This presentation will take up to a 2 hour block of time to present with a break in the middle. The FPM may need to hide slides if less time is given to present this program. The main focus items for the participants to take from this program are the importance of transition training (Up or Down) as well as the proper planning and execution of first flights. Remember that a first flight is also relevant to a new owner of an aircraft.
The bullets on this slide are meant to be used to introduce the safety records for sport aircraft and this program. BACKGROUND: The experimental airplane community is an important part of the civil aviation industry in the United States. Amateur aircraft builders have produced some of aviation’s greatest technological achievements. The amateur builder community is foundational to general aviation in the US. However, recent trends in experimental airplane accidents have suggested a need for increased effort in ensuring that pilots of experimental airplanes are prepared for the challenges of these airplanes. Historically, experimental airplane flight operations represent a small component of flight hours, but a significant percentage of General Aviation (GA) accidents. For example, 2009 accident data showed that while experimental airplanes are involved in approximately 27% of fatal accidents in the United States, they fly only 3.4% of the total general aviation fleet hours. This represents a nearly 8 to 1 ratio of fatal accidents per flight hour over the mainstream general aviation community. Unfortunately, most of these accidents happen to second or third owners. The main cause of experimental airplane fatal accidents is pilot performance particular in the transition phase to an unfamiliar airplane. While some increase in risk in experimental airplane flight operations might be acceptable to the general aviation community and the general public, in order for the recreational, educational and experimental benefits of amateur built airplanes to flourish, both FAA and industry agree that improvements in safety are needed. Although there is FAA guidance in the form of FAA Advisory Circulars and Handbooks available for transition training a more proactive approach is needed. Through collaboration between FAA and the general aviation and amateur built community, the recommendations contained in this outreach program should mitigate some of the risks found in experimental airplane operations. CURRENT REGULATORY AND SYSTEM SAFETY SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT FOR AMATEUR BUILT AIRCRAFT Manufactured small airplanes (that is Cessna, Cirrus, Piper, etc.) are built under the stringent regulations of 14 CFR part 23. As such, there are specific requirements for stall speeds, handling characteristics, stall characteristics, and reliability, among other requirements. A “Standard” airworthiness certificate is normally issued. Amateur built airplanes are not required to meet these standards and are issued an “Experimental” airworthiness certificate. Although Experimental airworthiness certificates come with conditions and limitations attached these are usually operational in nature. So, although amateur built airplanes might handle vastly different from standard airplanes, there is no requirement for additional training. NOTE Light Sport airplanes are also not certificated under Part 23. But they are all required to meet the ASTM standard, which would include standards for stall speeds, handling characteristics, stall characteristics etc.
Discuss these statistics in a general way and mention that both FAA and NTSB will be keeping close tabs on LSA accidents and incidents in the future. Note the percentage of AM/built accidents and mention that this indicates the need for more attention by CFIs and also that CFIs should exercise caution in instructing in these aircraft. N102rk Injuries: 2 Minor. The company's chief pilot and student instructor had performed four successful touch-and-go landings. On the mishap landing, the student instructor started his flare at normal approach speed about 2 to 3 feet above the runway. As the airplane settled, the chief pilot raised the nose of the airplane slightly to prevent a bounced landing. The airplane subsequently ballooned. They elected to perform a go-around. The chief pilot advanced the power and "pitched the airplane to the landing attitude." The airplane settled to the runway in a slight left crab, touching down on the left main landing gear, which subsequently broke aft. The airplane came down on the runway and slid for 300 feet, departing the left side and flipping over onto its back. The airplane had been recently purchased by the company. Total airframe time was approximately 25 hours. An examination of the airplane showed the left main lower landing gear tube had fractured due to overstress at the landing gear wheel and brake attachment fitting. The overstress appeared consistent with a hard landing impact as a small compression buckle was observed at the top of the part and some tensile indications were seen at the bottom. There were also contact impressions on the inside of the tube most-likely made by the end of the main landing gear spring bar. The wheel and brake attachment fitting was identified as a steel with designation St37, according to the German DIN classification for steels. The St37 steel is specified to have a yield strength of at least 34 ksi (235 MPa) and tensile strength between 51 ksi and 70 ksi (350 MPa to 480 MPa). According to the ASM Metals Handbook, St37 is similar to SAE 1013 steel, which is a low-carbon steel. Hardness measurements on the fitting averaged 63.5 Rockwell B, with a standard deviation of 2 Rockwell B. For steel, a hardness of 65 Rockwell B corresponds to a tensile strength of 56 ksi, so the fitting appears to be within specification. This steel is at the lower end of the range of strength possible for steel. The ASM Metals Handbook indicates that fatigue resistance would also improve with increasing tensile strength. Information from the manufacturer indicates that the gear assembly was designed in accordance with ASTM F 2245, and successfully passed a drop test of 550 mm (21.7 inches) at a weight of 600 kg (1323 pounds). **This narrative was modified on August 13, 2007.** The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident as follows: The total failure of the left main landing gear strut due to overload during the landing resulting in the loss of control and subsequent nose over. A factor contributing to the accident was the chief pilot 's inability to maintain directional control of the airplane after the landing gear failed.
Loss of Control is sited as one of the primary accident causal factors. All the items listed on this slide can be used to prevent Loss of Control. Skill based training begins with identifying desired skills, assessing the pilot for that specific skill, determining the gaps and accordingly structuring the training program. Training in general is important to maintain proficiency. Transition training up or down can help prevent loss of control. Proficiency by exercising your skill to stay sharp. Managing your risk , The strategies to manage risk include transferring the risk to another party, avoiding the risk, reducing the negative effect of the risk, and accepting some or all of the consequences of a particular risk. There is always some degree of risk. We accept this risk when operating an aircraft in the air. But we want to manage that risk. Mitigating your chances of Loss of control by applying all of the items on this slide Physical Limitations. Read and understand the physical limitations of your aircraft. These are designed and developed to keep you safe. Operation within these limitations is imperative to keep you and your passengers safe.
Have multiple fuel level indicators, and consider carrying a bubble level to level up your aircraft to take calibrated fuel measurements on the ground. Be aware of crosswinds; they can cause problems and can have gusts that exceed aircraft or pilot limits.
Use a suitable runway. Make sure it is long enough, wide enough, free from ruts and pot holes, and not to soft or to wet. Powered parachutes may well require a flying field, not a runway or strip. Always have a no-go point for every takeoff and abort the flight if you are not airborne. Consider the height of the grass prior to takeoff or landing. Are you as the pilot prepared for any actions that may be needed.
The light sport rules were accomplished using an FAA/industry collaborative process characterized by a mutual commitment to achieving a realistic regulation that allows simplicity for participants based upon proven pilot certification standards and airworthiness parameters.
CFIs should be familiar with these
See 14 CFR 61.303
Private or greater rating “WEATHER” limitations – followed by red “x” for limitations governed by Sport Pilot privileges.
Private or greater rating “AIRSPACE” limitations – followed by red “x” for limitations governed by Sport Pilot privileges.
Private or greater rating “KINDS OF FLYING ALLOWED” limitations – followed by red “x” for limitations governed by Sport Pilot privileges.
First we will look at Light Sport Aircraft
U.S. or foreign manufacturer of light-sport aircraft is authorized. Will have FAA registration N-number. Although many categories and class exist – this presentation will focus on Fixed Wing Airplane.
The definition of a light sport aircraft is found in FAR Part 1
These are examples of other category and class of Light-sport aircraft. Airplane single engine land. Examples are standard category J-3 cub, a two-place ultralight trainer that will now be a certificated and registered Light-Sport aircraft if registered on or before 1-31-08, and an example of a new “ready-to-fly” light-sport aircraft. A “light-sport aircraft” means an aircraft, other than a helicopter or powered-lift, that since its original certification, has continued to meet the following: A max takeoff weight of 1320 lbs; or 1,430 lbs for water operations. A max airspeed in level flight with Maximum continuous power (Vh) of not more than 120 kts calibrated airspeed. A max ( Vne) speed of 120 knots. for gliders. A max stall speed without lift-enhancing devices of 45 KTS. A Maximum Seating Capacity of two persons (including pilot ). Single, reciprocating engine ( if powered ). Fixed-pitch or ground-adjustable propeller if a powered aircraft other than a powered glider. A fixed-pitch or feathering propeller if a powered glider. A fixed-pitch, semi-rigid, teetering, two-blade, rotor system, if a gyroplane. A non-pressurized cabin, if equipped with a cabin. Fixed landing gear , except for an aircraft intended for operation on water or a glider. Fixed or retractable landing gear , or a hull if an aircraft intended for operation on water. Fixed or retractable landing gear , if a glider.
