For a state proxy to be allocated to the client they must have been going to the GP for their mental health problem, and have reported an improvement in their mental health problem as a result of intervention from the CAB.For an individual proxy to be allocated the client must have self-reported feelings of depression, anxiety or other mental health issues (but not just stress), and have reported an improvement in their mental health problem as a result of intervention from the CAB.Where a client said that they felt less stressed as a result of going to the CAB (but did not express feelings of depression and anxiety which avoids double counting) and had not been to the GP, an individual stress relief proxy has been included. This is based on an approximation of the cost of stress counselling that helps people to retain their stability within stressful situations (used in The Action Group, Assured SROI Report, 2010). One year duration was allocated for each of these proxies due to other compounding factors, attribution and deadweight were both usually calculated at 50% and 50%. Attribution was client specific where clients precisely gave an attribution score in relation to this outcome.
The WEMWBS questionnaire has been used in other research to identify changes in well-being pre and post intervention. Please see: Lindsay, G. et al (2008) Parenting Early Intervention Pathfinder Evaluation. Research Report DCSF-RW054. Warwick: University of WarwickDonnelly, M. et al (2011). Patient outcomes: what are the best methods for measuring recovery from mental illness and capturing feedback from patients in order to inform service improvement? Belfast: Queen’s University Belfast.Collins, J., Gibson,A., Parkin, S., Parkinson, R., Shave, D. & Dyer, C. (2012) Counselling in the workplace: How time-limited counselling can effect change in well-being, Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 19.
Putting a Value on Happiness
Monetising health and wellbeing
as an outcome of advice?
Nick Abercrombie¹, Peter Cressey¹, Michelle Farr¹, Beth Jaynes¹
and Sue Milner²
Department of Social and Policy Sciences¹,
Politics, Languages & International Studies (PoLIS)²
Evidence from CAB clients
Baseline data (151 client responses): on a scale of 1-10,
this problem is affecting me... (average = 8.6)
• Impact of problem
“it was just demoralising, completely demoralising and it
had a big impact on my mood”C004;
• Effects: fatigue, stress, sleeplessness, depression
“yeah, it did make me feel a bit anxious, well it still does.
It’s a bit depressing, hopefully things are progressing a
bit now but it is hard to explain to be honest with you”
• Physical health deterioration; suicidal thoughts
Using standard well-being measurements
Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well Being Scale
Shortened in HEPS (Scotland) project to 7 questions, self-
assessed, scaled 1-5 (none of the time, rarely, some of
the time, often, all of the time):
1. I’m optimistic about the future
2. I’ve been feeling useful
3. I’ve been feeling relaxed
4. I’ve been dealing with problems well
5. I’ve been thinking clearly
6. I’ve been feeling close to people
7. I’ve been able to make up my own mind about things
Modest increases in wellbeing from phase 1 (initial advice
session) to first project interview
Bigger increases over a longer period to second project
interview, esp. ability to deal with problems (Q2 and Q4:
+33%), clarity of thought (Q5: +30%), and relaxation
How to monetise?
State proxy – client going to GP for mental health problem, reported
improvement as result of CAB intervention
Individual proxy - client self-reported feelings of depression, anxiety or
other mental health issues (but not just stress), reported improvement
as a result of CAB intervention.
One year duration, attribution & deadweight both usually calculated at
50%. Attribution was client specific where clients precisely gave this
outcome an attribution score.
Examples: C030 (debt) depression GP treated, without CAB ‘health would
have completely collapsed’, client attributed 100% to CAB,
improvement in WEMWBS score; client 069 treated for depression,
attributed to problem, but CAB advice did not lead to resolution of
(employment) problem no change in WEMWBS score
Proxy values: improved mental health £2,014 saving to state (proxy based
on costs of treatment), £585 to individual (willingness to pay/ utility
value); physical health with depression £1,493 saving to NHS (co-
morbidity); lack of sleep £102 saving to state based on sickness-
related absenteeism (lower final values when deadweight and
• Did our method capture increases in wellbeing?
• Interview data:
"I’ve stopped drinking, even social drinking. The problem
was controlled and I feel happier and do not dread the post
coming in the morning. The CAB gave me that.”
[Without the CAB] … I would have ended up in the mental
ward because of the stress and loss”
• Could we have done this differently?
• Use of General Health Questionnaire GHQ12 to assess
individual changes rather than population changes
• Shortcomings of WEMWBS - population measurement