovanna Academic year: 2014-2015 21 June 2014
  2. 2. AL “ means many things to many people” (Cook, 2006 cited in Davies, 2007:1) 21 June 2014 2
  3. 3. 3 What is language? Language is not entity. 1. social fact 2. Psychology state 3. A set of structures 4. or collect of outputs 21 June 2014
  4. 4. 4 Language can be viewed as a system of system.  There is a sound system to what order s the words.  The is a system to what sounds we use in English.  Ex. Towel and Cowl What is language? 21 June 2014
  5. 5. 5  Language is a mental reality. 1. It is in the head of people 2. Grammar is mental entity 3. Grammatical system that allows people to produce suitable utterance. 4. Grammar has as many meaning as language. Ex. Kim kissed the crocodile. Ex. The crocodile kissed Kim. What is language? 21 June 2014
  6. 6. 6  The total of utterances that can be made in a speech community is the language of that speech community. (Bloomfield 126: 26)  Language is a set of finite or nonfinite of sentences, each finite in length and contracted out of a finite set of elements. (Chomsky 1957:13) What is language? 21 June 2014
  7. 7. 7  E-language is the external manifestation of the internally mentally represented grammars or I-languages of many individuals.  E-languages are the appropriate domain for social, political, mathematical or logical statements.  I-language are the appropriate domain for statement about individual knowledge. What is E-language? 21 June 2014
  8. 8. Noam Chomsky introduced the terms I- Language and E-Language to refer to internal/internalised and external/externalised language respectively where internal and external are to be interpreted with reference to the individual speaker. So, the linguistic knowledge that is in the mind of the speaker is I-Language whilst the observable linguistic output (sentences, songs, texts etc.) is E-Language. 21 June 2014 8
  9. 9. 9 What are E and I-language different?  Utterances are E-language.  Sentences belongs to I-language.  Intellectual apparatus allows children to construct a language by themselves.  The language capacity 21 June 2014
  10. 10. Utterance: - a spoken word, statement, or vocal sound. - the action of saying or expressing something aloud. 21 June 2014 10
  11. 11. What is IDIOLECT?  The description of what is in any person’s head can never provide a full description of a language in the sense that English is a language. Ex. when family members talk to each other, their speech habits typically differ from those any one of them would use in, say, an interview with a prospective employer. 1121 June 2014
  12. 12. 12 What is Universal Grammar? • Every speaker knows a set of principles which apply all languages and also a parameters that can vary from one language to another. • According to UG, acquiring a language means applying the principle of UG of a particular language. • For Example: សិសសល្អ/ good student 21 June 2014
  13. 13. • Universal grammar (UG) is a theory in linguistics, usually credited to Noam Chomsky, proposing that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain. • The theory suggests that linguistic ability manifests itself without being taught (see the poverty of the stimulus argument), and that there are properties that all natural human languages share. 21 June 2014 13
  14. 14. 14 What does it mean to know a language? (1)  When you know a language, you can speak and be understood by others who know that language. This means you have the capacity to produce sounds that signify certain meanings and to understand or interpret the sounds produced by other. 21 June 2014
  15. 15. 15 What does it mean to know a language? (2) • Therefore, part of knowing a language means what sounds (or signs) are in that language and what sounds are not. • Ex. This/ That • It also means knowing which sounds may start a word, end a word, and follow each other. • Ex. Nkrumah (Nekrumah or Enkrumah) 21 June 2014
  16. 16. 16 What does it mean to know a language?(3) • Knowing a language means also knowing that certain sequences of sounds signify certain concepts or meanings. • (Vocabulary) Ex. toy, boy,…. (not moy) • Ex. glare, glint, gleam, glitter, glossy, glaze, glance, glimmer, glimpse, glisten,….. (not gladiator, glucose, glory, globe….) Ex. Happily, disable, communism, rewrite… 21 June 2014
  17. 17. 17 What does it mean to know a language? (4)  Knowing a language also means being able to produce new sentences never spoken before and to understand sentences never heard before. (The Creative + Grammar)  You can’t buy a dictionary or phrase book of any language with all the sentences of the language, because the number of sentences in a language is indefinite. 21 June 2014
  18. 18. 18 What does it mean to know a language? (5) • E.g. This is the house. • The is the house that Jack built. • This is the malt that lay in the house that jack built.  The is the dog that worries the cat that killed the mouse that ate the malt lay in the house that jack built. E.g. The old, old, old, old, old, old, man came. - A beautiful old red round Russian wooden dining table. 21 June 2014
  19. 19. 19 What does it mean to know a language? (6)  In addition to knowing the words of the language, linguistics knowledge includes rules for forming sentences and making the kinds of judgments about those sentence.(The Grammar) 21 June 2014
  20. 20. 20 What does it mean to know a language? (7) E.g. • (a) John kissed the little old lady who owned shaggy dog. • (b) Who owned the shaggy dog, John kissed the little old lady. • (C) John is difficult to love. • (d) It is difficult to love John. • (e) John is anxious to go. • (f) John, who was a student, flunked his exam. • (h) Exams his flunked student a was who john. 21 June 2014