CFIs should be familiar with the limitations and airworthiness requirements of SLSA aircraft. These aircraft have pink colored airworthiness certificates along with FAA required special operating limitations. CFIs must be familiar with these and instruct pilots on their content.
CFIs should be able to differentiate between a SLSA (Previous slide) and an ELSA. Both have pink airworthiness certificates and FAA required operating limitations.
Not all amateur built aircraft meet the LSA definition and CFIs should be aware that the speeds, performance data, and other criteria are entirely the responsibility of the owner. These aircraft have pink airworthiness certificates and FAA required operating limitations. USE CAUTION.
Certain FAA certificated aircraft may be flown under the light sport rule. These aircraft meet the operating limitations of the rule such as weight, seating configuration, and airspeed. They must continue to meet their type design and be maintained in the same manner as any other certificated aircraft.
Experimental Amateur-Built aircraft that meet the definition of light sport can be operated by a Sport Pilot or a Pilot flying under the limitations of Sport Pilot. But they must meet the definition below. Light-sport aircraft means an aircraft, other than a helicopter or powered-lift that, since its original certification, has continued to meet the following: (1) A maximum takeoff weight of not more than— (i) 1,320 pounds (600 kilograms) for aircraft not intended for operation on water; or (ii) 1,430 pounds (650 kilograms) for an aircraft intended for operation on water. (2) A maximum airspeed in level flight with maximum continuous power (VH) of not more than 120 knots CAS under standard atmospheric conditions at sea level. (3) A maximum never-exceed speed (VNE) of not more than 120 knots CAS for a glider. (4) A maximum stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed without the use of lift-enhancing devices (VS1) of not more than 45 knots CAS at the aircraft's maximum certificated takeoff weight and most critical center of gravity. (5) A maximum seating capacity of no more than two persons, including the pilot. (6) A single, reciprocating engine, if powered. (7) A fixed or ground-adjustable propeller if a powered aircraft other than a powered glider. (8) A fixed or autofeathering propeller system if a powered glider. (9) A fixed-pitch, semi-rigid, teetering, two-blade rotor system, if a gyroplane. (10) A nonpressurized cabin, if equipped with a cabin. (11) Fixed landing gear, except for an aircraft intended for operation on water or a glider. (12) Fixed or retractable landing gear, or a hull, for an aircraft intended for operation on water. (13) Fixed or retractable landing gear for a glider.
There are six other classes of experimental. Some of them might meet the definition of Light Sport Aircraft.
Powered and Unpowered Para-gliders and Tandem Hang glider. All tandem Para-glider training needs to be foot launched. What is not a LSA? Hanglider, paraglider, (powered and unpowered) helicopter, multiengine….
Information slide. Speak to the issues in the RED font to inform the audience of some of the items contained in the Consensus Standard (ASTM). A consensus standard (ASTM) is NOT developed by the FAA, but by industry alone. ASTM are only “Accepted” by the FAA and NOT approved. The ASTM applies to the “aircraft design” NOT the aircraft “Type Design”. Therefore, an LSA may NEVER be determined to be Airworthy, but only “safe for flight” An ASTM is a type of Standard, but it is ONLY a “Certification Standard”. Some of the items that an ASTM requires of the manufacturer are: Operating Instructions Maintenance and Inspection Procedures Identification and recording of Major Repairs and Alterations. (Notice the word “identification”; the manufacturer is the only one who can “identify” a major repair or alteration. And “All” instructions for continued airworhiness.
The Owner and/or Operator of an LSA has certain responsibilities that must be met that are outlined in the “appropriate class” Consensus Standard (ASTM). The following is an excerpt from an ASTM: 5.4 Owner/Operator Responsibilities : 5.4.1 Each owner/operator of a LSA shall read and comply with the maintenance and continued airworthiness information and instructions provided by the manufacturer. 5.4.2 Each owner/operator of a LSA shall be responsible for providing the manufacturer with current contact information where the manufacturer may send the owner/operator supplemental notification bulletins. 5.4.3 The owner/operator of a LSA shall be responsible for notifying the manufacturer of any safety of flight issue or significant service difficulty upon discovery. 5.4.4 The owner/operator of a LSA shall be responsible for complying with all manufacturer issued notices of corrective action and for complying with all applicable aviation authority regulations in regard to maintaining the airworthiness of the LSA. 5.4.5 An owner of a LSA shall ensure that any needed corrective action be completed as specified in a notice, or by the next scheduled annual inspection. 5.4.6 Should an owner/operator not comply with any mandatory service requirement, the LSA shall be considered not in compliance with applicable ASTM standards and may be subject to regulatory action by the presiding aviation authority.
Pertinent points here are that all LSA are issued an FAA Form 8130-7, Special Airworthiness Certificate. In Section A, Category it will either state “Light Sport” or “Experimental”. If Light Sport, the categories will be listed in Section A, Purpose. The above just happens to be “airplane” but it could be any of the other LSA Categories except Gyroplane. Generally, there is no expiration date for an LSA A/W Certificate, but the FAA reserves the right under certain circumstances to impose one. This may depend on the proposed type or area of operation. IMPORTANT : Ensure the audience knows that all LSA will have as an attachement to the A/W Certificate an “aircraft-specific” set of “OPERATION LIMITATIONS”. THESE LIMITATIONS ALONG WITH THE SPECIAL AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE ‘MUST” BE KEPT AVAILABLE IN THE AIRCRAFT AT ALL TIMES.
FAA Order 8130.2G (Copied 03/04/11) 4043. Issuance of LSA Category Aircraft Operating Limitations. a. Operating limitations must be designed to fit the specific situation encountered. The FAA may impose any additional limitations deemed necessary in the interest of safety. The FAA must review each imposed operating limitation with the applicant to ensure the applicant understands the operating limitations. b. The following operating limitations, as applicable, will be issued as shown below; any deviation must be coordinated in accordance with this order: (1) No person may operate this aircraft for any other purpose than that for which the aircraft was certificated. This aircraft must be operated in accordance with applicable air traffic and general operating rules of 14 CFR part 91 and all additional limitations prescribed herein. These operating limitations are a part of FAA Form 8130-7 and are to be carried in the aircraft at all times and to be available to the pilot in command of the aircraft. (2) The pilot in command of this aircraft must advise the passenger of the special nature of this aircraft and that the aircraft does not meet the certification requirements of a standard certificated aircraft. (3) This aircraft must display the word “LIGHT-SPORT” (hyphen optional) near the entrance to the cabin, cockpit, or pilot station in 2-inch minimum or a maximum of 6-inch block letters in accordance with 14 CFR § 45.23(b). (4) This aircraft must contain the placards and markings as required by 14 CFR § 91.9. In addition, the placards and markings must be inspected for legibility and clarity, and the associated systems inspected for easy access and operation, to ensure they function in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and the FAA-accepted consensus standards during each condition inspection. (5) This aircraft is to be operated under VFR, day only, unless appropriately equipped for night and/or instrument flight in accordance with 14 CFR § 91.205, and when allowed by the manufacturer’s operating instructions. (6) Noncompliance with these operating limitations will render the airworthiness certificate invalid. Any change, alteration, or repair not in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction and approval will render the airworthiness certificate invalid, and the owner of the aircraft must apply for a new airworthiness certificate under the provisions of 14 CFR § 21.191 with appropriate operating limitations before further flight. (7) Application to amend these operating limitations must be made to the responsible geographic FSDO or MIDO. (8) This aircraft does not meet the requirements of the applicable, comprehensive, and detailed airworthiness code as provided by Annex 8 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The owner/operator of this aircraft must obtain written permission from another CAA before operating this aircraft in or over that country. That written permission must be carried aboard the aircraft together with the U.S. airworthiness certificate and, upon request, be made available to an ASI or the CAA in the country of operation. (9) The pilot in command of this aircraft must hold at least the appropriate category and class privileges, rating, or endorsements required by 14 CFR part 61. (10) No person may operate this aircraft in the light-sport category for compensation or hire except to tow a light-sport glider or an unpowered ultralight vehicle in accordance with 14 CFR § 91.309 or to conduct flight training. (11) This aircraft may only be operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s aircraft operating instructions, including any provisions for necessary operating equipment specified in the aircraft’s equipment list. (12) No person may operate this aircraft in the light-sport category for compensation or hire unless within the preceding 100 hours of time in service the aircraft has— (a) Been inspected by a certificated repairman with an LSA maintenance rating, or an appropriately rated mechanic, or an appropriately rated repair station in accordance with inspection procedures developed by the aircraft manufacturer or a person acceptable to the FAA, and has been returned to service in accordance with the applicable provisions of 14 CFR part 43; (b) Received an annual condition inspection in accordance with the operating limitation described in paragraph 4043b(14) of this order; or (c) Received an inspection for the issuance of an airworthiness certificate in accordance with 14 CFR part 21. (13) Aircraft instruments and equipment installed and used under 14 CFR § 91.205 must be inspected and maintained in accordance with the requirements of 14 CFR part 91. Any maintenance or inspection of this equipment must be recorded in the aircraft maintenance records.
