DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND
ENGINEERING
SYNERGY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &
TECHNOLOGY, DHENKANAL
SEMINAR ON
How a s...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal
Guided by : XxX
Submitted by:
SOVAN MISRA
CS-...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE &
ENGINEERING
SYNERGY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I thank my seminar guide XxX, Lecturer, SIET, for her proper
...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
HOW SEARCH ENGINE WORKS?
INTRODUCTION
What is a search engine?
Search engine ...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
History of search engines:-
In 1990, the first search engine ARCHIE was relea...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
On the basis of working, search engine is categories in the following
groups:...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
SPIDER’S ALGORITHMS :
All spiders use the following algorithms for retrieving...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
The URL of the links found in the document are added to the list of known
URL...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
• Hash table
• URL_table:
It is a large linear array that contains millions o...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
The main use of hash table is to start with a URL and be able to quickly
dete...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
Finally, process_url extracts all the hyperlinks from the page and
calls proc...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
These are then combined to form a web page and sent back to user as the
respo...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
Where,
• | D | : total number of documents in the corpus
• : number of docume...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
OTHER TYPE OF SERCHING TECHNIQUES:
Directories
The human editors comprehensiv...
Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works
Examples of hybrid search engines are:
Yahoo (www.yahoo.com)
Google (www.goog...
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How a search engine works report

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SYNERGY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, DHENKANAL SEMINAR ON How a search engine works?
  2. 2. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal Guided by : XxX Submitted by: SOVAN MISRA CS-O7-42 0701230147 2
  3. 3. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SYNERGY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DHENKANAL CERTIFICATE Certified that this is a bonafide record of the seminar entitled “HOW A SEARCH ENGINE WORKS” done by the following student “SOVAN MISRA” of the 7th semester, Computer Science and Engineering in the year 2010 in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering of Synergy Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Dhenkanal XxX XxX Seminar Guide Head of the Department Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal3
  4. 4. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank my seminar guide XxX, Lecturer, SIET, for her proper guidance, and valuable suggestions. I am indebted to XxX, the HOD, Computer Science department & other faculty members for giving me an opportunity to learn and do this seminar. If not for the above mentioned people my seminar would never have been completed successfully. I once again extend my sincere thanks to all of them. SOVAN MISRA Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal4
  5. 5. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works HOW SEARCH ENGINE WORKS? INTRODUCTION What is a search engine? Search engine is a software program that searches a database and gathers reports, information that contains or is related to specified terms. Or It is a website whose primary function is providing a search for gathering and reporting information’s available on the Internet or a portion of internet. Why Search Engine? In today’s world we have million and billions of information available in the vast World Wide Web (WWW). If one has to search some information it will kill lots of time of the user. For this purpose we should have certain tools for making this searching automatic, Quick, and Effortless. So, to reduce the problem to a , more or less manageable solution, Web Search Engine were introduced a few years ago. Different Search engines: Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal5
  6. 6. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works History of search engines:- In 1990, the first search engine ARCHIE was released, at that time there is no World Wide Web. Data resided on defence contractor, university, and government computers and techies were the only people accessing the data. The computers are interconnected by Telnet*. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) used for transferring file from computer to computer. There is no such thing called a Browser. So, information or data are transferred in their native format and viewed using the associated file type software. Archie searched FTP servers and indexed their files into a searchable directory. In 1991, Ghopherspace come into existence with the advantage of Gopher. It catalogued FTP sites and the resulting catalogue become known as Gopher space. In 1994, WebCrawler, a new type of search engine that indexed the entire contents pf a webpage, was introduced. In between 1995-1998, many changes and development occurred in the world of search engines. Meta tags* is the webpage were first utilized by some search engines to determine relevancy. Search engine rank-checking software was introduced. It provides an automated tool to determine web sites position and ranking within the major search engines. In around 1998, search engine Algorithms was introduced to optimize the searching. In 2000, Marketer determines that pay-per click campaigns were an easy yet expensive approach for gaining top search rankings. To elevate sites in the searching engine ranking websites started adding useful and relevant content while optimizing their WebPages for each specific search engines. And still the search engines optimization (SEO) is going on by improving the algorithms. TYPE OF SEARCH ENGINES: Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal6
  7. 7. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works On the basis of working, search engine is categories in the following groups: * Crawler-based search engine. * Directories. * Hybrid search engines. * Meta search engine. CRAWLER BASED SEARCH ENGINE: It uses automated software programs to survey and categorises WebPages, which is known as “spiders” ,”crawlers” ,”robots” and ”bots”. A spider will find a web page, download it and analyses the information presented on the WebPages. The webpage will then be added to the search engines database. When a user performs a search , the search engine will check its database of WebPages for the key word the user searched. The results are ordered as per the bots algorithm in the search engine result pages (SERPs). Ex:- GOOGLE (www.google.com) ASK (www.ask.com) Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal7