  21. 21. 21 What is linguistics?  According to Widdowson: Linguistics is the name given to the discipline which studies human language. (1996:3)  He maintains that its purpose is to identify some relatively stable linguistic knowledge which underlies language behavior.  Access to that linguistic knowledge is achieved by a process of idealization. 21 June 2014
  22. 22. 22 What is linguistics? (1)  In the late 1950s, linguistics is moved away from its traditional concerns with language in all its manifestation, into a non-accountable, never applied, laboratory of cognition and the mind.  This core linguistics view of language focuses on language forms, ignoring the context in which those forms are used.  Therefore, nowadays the focus falls on units of language larger than the sentence and on context. 21 June 2014
  23. 23. 23 What is applied linguistics?  Applied linguistics is using what we know about (a) language, (b) how it is learned and (c) how it is used in order to achieve some purpose or solve some problems in the real world. (Schmit, 2002)  Applied linguistics is concerned with increasing understanding of the role of language in human affairs and thereby with providing the knowledge necessary for those who are responsible for taking language-related decisions whether the need for these arises in the classroom, 21 June 2014
  24. 24. 24 What is applied linguistics?(1) responsible for taking language-related decisions whether the need for these arises in the classroom, the workplace, the law court, or the laboratory. (wilkins, 1999)  Applied linguistics is a practice-driven disappline that addresses language-based problems in real-world contexts. (Kaplan, 2002) 21 June 2014
  25. 25. 25 Applied linguistics Vs Linguistics  When you are doing applied linguistics are you doing (1) linguistics only, (2) linguistics plus something else, or (3) only something else?  Applied linguistics is just another area, part of linguistics.  The general heading “Linguistics” includes a number of sub-disciplines, namely:  Theoretical linguistics  Descriptive linguistics  Historical linguistics 21 June 2014
  26. 26. 26 Applied linguistics Vs Linguistics  Comparative linguistics  Cognitive linguistics  Computational linguistics  Structural linguistics  Text linguistics  Systemic linguistics  Synchronic linguistics  Diachronic linguistics  …….. 21 June 2014
  27. 27. Development of Applied Linguistics • Early history  -Both “plato and Aristotle contributed to the design of curriculum beginning with good writing, then moving on to effective discourse and culminating in the development of dialectic to promote a philosophical approach to life. (Hawatt, 1999:618) 2721 June 2014
  28. 28. Development of Applied Linguistics 1 Early history (2)  -In 1755, Samuel Johnson published his Dictionary of the English Language, which influences on meanings and spelling of words.  - About the same time (1762), Robert Lowth published an influential grammar, Short Introduction to English Grammar, which prescribed what “correct” grammar should be. 2821 June 2014
  29. 29. Development of Applied Linguistics 2  AL during the 20th Century  - Grammar-translation method (Karl Plotz)  * 1 or 2 new grammar rules  * A list of vocabulary items  * Practice examples to translate from L1 into L2 or vice versa  * Disadvantages: too controlled, too focus on accuracy and explicit grammar rules, to analyze but not to use. 2921 June 2014
  30. 30. Development of Applied Linguistics 3  AL during the 20th century (2)  -Direct method  * An emphasis on exposure to oral language (listening and speaking)  * Meaning was related directly (no translation)  * Explicit grammar instructions.  Disadvantages: teachers need to be highly proficiency, differences between L1&L2, not enough exposure. 3021 June 2014
  31. 31. Development of Applied Linguistics 4  AL during the 20th century (3)  -Reading method (by Michael West)  * An emphasis on reading and vocabulary  * Substitute low-frequency words with more frequent one.  * Reduce lexical loads for readers  Disadvantages: not conversational fluent. 3121 June 2014
  32. 32. Development of Applied Linguistics 5 • AL during the 20th century (4) • - Audiolingual method • * Habit formation (Drills) • * Reinforce good language habits • * Attention to pronunciation, intensive oral drilling, a focus on sentence patterns and memorization. • Disadvantage: not focus on language forms, Universal Grammar, knowing how to use it. 3221 June 2014
  33. 33. Development of Applied Linguistics 6 • AL during the 20th century (5) • -Hymes (1972) added the concept of “communication competence” • *not just being able to form grammatically correct sentences but also knowing when and where to use these sentences and to whom. 3321 June 2014
  34. 34. Development of Applied Linguistics 7  AL during the 20th century (7)  -Communicative language teaching  * Focus on message and fluency rather than GR.  * Problem solving activities and tasks  * Interaction and usage  * Content  * Later explicit grammar instruction  Disadvantages: fluent but not accurate, persistent GR mistakes. 3421 June 2014
  35. 35. Development of Applied Linguistics 8 AL during the 20th century (6) -Monitor theory (Krashen) * Exposure to comprehensible input. * Focus on meaning rather than form * Affective filter 3521 June 2014
  36. 36. References • Schmitt, N. (2002) An Introduction to Applied Linguistics. London: arnold. • Fromkin,V., Hyam, N., and Rodman, R. (2011). An Introduction to Language. United States of America. • Davies, A. (1999). An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: From Practice to Theory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 3621 June 2014