Pertinent points here are that all LSA are issued an FAA Form 8130-7, Special Airworthiness Certificate. In Section A, Category it will either state “Light Sport” or “Experimental”. If Experimental, the purpose will be listed as “Operating Light Sport Aircraft and the categories will be listed in parentheses afterward. The above is listed as (ppc) or Powered Parachute but it could be any of the other LSA Categories. Generally, there is no expiration date for an LSA A/W Certificate, but the FAA reserves the right under certain circumstances to impose one. This may depend on the proposed type or area of operation. IMPORTANT : Ensure the audience knows that all LSA will have as an attachement to the A/W Certificate an “aircraft-specific” set of “OPERATION LIMITATIONS”. THESE LIMITATIONS ALONG WITH THE SPECIAL AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE ‘MUST” BE KEPT AVAILABLE IN THE AIRCRAFT AT ALL TIMES.
See FAA Order 8130.2x for appropriate Operating Lilmitations
Subject: Airmen Transition to Experimental or Unfamiliar Airplanes Date: 3/30/11 Initiated by: AFS-800 AC No: 90-109 PURPOSE. This advisory circular (AC) provides information and guidance to owners and pilots of experimental airplanes and to flight instructors who teach in these airplanes. This information and guidance contains recommendations for training experience for pilots of experimental airplanes in a variety of groupings based on performance and handling characteristics. This AC does not address the testing of newly built experimental airplanes. The current edition of AC 90-89, Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook, provides information on such testing. However, if a pilot is planning on participating in a flight-test program in an unfamiliar experimental airplane, this AC should be used to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to safely accomplish the test program using AC 90-89. This AC may also be useful in planning the transition to any unfamiliar fixed-wing airplanes, including type-certificated (TC) airplanes.
Recommended Flight Training Know your airplane’s systems, limits and recommended procedures before you begin flying. Consult the kit vendor for advice. Discuss your situation with type club members and owner/builders of your airplane model. Internet forums and chat rooms may provide valuable information, but remember the participants may or may not have the technical expertise you seek, and their airplanes may exhibit different stability characteristics than yours. A thorough airplane check-out by a qualified instructor with experience in your airplane model is always a good idea. If you built the airplane yourself, consider obtaining this training from the kit vendor, preferably in your airplane, but the company demonstrator may provide sufficiently similar characteristics. If you purchased your plane from a previous owner, learn all you can from him or her. Pilots transitioning to experimental airplanes must be aware that the habits and reflexes learned on type certificated airplanes may yield hazardous results.
A pilot would not consider transitioning from a Cessna 152 to a Boeing 787 without a tad bit of training. The idea woks both ways. A Boeing 787 pilot would have a tough time landing a Cessna 152 without some transition training. So it is with a Cessna 152 “heavy” pilot trying to operate a Quicksilver. The aircraft fly quite differently. Certainly a Quicksilver pilot also needs to train prior to operating a Remos or CT. It is essential pilots receive transition training to transition up or down the performance range of aircraft.
Know your airplane’s systems, limits and recommended procedures before you begin flying. Consult the kit vendor for advice. Discuss your situation with type club members and owner/builders of your airplane model. Internet forums and chat rooms may provide valuable information, but remember the participants may or may not have the technical expertise you seek, and their airplanes may exhibit different stall behavior than yours.
See Advisory Circular AC 90-89A Chapter 2 for additional guidance on low and high speed taxi tests.
Applicant must be advised that after airworthiness certification has been issued, thy must show compliance to 91.319(b) by developing a flight test program addressing requirements, goals, and objectives of each test flight. Advisory circular AC 90-89 can be used to help develop this Aircraft Flight Manual.
This puts enormous peer pressure on the pilot to fly an aircraft that may not be airworthy or to conduct the flight in inclement weather.
This puts enormous peer pressure on the pilot to fly an aircraft that may not be airworthy or to conduct the flight in inclement weather.
This puts enormous peer pressure on the pilot to fly an aircraft that may not be airworthy or to conduct the flight in inclement weather.
This puts enormous peer pressure on the pilot to fly an aircraft that may not be airworthy or to conduct the flight in inclement weather.
The cost to the pilot was incredible. He was charged 1000 dollars per branch the forest service cut. The Coast Guard sent an HH-60 Jay Hawk to lift him out of the tree. The mission failed, but he was charged for three hours of Jay Hawk and crew.
Emergency Locator Transmitters are not required in many cases. For instance, single pilot aircraft, some ferry flights, some test flights, agricultural application flights. However if you happen to be hanging in a tree, hoping the rangers eventually find you. You may consider a 406 ELT as they are more advanced or a good handheld radio to be very handy.
The pilot of this ultralight Phantom was demonstrating low altitude acrobatics to his friends at a fly-in. The outboard section of his left wing failed in overload. The aircraft was so active in its decent that it interfered with the emergency chute. Unfortunately the accident was fatal for the pilot.
Emphasize that the aircraft no mater what type of flying machine will perform differently when you start adding passengers. Be aware of the performance change for weight, balance, weather conditions. Their will be a decrease in performance!
The ingredients for a Carburetor Ice issue are the proper temperature and humidity, a venturi that reduces the pressure of the air and cools it, atomized fuel that further cools the air and a throttle butterfly valve or slide. Viola! Carb ice. Does your aircraft have carburetor heat? Perhaps some engines are less susceptible than others. Oil mixed with fuel reduces the effect. Heat risers and fuel systems utilizing injectors also help. All aircraft are susceptible to impact air icing. Does your aircraft have an alternate air source? Carburetor Ice By: Bob Robertson & Bud Connolly Although carburetor ice is not a common occurrence on Rotax engines, it can happen when conditions of temperature and humidity/dew point come together perfectly. Here is a photo sent to us by Bob Robertson who runs a Rotax Service Center, Light Engine Services Ltd, and also sells engine controls, Aero Controls Ltd, in Alberta, Canada. The photo is of a Bing carburetor on a Rotax engine. The engine in question was on a powered parachute operating in the Pacific Northwest, Washington State, USA. You can see the ice on the front of the slide valve as well as around the diffuser located in the bottom of the carburetor intake throat. It's the ice around that diffuser that causes the real problem in most cases. It disturbs the air flow around that section and reduces the amount of fuel mix that can be drawn up through the needle jet opening. Typically, carburetor ice problems will show up first during partial throttle operation. The engine will begin losing power and the RPM will slowly drop back. The immediate response for the pilot is to push the throttle full forward which will open the slide valve and help to shed a little of that ice. If the throttle responds to full power, or nearly full power, you have a little more time to make a decision about landing. Descending to a lower (warmer) altitude will often help melt the ice. Find a good airstrip though, and make a precautionary landing. As quickly as possible, shut down the engine after landing and look at the carbs. If you see frost on the outside of the carb, or even a lot of water dripping off the outside, you can be pretty sure you just experienced carb ice. You can let the plane sit there for 15 minutes or more, during which the ice can melt from the engine heat. Then start it up again and check for full throttle response. If all seems well again, you can fly. But be aware that you may very well get more carb ice, especially at the altitude you were previously flying. If you are at your home field it's probably best to just wait until the temperature rises, or the humidity is less, or both. For further information on when to expect carburetor icing conditions, see the links below. Notice that even at 80 degrees F. you can get carb ice if the humidity is above 50%.