  8. 8. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works SPIDER’S ALGORITHMS : All spiders use the following algorithms for retrieving documents from the web: The algorithm uses a list of known URLs. This lists contains at least one URL to start with. The document is parsed to retrieve information for the index database and to extract the embedded link to other documents. Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal8
  9. 9. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works The URL of the links found in the document are added to the list of known URLs. If the list is empty or some limit exceed (number of documents retrieved, size of the indexed database, etc) the algorithm stops, otherwise the algorithm continues at steps 2. Crawlers program treats World Wide Web as big graph having pages as nodes and the hyperlinks as arcs. Crawlers works with a simple goal, indexing all keywords in the webpage titles. Three Data structures is needed for crawlers or spider algorithms A large linear array, URL_Table. • Heap Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal9
  10. 10. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works • Hash table • URL_table: It is a large linear array that contains millions of entries. Each entry contains two pointers: • Pointer to URL • Pointer to Title. These are variables length strings and kept as heap. Heap: It is a large unstructured chunk of virtual memory to which strings can be appended. Hash table: It is the third data structure of size ‘n’ entries Any URL can be run through a hash function to produce a non-negative integer less than ‘n’. All URL that hash to the value ‘k’ are hooked together on a linked list starting at the entry ‘k’ of the hash table. Every entry in the URL_table is also entered into the hash table. Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal10
  11. 11. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works The main use of hash table is to start with a URL and be able to quickly determine whether it is already present in URL_Table. DATA STRUCTURE FOR CRAWLER Building the index requires two phases: • Searching (URL processing ) • Indexing. The heart of the search engine is a recursive procedure procees_url, which takes a URL string as input Searching is done by procedure, procees_url as follows:- It hashes the URL to see if it is already present in url_table. If so, it is done and returns immediately. If the URL is not already known, its page is fetched. The URL and title are then copied to the heap and pointers to these two strings are entered in url_table. The URL is also entered into the hash table. Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal11
  12. 12. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works Finally, process_url extracts all the hyperlinks from the page and calls process_url once per hyperlink, passing the hyperlink’s URL as the input parameter For each entry in url_table, indexing procedure will examine the title and selects out all words not on the stop list. Each selected word is written on to a file with a line consisting of the word followed by the current url_table entry number. When the whole table has been scanned, the file is shorted by word. Formulating quires: Keyword submission cause a request to be done in the machine where the index is located (web server). Then the keyword is looked up in the index database to find the set of URL indices for each keyword. Indexed into url_table to find all the titles and urls. Then it is stored in the Document server. Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal12
  13. 13. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works These are then combined to form a web page and sent back to user as the response. Determining Relevance Classic algorithm "TF / IDF“is used for determining relevance.  It is a weight often used in information retrieval and text mining. This weight is a statistical measure used to evaluate how important a word is to a document in a collection  A high weight in TF-IDF is reached by a high term frequency (in the given document) and a low document frequency of the term in the whole collection of documents Term Frequency  “Term Frequency” -The number of times a given term appears in that document.  It gives a measure of the importance of the term ti within the particular document. Term Frequency, Where, ni is the number of occurrences of the considered term, and the denominator is the number of occurrences of all terms. E.g. If a document contains 100 total words and the word computer appears 3 times, then the term frequency of the word computer in the document is 0.03 (3/100) Inverse Document Frequency The “inverse document frequency ”is a measure of the general importance of the term (obtained by dividing the number of all documents by the number of documents containing the term, and then taking the logarithm of that quotient). Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal13
  14. 14. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works Where, • | D | : total number of documents in the corpus • : number of documents where the term ti appears (that is ni!= 0) Inverse Document Frequency There are different ways of calculating the IDF “Document Frequency” (DF) is to determine how many documents contain the word and divide it by the total number of documents in the collection. E.g. 1) If the word computer appears in 1,000 documents out of a total of 10,000,000 then the IDF is 0.0001 (1000/10,000,000). 2) Alternately, take the log of the document frequency. The natural alogarithm is commonly used. In this example we would have IDF = ln(1,000 / 10,000,000) =1/ 9.21 The final TF-IDF score is then calculated by dividing the “Term Frequency” by the “Document Frequency”. E.g. The TF-IDF score for computer in the collection would be : 1)TF-IDF = 0.03/0.0001= 300 , by using first formula of IDF. 2)If alternate formula used we would have TF-IDF = 0.03 * 9.21 = 0.27. Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal14
  15. 15. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works OTHER TYPE OF SERCHING TECHNIQUES: Directories The human editors comprehensively check the website and rank it, based on the information they find, using a pre-defined set of rules. There are two major directories : Yahoo Directory (www.yahoo.com) Open Directory (www.dmoz.org) Hybrid Search Engines Hybrid search engines use a combination of both crawler-based results and directory results. Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal15
  16. 16. Seminar Report ’10 How a search engine works Examples of hybrid search engines are: Yahoo (www.yahoo.com) Google (www.google.com) Meta Search Engines Also known as Multiple Search Engines or Metacrawlers. Meta search engines query several other Web search engine databases in parallel and then combine the results in one list. Examples of Meta search engines include: Metacrawler (www.metacrawler.com) Dogpile (www.dogpile.com) References: http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/search-engine.htm http://searchenginewatch.com/2168031 http://www.infotoday.com/searcher/may01/liddy.htm http://www.slideshare.net/jsuleiman/how-search-engines-work- presentation Hey! This is Sovan Please send your feedbacks @ sovan107@gmail.com Dept. of CSE S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal16

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