Aspects Of Social Influence 3
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  • 1. Aspects of Social Influence
  • 2. Group formation
    • Why do we divide into groups?
    • Which groups do you belong to?
  • 3. Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1978)
    • Individuals strive to achieve or maintain a positive self image.
    • Personal Identity – personal traits, relationships, etc.
    • Social Identity – We have several social identities depending on groups we belong to.
    • Positive group – positive self identity
  • 4. Social Identity Theory
    • We focus on the characteristics which enable our group to come out on top.
    • We assess our own groups worth by comparing it with others.
    • This lies at the heart of prejudice.
  • 5. Social Identity Theory
    • Is crime a response to a negative self-identity?
    • Gangs – looking for new ways to achieve a positive self image?
  • 6. Conformity
  • 7. Conformity
    • Yielding to group pressure.
    • Why do people Conform?
  • 8. Conformity – Deutch & Gerard (1955)
    • Informational Influence: We are uncertain when we face ambiguous situations – we look to others to help us to perceive stimulus correctly.
    • Normative Influence: We need acceptance from other people – to make a good impression. We conform to gain social approval and avoid rejection.
  • 9. Conformity
    • Not considered to be a “conforming personality
    • However,
    • Women tend to conform more than men.
    • People conform to satisfy their need for social approval.
  • 10. Obedience
    • Different from conformity because we are being ordered or instructed to do something.
    • Someone in authority influencing another person.
  • 11. Genocide occurs for the following three reasons
    • Authorisation: ie obeying orders from legitimate authorities.
    • Routinisation : The massacre becomes a matter of routine, a mechanical or highly programmed operation.
    • Dehumanisation : Reducing the victims to something less than human allows the suspension of the usual moral prohibition on killing.
  • 12. Leadership
    • What makes a good leader?
    • There has always been a quest for the qualities that make a good leader.
    • Stodgill (1974) – “Leaders tend to be slightly more intelligent, self-confident, dominant, sociable and achievement orientated more than followers; they tend to be older, more experienced and taller”.
  • 13. Two different types of leader
    • Appointed: Leader assigned by external authority.
    • Emergent: Leader achieves his or her authority from the group members.
  • 14. Crowd Behaviour
    • When an individuals identity is lost in a mass of people the person is said to be “DE-INDIVIDUATED”
    • Group members do not pay attention to others as individuals and they do not feel singled out by others – they have merged with the group and have lost their individuality.