These are the sections of the flight manual required by consensus standards for Special Light Sport aircraft. We are used to such information because similar information is included in flight manuals for type certificated aircraft. Amateur built aircraft do not have this information. It is up to the builder to develop the information during the time flown in the flight test area. Certainly to think through emergency procedures would be handy, but performance and normal procedures are vitally important. If the data is not developed it can set up sharp, careful, pilots to have accidents. Such is the next accident.
This is an RV-6 that crashed. The pilot was not real familiar with the airport. The airport is tricky for a couple of reasons. One is that it has quite a dip in the center of the runway. The other reason is that it is about a mile from the ocean. The runway is parallel to the shore, so there is a nearly constant onshore breeze which means it is also a nearly constant cross wind. The trees you see in the picture line the edge of the runway, so the wind at the runway surface is gusty as it burbles past the trees. The pilot was a disgusted guy. We know that, because he told the investigating inspector so. He’s the guy sitting on the fireman’s tool box with the disgusted look. He said he flared to land and because the aircraft floated a bit he was caught in the burble from the trees. He thought he was going to blow off the edge of the runway so he applied power to go around. The P factor then brought the nose around until he was headed into the trees. You can see the result. So lets analyze this accident. What do we know about most amateur builders? Do they spend the 40 hours assigned them in their test area actually test flying their aircraft? Some do, but many just, “ensure that the aircraft has been adequately tested and determined to be safe to fly within the aircraft’s flight envelope.” In other words boring holes in the sky. There is another reason to test fly your aircraft it is to use flight test data, “to develop an accurate and complete aircraft manual and to establish emergency procedures.” So how might this have helped the gentleman in the slide? Did he develop the data he needed to know the “over the fence” airspeed or did he add 5 knots to his approach because he was at an unfamiliar airport? Did he perhaps add a little more airspeed for his wife and family? After all he certainly didn’t want to be a stall spin statistic. Most of this is speculation but it points out how not having a good flight manual might lead a very skilled careful pilot to fly into a situation where his skill or the capabilities of his aircraft are overwhelmed. Let’s look at an amateur-built flight manual that is less than helpful.
Slide This is a flight manual from another RV-6 accident. Build 1 Notice there is no registration number on the cover. Build 2 Well, there was plenty of other information blank in the book. The engine listed is not the engine installed. Build 3 N/A Build 4 This was a second owner aircraft. The seller didn’t include the airworthiness certificate in the deal. Do you suppose he included the construction manual? More missing performance information. Build 5 The stains? They are blood. Fortunately it was not a fatal crash, but very painful all the same. It is essential operators of aircraft are familiar with the flight manual of the aircraft they are flying and the manual needs to have not only emergency procedures but normal ones too. Approach airspeed, Fuel burn, stuff like that.
Keeping the engine running is huge! AC 20-105b Reciprocating Engine Power Loss Accident Prevention and Trend Monitoring states that 51% of power loss accidents were caused by pilot actions or inactions. Know your fuel burn and range. You must confidently know your fuel situation at all times. Have multiple fuel level indicators, and consider carrying a bubble level to level up your aircraft to take calibrated fuel measurements on the ground. Verify fuel quantity before each flight. Do not guess! Do not take off unless you have enough fuel for the flight. Manage fuel while flying. Use a watch, have a fuel time limit for every flight. Sump your tanks before every flight. Don’t tinker with your prop. Particularly with two cycle engines. The higher the RPM the leaner the mixture, the lower the RPM the richer the mixture, so adjusting the prop changes the fuel air mixture of the engine. When the prop is set out of the range provided by the manufacturer the carburetor will need to be adjusted. Jets changed, idle mixture and float level adjusted. When the engine is adjusted outside the limits provided by the manufacturer the engine will be much less reliable, and much more likely to be damaged. Dispose of fuel that has reached its shelf life. For instance, If the aircraft has been in storage for the winter, drain the fuel and service it with fresh fuel. Fuel is so inexpensive compared with the cost and pain of injury.
These are the seals between carburetor and intake manifold. When the manifold pressure is low a leak at the boot can cause the engine to quit. Manifold pressure is lowest when the throttle is retarded. So a leak may well cause the engine to quit on approach to landing. It is an inconvenient time. Checking for cracked or poorly fitting boots may well be a good preflight item.
Slide The red arrow is pointing at the muffler where a support is missing. The question is where did it go? The prop blade gives us a clue. Build 1 If you look closely you can see threads from the bracket bolt in the gigantic ding on the prop. So can a composite prop sustain this type damage? How it it to be repaired. A call to the manufacturer reveled that the nick was within tolerance, and there was no repair for the nick.
The red arrow is pointing at the pin that holds the wing on a trike. It is a time life part. It is good for 100 hours or one year. Of course the one in the picture is timed out. The point is that LSA aircraft have parts that need to be replaced regularly. The maintenance manual will have the information.
Those who are in a position to pick design features of their aircraft (Amateur Builders) need to pick well. Most pilots learn to fly type certificated aircraft we are used to a central drain for the fuel system that we can drain on each preflight inspection. There is no such requirement for amateur built aircraft. The accident in the top right picture was caused at least partially by the builder installing glass inline fuel filters. The glass inline fuel filters were installed in such a way that they could not be cleaned without draining the fuel tanks. They were never cleaned, and they got very packed with debris. The engine quit and the pilot was left without good options for landing. The aircraft impacted the truck in the picture. The pilot survived, so it proves RV-6’s are “Built Ford Tough”. 14 CFR § 23 does not apply to amateur built aircraft, but it offers good advice for design features like fuel drains. 14 CFR § 23 is not the only source of such information. There are many books written on good design features. The point is just to pick well when picking design features. The extra expense will pay off in the end. § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the entire fuel system with the airplane in its normal ground attitude. (b) Each drain required by paragraph (a) of this section and §23.971 must— (1) Discharge clear of all parts of the airplane; (2) Have a drain valve— (i) That has manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position; (ii) That is readily accessible; (iii) That can be easily opened and closed; (iv) That allows the fuel to be caught for examination; (v) That can be observed for proper closing; and (vi) That is either located or protected to prevent fuel spillage in the event of a landing with landing gear retracted.
This is a beautiful RV-8. It has an automotive rotary engine installed. The engine relied on an electronic computer to time the ignition and fuel injectors. The automotive fuel injectors also required a minimum pressure from the electric fuel pumps. The engine was very dependent on the electrical system to run. There were no magnetos installed so there was no magneto switch with which to secure the aircraft. The builder chose to install a master switch operated by a key to prevent unauthorized persons from starting the engine. The switch he chose was an automotive switch that was swaged together as opposed to an aircraft quality switch that screws together. In flight, the switch vibrated apart causing a loss of the electrical system. The engine quit, leaving the pilot with few options for landing. He was forced down in a vineyard that ripped his beautiful airplane apart. He and his wife escaped with their lives, but with broken bones. Certainly in hindsight he would have happily spent the money for a high quality switch.
Far 43 does not apply to ultralight vehicles, or Amateur-Built Aircraft, so AC 43.13-1B doesn't apply either. However, if there are questions as to how to use aircraft hardware AC43.13-1B is a good place to look for the answers to those questions. For instance, Chapter 7, Section 4, paragraph 7-64 states “After the nut has been tightened, make sure the bolt or stud has at least one thread showing past the nut.”
You are looking at a bag of lead shot wedged between the rudder pedals and the tubing structure of the aircraft. It is not secured. This is not a good way to add ballast.
These are examples of problems that could be remedied by good workmanship. The fuel line wouldn’t be chaffing if it fit and was tied properly. Too much RTV on exhaust system springs can actually make them fail. The maintenance manual will show the proper way to maintain these components.
The rusty thing in the picture is the pin that holds the wing on. It was damaged when the operator didn’t remove the control push rod before knocking it out. The control rod was also damaged. Both parts were weld repaired. The wing pin is rusty because the heating of the pin during welding removed the cadmium plating. Rusty, pitted parts tend to fail in fatigue, and they tend to damage the hole they are designed to fill. The control rod could have been repaired in a more appropriate way. It is simply butt welded, and the reinforcing weld material is ground away. This aircraft is certified experimental light sport, so there are no workmanship standards that apply to it. The operator is within his rights to repair his aircraft in this way. However there is guidance for repair such as this. Generally it is in the maintenance manual. If it is not in the maintenance manual then the FAA’s AC 43.13-1B has guidance for repairs such as these weld repairs. The AC 43.13 is posted on the web and available for free.
A pilot would not consider transitioning from a Cessna 152 to a Glasair SII (220 MPH aircraft, Stalls 73 MPH) without a tad bit of training. The idea works both ways. A Glasair pilot would have a tough time landing a Quicksilver without some transition training. The aircraft fly quite differently. It is essential pilots receive transition training to transition up or down the performance range of aircraft.
Some LSA models have unusual flight characteristics. CFIs must familiarize themselves prior to instructing in these aircraft.
5/24/11 8900.1 CHG 155 VOLUME 3 GENERAL TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATION CHAPTER 11 USE OF AIRCRAFT ISSUED EXPERIMENTAL AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATES IN FLIGHT INSTRUCTION FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE SECTION 1 USE OF AIRCRAFT ISSUED EXPERIMENTAL CERTIFICATES IN FLIGHT TRAINING FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE B. Background. 1) Section 91.319(a) prohibits the operation of an experimental aircraft for other than the purpose for which the certificate was issued or to carry persons or property for compensation or hire. These restrictions prohibit the widespread use of experimental aircraft for flight training for compensation or hire. The FAA recognizes the value of specialized flight training that may only be available in aircraft holding experimental certificates. In the past, the FAA issued exemptions to § 91.319(a) to allow owners to rent their aircraft for the purpose of providing specialized flight training. To reduce the burden on owners and operators, the FAA published a revision to § 91.319 on July 27, 2004. That revision permits the issuance of a deviation to allow a person to conduct flight training in an aircraft that person provides and to receive compensation for that activity. To provide a streamlined and standardized process for the issuance of deviations to permit this flight training to be conducted, the FAA developed a LODA located in the WebOPSS. 2) ASIs may issue flight training deviations using the guidance in this section. ASIs must issue all deviations using the LODA Template A115, Deviation Authority for Conducting Flight Training in Experimental Category Aircraft, found in the part 91 database of the WebOPSS. Use of the WebOPSS will ensure that all deviations have the correct special conditions and provide for national tracking of the deviations. The FAA will issue training deviations to permit the conduct of training that can only be accomplished in aircraft with experimental certificates.
Emphasize that the A&P mechanic still needs to meet the requirements of part 65.
Keep in mind when working on Special Light Sport Aircraft you still have the requirement to do the work in accordance with the instructions developed by the manufacture of the SLSA.
There are essentially on two categories of LSA; (Special) Light Sport and Experimental Light Sport or the A/W Certificate is issued with “Experimental-Operating Light Sport Aircraft. Part 91.327 states SLSA may be used for Towing and Flight Training and if so, they require a 100 hour inspection rather than an Annual Condition Inspection.
This proposal establishes a new repairman certificate with two new ratings. ** IMPORTANT -- These repairman will be authorized to only perform maintenance or inspections, as applicable, on LSA that are issued the two new airworthiness certificates; ELSA and SLSA. The two new ratings are Inspection and maintenance. Inspection rating is – Class, make and model and serial number specific (similar to Experimental Amateur-built repairman) Maintenance rating is - Class Specific (i.e. weight shift, airplane, power parachute etc.)
Inspection Rating Overview. The owner of an ELSA may apply for a repairman certificate with an inspection rating after completion of the required 16 hour training course. The training must be for the same class of aircraft for which inspection privileges are sought. This rating allows an aircraft owner to perform the required annual condition inspection on an aircraft that he or she owns which has been issued an airworthiness certificate under § 21.191(i). The aircraft will be identified on the owner’s repairman certificate by registration and serial number. The designation of privileges for this certificate is similar to that in which the privileges for the builder of an amateur-built aircraft are specified under 14 CFR part 65, § 65.104. If an individual owns several similar makes and models of light-sport aircraft or owns a light-sport aircraft in another class, that individual will be issued a repairman certificate which lists each aircraft the repairman is eligible to inspect if the required training is completed.
Maintenance Rating Overview. (1) Any individual may apply for a repairman (light-sport aircraft) certificate with a maintenance rating after completion of the required training for a specific class of light-sport aircraft. The length of required training varies depending on the class of aircraft for which privileges are sought. A repairman with a maintenance rating may perform maintenance and required inspections on SLSA within the class he or she is rated. A repairman may also hold several aircraft class ratings on his or her repairman certificate. Each rating will allow the individual to perform the annual condition inspection for experimental light-sport aircraft within that class. (2) Prior to approving any aircraft or part for return to service the repairman performing the work must have previously performed the work concerned satisfactorily. If the work has not been previously performed the repairman may show the ability to do the work by performing it to the satisfaction of the FAA or by performing it under the direct supervision of an appropriately certificated, rated, and experienced mechanic or repairman. The repairman performing the work also must understand the current instructions of the manufacturer and the maintenance manuals for the work. The FAA would not consider it appropriate for a repairman with a maintenance rating to perform an engine overhaul for the first time on a 2-cycle or 4-cycle engine unless that repairman, for example, could show that he or she has successfully completed additional training on the overhaul of the specific make and model engine from the engine manufacturer or other accepted training provider.
This slide is self-explanatory and is basically a review of repairman privileges related to the Annual Condition Inspection for LSA.
FAR 43 does not apply to Experimental category aircraft and therefore, almost anyone can legally perform maintenance. However, for SLSA aircraft FAR 43 does apply. There is only one exception in FAR 43.1 that exempts LSA aircraft for reporting Major Repairs and Alterations on an FAA Form 337. All other sections of FAR 43 apply. No matter who performs the maintenance on SLSA, they must have current data, appropriate tools (some may be outlined by the manufacturer in the MM), as well as the training and experience to perform the job function. For the A&P, FAR 65.81; 65.85; and 65.87 apply.
LSA have no Type Certificates as they are certified to an ASTM and must be maintained to the specific ASTM and must be maintained to this standard through the use of the manufacturers maintenance instructions. Manufacturer’s Maintenance Manuals contain all the information needed to maintain the aircraft. In some circumstances, there is more information than wanted. Keep in contact with the manufacturer. Safety Directives as released from the LSA manufacturer bear the same weight as an Airworhthiness Directive for a Standard Category Aircraft. The must be complied with. PERFORMANCE OF MAJOR REPAIRS AND MAJOR ALTERATIONS BY A REPAIRMAN (LIGHT-SPORT AIRCRAFT) WITH A MAINTENANCE RATING. A repairman may not perform a major repair or major alteration on a product produced under an FAA approval. However prior to performing a major repair on a product not produced under an FAA approval, the repairman must complete additional training acceptable to the FAA and appropriate to the work performed This training may consist of additional training in areas such as welding, overhauls, engine gear reduction units, major repairs to structures, or major repairs to fabric. For example, if a repairman with a maintenance rating successfully completed a light- sport aircraft engine manufacturer’s course in overhaul of a particular make and model engine or gear reduction unit, or a light-sport aircraft manufacturer’s course that teaches welding of steel or aluminum structures, he or she would be permitted to perform major repairs to those manufacturers’ products.
Just like any aircraft, sport aircraft have manufactures manuals to train and guide the mechanic and owner through maintenance tasks. Notice in the red font; Some things are a somewhat new to an A&P or Repair Station.
This is an excerpt from the Rotax 912 Light Maintenance Manual. As can be seen, Rotax requires that whoever works on their engines received training from BRP-Powertrain, which is actually Rotax. March 4, 2011: There is an FAA Notice, now held up in the legal department, that is coming out soon that will address this issue. Basically, there is something called the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 USC Subchapter II, that states a Federal Government Agency cannot delegate rulemaking authority to any other entity. Rotax is in effect making a rule stating they are the only source for Rotax engine training and the Notice may change this.
Transitioning pilots should be encouraged to participate in the EAA Flight Advisor Program. Additional information is available by going to the EAA’s web site at www.eaa.org. A link is available to find a Flight Advisor. Only a small number of pilot/builders take advantage of the EAA’s Flight Advisor program, around 25% of Experimental Armature Built owners contact a EAA Flight Advisor for assistance.
The EAA Technical Counselor program is used by over 80% of the Experimental Amateur Built owners building their own aircraft. So why is this program more popular that the Flight Advisor program. It is thought that while most pilots are already pilots and believe they can operate an aircraft safety. Many Experimental Amateur Built builders are building a first aircraft or may not be that familiar with aircraft construction techniques so emphasis is placed on research, construction techniques, materials, design. We need to comparatively spend more time in preparation for first flight and flight testing to decrease the accident rate.
This slide explains how to access sport aviation online resources. Open faasafety.gov Click on the resources tab. On the drop down menu, select online resources. When the online resources page opens, select resources by type of operation. When the type of operation page opens select the resources by operation of interest. Such as Amateur-Built. Click on Amateur-Built then find the needed resource, like AC43.13-1B. Click on the AC43.13-1B link and the title page opens. This page allows the operator to check the revision date. Click on the required PDF link and the data appears.
Sport Aviation Safety
Presented for: Sun-N-Fun 2012By: Scott R. Landorf A/W FAASTeam ProgramManager, Great Lakes RegionDate: March27, 2012Federal AviationAdministrationSport AviationSafetyFAA Safety Team
Sport Aviation Safety2Federal AviationAdministrationOBJECTIVEThis presentation will familiarize you with Light Sport Aircraftand Light Sport Pilots as well as information aboutExperimental amateur built aircraft and operation.
Sport Aviation Safety3Federal AviationAdministrationOBJECTIVES• Reduction of Sport Aircraft Fatal Accident Rate• What is a Light Sport Aircraft?• What is a Experimental Amateur Built Aircraft• Repairman Certification• Repairman Training• Inspection of Sport/Light Sport Aircraft• Maintenance of Sport/Light Sport Aircraft• Transition training to a Sport Aircraft
Sport Aviation Safety4Federal AviationAdministrationSport Aircraft!• Sport Aircraft populationcontinues to grow each year.• This represents +10% of theentire U.S. fleet of registeredaircraft and over 10% of allactive aircraft in the U.S.• This is quite a performancewhen other segments of GA arecontracting.
Sport Aviation Safety5Federal AviationAdministration• NTSB provides statistics for Amateur Built but not Light Sport• It is probable that some Light Sport accidents are included in this data• 2010 US General Aviation accidents: 1093 total 193 fatal (17%)• 2011 US General Aviation accidents: 1319 total 227 fatal ( 17.2%)• 2010 US Amateur Built accidents: 208 total 55 fatal (26%)• 2011 US Amateur Built accidents: 231 total 55 fatal (24%)ACCIDENT DATA FOR LIGHT SPORT
Sport Aviation Safety6Federal AviationAdministrationScott’s Data as of 2/7/12• Tracking Experimental accidents andIncidents for FY-12• Accidents: 43 Fatalities: 16 of 52 (31%)• Incidents: 65 Persons on board 83– Almost all of them are loss of control during take-offor landing phase of flight.
Sport Aviation Safety7Federal AviationAdministrationLoss of Control• Skill based• Training– Transition training• Proficiency• Managing your risk• Mitigating• Understand the aircraft’s physical limitations
Sport Aviation Safety8Federal AviationAdministrationPreflight• Weather briefing• Density Altitude– Convective weather– Gusty wind– Cross wind• Know your fuel burn and range• Know your fuel situation at all times• Weight and Loading
Sport Aviation Safety9Federal AviationAdministrationStrip Suitability• Know your airfield.• Operating off airports.• Wire strikes – Powered Parachute.• Aircraft that are operating in environmentsthat are not airports are more likely to beinvolved in an accident.
Sport Aviation Safety10Federal AviationAdministrationSPORT PILOT OVERVIEWIn September 2004, the FAA enacted the final ruleestablishing the Light Sport Category of aircraft and theSport Pilot Certificate.This rule inaugurated a new realm of aviation to bringflying to a wider group of participants and establish safetystandards at an acceptable level.
Sport Aviation Safety11Federal AviationAdministrationWHO CAN FLY UNDER THE SPORTPILOT RULE?Pilots holding Sport PilotCertificates.Pilots with Recreation orhigher level privileges.Requirements are found in14 CFR 61 Subpart J.
Sport Aviation Safety12Federal AviationAdministrationMEDICAL REQUIREMENTS UNDER SPORT PILOT RULESee 14 CFR 61.303 for specificrequirements.No medical certificationrequirements for gliders or balloons.For other aircraft, a valid US DriversLicense.Not know or have reason to know ofa medical condition that would makethe pilot unable to operate the LSAin a safe manner.
Sport Aviation Safety13Federal AviationAdministrationCONDITIONS RELATED TOPREVIOUS FAA MEDICALCERTIFICATIONIf the pilot previously applied for anFAA Medical, he / she must havebeen eligible for issuance on theirmost recent application.Must not have had their mostrecent FAA medical denied,suspended or revoked.Must not have had their mostrecent Special Issuance/MedicalCertificate withdrawn.
Sport Aviation Safety14Federal AviationAdministrationDAY NIGHT IFR(Instrument Rated)PRIVATE vs SPORT PILOT LIMITATIONS: WEATHERVFR(less than 3mi vis)VFR(above clouds)VFR(greater than3mi vis)
Sport Aviation Safety15Federal AviationAdministrationPRIVATE vs SPORT PILOT LIMITATIONS: AIRSPACECLASS A(Instrument Rated)CLASS B, C, D(Sport needs endorsement)ABOVE 10,000 MSL(Sport ok if 2,000’ AGL orless)CLASS E, G
Sport Aviation Safety16Federal AviationAdministrationSPORT PILOT LIMITATIONS: TYPE OF FLIGHTSCHARITABLESALESDEMOSWatchThis!CROSSCOUNTRYPASSENGERS(Sport: onlyONE)BUSINESSTOWING(UL or LSAglider)
Sport Aviation Safety17Federal AviationAdministration
Sport Aviation Safety18Federal AviationAdministrationAIRCRAFT CATEGORY ANDCLASS OF LSAAIRPLANE LAND+SEAWEIGHT-SHIFT CONTROLLAND+SEA (“TRIKES”)GYROPLANE POWERED PARACHUTEGLIDERBALLOON + AIRSHIP
Sport Aviation Safety19Federal AviationAdministrationImage from: “A CFI’s Guide To Sport Pilot and Light Sport Aircraft.”– Produced for NAFI by Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc (ASA), 2010.
Sport Aviation Safety20Federal AviationAdministrationAirplaneWhat is a Light-Sport Aircraft?ELSA Transitioned“Ultralightlike”existing fleetSLSAMeets Definition of LSA(Type Certificated orExperimental)
Sport Aviation Safety21Federal AviationAdministrationLIGHT SPORT AIRCRAFT (LSA)CERTIFICATION• Factory built and “Ready To Fly”.• Manufactured to consensus standards.• See 14 CFR 91.327 for Operating Limitations and Maintenance Requirements.SPECIAL LIGHT SPORT (SLSA) AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATES (14 CFR 21.190)
Sport Aviation Safety22Federal AviationAdministrationEXPERIMENTAL LIGHT SPORTAIRCRAFT (ELSA) CERTIFICATION• Built from qualified ELSA Kit.• Built in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.• See 14 CFR 91.319 for Operating Limitations and Maintenance Requirements.EXPERIMENTAL LIGHT SPORT ELSA (14 CFR 21.191i)
Sport Aviation Safety23Federal AviationAdministrationExperimental Amateur Built• Built by a person for education or recreation.• At least 51% of assembly / construction by the private builder.• May be eligible for LSA operation if: (meets definition Light Sport 14 CFR 1).• See 14 CFR 91.319 for Operating Limitations and Maintenance Requirements.EXPERIMENTAL AMATEUR BUILT (14 CFR 21.191g)
Sport Aviation Safety24Federal AviationAdministration• Type certificated aircraft that meet the definition of Light Sport (14 CFR 1).• Examples include Piper J-3, Ercoupe 415-C, Aeronca 7-AC.• EAA website link for complete listing: www.sportpilot.org/learn/aircraft.htmlSTANDARD CATEGORY AIRCRAFTLIGHT SPORT AIRCRAFT (LSA) CERTIFICATION
Sport Aviation Safety25Federal AviationAdministrationSport Aircraft?An ExperimentalAmateur Builtcould be a SportAircraft
Sport Aviation Safety26Federal AviationAdministrationNot All Experimental aircraft areAmateur Built14 CFR 21.1911. Research and Development2. Showing Compliance with Regulations3. Crew Training4. Exhibition5. Air Racing6. Market Surveys7. Operating Amateur Built Aircraft
Sport Aviation Safety27Federal AviationAdministrationPart 103 Ultralight(powered/unpowered)• Hanglider• Paraglider• Trainingexemption holders• Multiengine aircraft• Powered lift• Helicopters• Complex aircraft• Retractable gear (exceptwater operations orGlider)• Controllable pitchpropellerWhat is NOT a Light-Sport Aircraft?
Sport Aviation Safety28Federal AviationAdministrationLight-sport CategoryLight-sport category—certificated as either: Light-sport aircraft (LSA) [§21.190] or For the experimental purpose of operating light-sportaircraft (ELSA) [§21.191(i)]Goal: To maintain anacceptable level ofcertitude for safetyDesign approval is self-attested, base on FAA-acceptedconsensus standards used by the manufacturer
Sport Aviation Safety29Federal AviationAdministrationIssue of a Special AirworthinessCertificate—Light-sport CategoryApplicant must provide the FAA with:• Aircraft’s operating instructions• Aircraft’s maintenance and inspection procedures• Manufacturer’s statement of compliance• Aircraft’s flight training supplementFAA must inspect the aircraft and find it in a conditionfor safe operation• Operating limitations IAW 14 CFR 91.327 and as part of operatinginstructions
Sport Aviation Safety30Federal AviationAdministrationConsensus Standards• Product-specific specifications for testing, development, andmanufacture, including maintenance manuals and ContinuedAirworthiness• Take the place of normal manufacturing and design certifications(e.g. TCs/PCs/STCs)Applicant certifiescompliance onForm 8130-15FAA accepts (not“approves”) thestandard
Sport Aviation Safety31Federal AviationAdministrationWhat Is a Consensus Standard?A consensus standard is an industry-developed standardthat applies to aircraft design, production, andairworthiness. It is accepted by the FAA for the purposeof certificating light-sport aircraft. It includes, but is notlimited to, standards for aircraft design and performance,required equipment, manufacturer quality assurancesystems, production acceptance test procedures,operating instructions, maintenance and inspectionprocedures, identification and recording of majorrepairs and major alterations, and continuedairworthiness.
Sport Aviation Safety32Federal AviationAdministrationASTM-Continued Operational Safety• Owner/Operator Responsibilities– Shall Comply With Manufacturer’s Instructions– Shall Provide Mfg With Current Contact Information– Shall Notify The Mfg of Safety of Flight or SignificantService Difficulty Upon Discovery– Shall Comply With All Mfg. Notices, CorrectiveActions, And CAA Regulations– Shall Ensure Needed Corrective Actions Completed– If Owner Does Not Comply With Mandatory ServiceRequirement, ASTM Considered Not Met.ASTM F2295-06, 5.4
Sport Aviation Safety33Federal AviationAdministrationLight-sport Manufactured OutsideU.S.Light-sport category aircraft manufactured outside the U.S. haveadditional requirementsU.S. must have anagreement with countryof manufacture Bilateral Airworthiness Agreement for airplanes or— Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement with ImplementationProcedures for Airworthiness, for airplanes
Sport Aviation Safety34Federal AviationAdministrationExperimental Certificates: Purposes§21.191—Various Purposes• Research and Development• Showing Compliance with Regulations• Crew Training• Exhibition• Air Racing• Market Surveys• Operating Amateur-built Aircraft• Operating Primary Kit-built Aircraft• Operating Light-sport AircraftMore on these tocome
Sport Aviation Safety35Federal AviationAdministrationExperimental Certificates:Operating Amateur-Built AircraftCan be built from plansand raw materialsOften built from “quick-build” kitsMajor portion constructed for recreation or education
Sport Aviation Safety36Federal AviationAdministrationExperimental Certificates:Operating LimitationsAll aircraft which receive experimentalcertificates will have operating limitations, as per:14 CFR91.319airworthinesscertificate14 CFR91.327
Sport Aviation Safety37Federal AviationAdministrationDo NOT confuse these!Requirements for certification and allowable operationsfor each are very differentExperimental Certificates: APossible ConfusionAmateur-builtaircraft from akitPrimary kit-built aircraftLight-sportaircraft builtfrom a kit
Sport Aviation Safety38Federal AviationAdministration§21.193, Experimental Certificates:GeneralApplications must include:• A statement of the purpose• Enough data to identify the aircraft• Any information the FAA requires for safetyIf for experimental purposes: Purpose of the experiment Estimate time and number of flights required Geographic test areas Three-view drawings
Sport Aviation Safety39Federal AviationAdministrationDocumentation• Airworthiness/Registration/OperatingLimitations/Placards/Weight and Balance:Must be on board, or theaircraft is not legal to beoperated.
Sport Aviation Safety40Federal AviationAdministrationExperimentalOperating Light Sport Aircraft
Sport Aviation Safety41Federal AviationAdministrationSPECIAL LIGHT SPORT
Sport Aviation Safety42Federal AviationAdministrationSLSA OPERATING LIMITATIONSATTACHED TO AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE
Sport Aviation Safety43Federal AviationAdministrationEXPERIMENTAL LIGHT SPORT
Sport Aviation Safety44Federal AviationAdministrationATTACHED TO AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATEEOLSA OPERATING LIMITATIONS
Sport Aviation Safety45Federal AviationAdministrationOperating Limitations…Noncompliance with these operating limitations willrender the airworthiness certificate invalid. Anychange, alteration, or repair not in accordance withthe manufacturer’s instruction and approval willrender the airworthiness certificate invalid, and theowner of the aircraft must apply for a newairworthiness certificate under the provisions of 14CFR § 21.191 with appropriate operating limitationsbefore further flight.
Sport Aviation Safety46Federal AviationAdministrationMarkings – 14 CFR Part 45• Registration Markings– Special LSA – At Least 12 Inches High– Experimental – LSA – At Least 3 Inches High• Placarding - 2 Inches To 6 Inches High:– SLSA – The Word, “Light Sport”– ELSA – The Word “Experimental”Reference AC 45-2
Sport Aviation Safety47Federal AviationAdministrationAirmen Transition toExperimental orUnfamiliar Airplanes• See Advisory Circular 90-109• This advisory circular (AC) providesinformation and guidance to owners andpilots of experimental airplanes and to flightinstructors who teach in these airplanes.
Sport Aviation Safety48Federal AviationAdministrationFlight testing and First Flight, orsecond, third, …….• 90% of the accidents occur on the firstflight.• Unfortunately, most of these accidentshappen to second or third owners.• The main cause of experimental airplanefatal accidents is pilot performanceparticularly in the transition phase to anunfamiliar airplane.
Sport Aviation Safety49Federal AviationAdministrationTransition Training for Pilots
Sport Aviation Safety50Federal AviationAdministration
Sport Aviation Safety51Federal AviationAdministrationTransitioning to a new airplane• Even if a pilot is experienced andknowledgeable, transitioning to a newairplane can still be challenging.• This is especially true in Experimentalairplanes, as system design, switches,controls, operation and indications may bedifferent.
Sport Aviation Safety52Federal AviationAdministrationTAXI TESTS• NOTE: All taxi tests, low and high speed,should be made as if it were the first flight.The pilot should be wearing the properclothing, seat belt/shoulder harness andhelmet and be mentally and physicallyprepared for the possibility of flight.• USE CAUTION: These tests can easily turninto a first flight!
Sport Aviation Safety53Federal AviationAdministrationFlight Testing• Flight test programs serve two purpose:– Ensure aircraft has been adequately tested anddetermined to be safe within aircraft’s flight envelope– Flight test data is used to develop accurate andcomplete Aircraft Flight Manual and to establishemergency procedures.
Sport Aviation Safety54Federal AviationAdministrationFirst FlightHigh Speed Taxi Check
Sport Aviation Safety55Federal AviationAdministrationTHE FIRST FLIGHT• The first flight is an important event for abuilder. As important as it is, it should not beturned into a social occasion.• A ‘‘professional’’ will avoid traps byfollowing the FLIGHT TEST PLAN andinviting only those members of the crewneeded to perform specialized tasks whentesting the aircraft.
Sport Aviation Safety56Federal AviationAdministrationTHE FIRST FLIGHT• A safe and uneventful first flight begins withverifying all emergency equipment andpersonnel are standing by, radiocommunications are functional, members ofthe crew are briefed, weather isideal, and the aircraft is airworthy.
Sport Aviation Safety57Federal AviationAdministrationTHE FIRST FLIGHT• The first flight should be so well-rehearsedby the test pilot and ground crew that the firstflight is a non-event.‘‘Always leave yourself a way out.’’Chuck Yeager
Sport Aviation Safety58Federal AviationAdministrationReady for First Flight?• Private Pilot• 80 TT• Cessna Aircraft• Building for 6 years• Non-Standard engineChevy V8• Non Standard propeller• Need a flight reviewVelocity
Sport Aviation Safety59Federal AviationAdministrationTHE FIRST FLIGHT• The two objectives of the first flights areto determine engine reliability and flightcontrol characteristics.• Under no circumstances should a pilottakeoff in an aircraft with knownairworthiness problems.– The Law of Aerodynamics does not oftenforgive these types of mistakes.
Sport Aviation Safety60Federal AviationAdministrationFirst Flight• Scott, I had my first flight. Attached is a pictureof the plane on its first flight.• On the first flight I had oil pressure issue and oillevel issues. Neither were to big of a problemexcept they added a great deal of concern onthe flight.• Plane flew very well.
Sport Aviation Safety61Federal AviationAdministrationThe First 10 Hours• To re-affirm the first flight• To validate the engine reliability• To build on the dataestablished by the priorflights to be added tothe aircrafts flight manual
Sport Aviation Safety62Federal AviationAdministrationThe First 11+ Hours• To re-affirm the previous flights• Continue to validate the engine reliability• To build on the data established by the priorflights to be added to the aircrafts flight manualto include:– Stalls– Climb and Decent Speeds– Slow Flight– Aircraft Configurations – Flaps, Gears, etc.– Aircraft Stability
Sport Aviation Safety63Federal AviationAdministrationThe First 40 HoursPUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER• OBJECTIVE. To develop aircraft performancedata across the weight and CG ranges
Sport Aviation Safety64Federal AviationAdministrationThe First 40+ HoursPUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER• The pilot should avoid the temptation to take a liveballast weight up for a ride before 40 hours for threereasons:(1) The aircraft has not been proven safe for the highergross weights.(2) The pilot and passenger are at great risk. It is a suresign the pilot has become complacent and sloppy in hisflight test program.(3) The pilot will be breaking a contract (OperatingLimitations) with the U.S. Government, which is knownnot to look kindly on such matters.
Sport Aviation Safety65Federal AviationAdministrationLets look at some forms ofSport Aviation and talk aboutproblem areas.What can you do to promote“Safety”
Sport Aviation Safety66Federal AviationAdministrationAccident ExamplesFuel exhaustionPowered Parachute landedin Valley Forge State Park
Sport Aviation Safety67Federal AviationAdministrationELT 14 CFR §91.207Emergency LocatorTransmitters are not requiredin many cases
Sport Aviation Safety68Federal AviationAdministrationEmergency Parachutes Don’tAlways WorkLow Altitude Acrobatics
Sport Aviation Safety69Federal AviationAdministrationAccident ExamplesWeight and LoadingThis is a flight instructor whomisjudged the vehicle’s climbperformance with the extraweight of a passenger.
Sport Aviation Safety70Federal AviationAdministrationCarburetor Icing…. It happens
Sport Aviation Safety71Federal AviationAdministrationPilot Operating Instructions• Airplanes must have the following sections:– General Information– Airplane and System Descriptions– Operating Limitations– Weight and Balance Information– Performance– Emergency Procedures– Aircraft Ground Handling and Servicing– Required Placards and Markings
Sport Aviation Safety72Federal AviationAdministration
Sport Aviation Safety73Federal AviationAdministration
Sport Aviation Safety74Federal AviationAdministrationMAINTENANCE
Sport Aviation Safety75Federal AviationAdministrationKeep the engine running• Preflight –– Good preflight planning– Good preflight inspections• Don’t tinker with your prop– Use factory settings• Carburetor –– Use factory settings• Old fuel – Auto fuel Shelf life of 90 days,Avgas 120 days.
Sport Aviation Safety76Federal AviationAdministrationIntake socket backwardType 503Intake socket cracks2 strokeIntake socket cracksand over tight 2 strokeOver tightWrong clamps
Sport Aviation Safety77Federal AviationAdministrationMissing Muffler Support Band
Sport Aviation Safety78Federal AviationAdministrationApollo Monsoon TrikeLife Limited Parts“Pit Pin”
Sport Aviation Safety79Federal AviationAdministrationGood DesignGoodNot so Good
Sport Aviation Safety80Federal AviationAdministrationGood DesignGoodNot so Good
Sport Aviation Safety81Federal AviationAdministrationGood Workmanship
Sport Aviation Safety82Federal AviationAdministrationRANS S-15Loose Ballast BagGood Workmanship
Sport Aviation Safety83Federal AviationAdministrationChaffing Fuel LineToo Much RTVGood Workmanship
Sport Aviation Safety84Federal AviationAdministrationQualt 200Search the WebAC43.13-1B
Sport Aviation Safety85Federal AviationAdministrationTransition Training for Pilots
Sport Aviation Safety86Federal AviationAdministrationWithout proper training the results canbe tragic
Sport Aviation Safety87Federal AviationAdministrationThese aircraft may require a significant amount of hours retraining,especially if a pilot hasn’t flown in many years or is unfamiliar with aircraftcharacteristics.Descent profiles, stall and spin awareness & recovery, crosswind landings,slower speeds (VH), and weight / balance should be familiar to the instructorbefore launching out with a student.FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS MAY DIFFER
Sport Aviation Safety88Federal AviationAdministrationInstruction in anExperimental Aircraft
Sport Aviation Safety89Federal AviationAdministration91.319 Experimental OperatingLimitations• (a) No person may operate an aircraft thathas an experimental Certificate-– (2) Carrying persons or property for compensation orhire.
Sport Aviation Safety90Federal AviationAdministrationLODA – Letter of Deviation Authority• The FAA may issue deviation authority providing relief fromthe provisions of paragraph (a) of 91.319 for the purpose ofconducting flight training. The FAA will issue this deviationauthority as a letter of deviation authority.• (1) The FAA may cancel or amend a letter of deviation authority atany time.• (2) An applicant must submit a request for deviation authority tothe FAA at least 60 days before the date of intended operations. Arequest for deviation authority must contain a complete descriptionof the proposed operation and justification that establishes a levelof safety equivalent to that provided under the regulations for thedeviation requested.
Sport Aviation Safety91Federal AviationAdministration
Sport Aviation Safety92Federal AviationAdministrationMaintenance Training for A&P’s• Transition training• Just as important for mechanics as pilots• Part 65 applies
Sport Aviation Safety93Federal AviationAdministrationSLSA MAINTENANCE• Sec. 65.85Airframe rating; additional privileges• [(b) A certificated mechanic with an airframe rating canapprove and return to service an airframe, or any relatedpart or appliance, of an aircraft with a special airworthinesscertificate in the light-sport category after performing andinspecting a major repair or major alteration for productsthat are not produced under an FAA approval provided thework was performed in accordance with instructionsdeveloped by the manufacturer or a person acceptable tothe FAA. ]
Sport Aviation Safety94Federal AviationAdministrationSLSA MAINTENANCE• Sec. 65.87Powerplant rating; additional privileges.• [(b) A certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating canapprove and return to service a powerplant or propeller, orany related part or appliance, of an aircraft with a specialairworthiness certificate in the light-sport category afterperforming and inspecting a major repair or majoralteration for products that are not produced under an FAAapproval, provided the work was performed in accordancewith instructions developed by the manufacturer or aperson acceptable to the FAA. ]
Sport Aviation Safety95Federal AviationAdministrationLSA Inspections• Special Light Sport (SLSA)– Annual Condition Inspections– Used For Towing or Flight Training• 100 hour inspections• Experimental Light Sport (ELSA)– Annual Condition Inspections
Sport Aviation Safety96Federal AviationAdministrationLight Sport RepairmanThere is One Light Sport Repairman Certificate.Two Ratings:–Inspection–Maintenance14 CFR Part 65.107
Sport Aviation Safety97Federal AviationAdministrationLSA Repairman Certificate• Inspection Rating– Certificate Issued To Aircraft Owner (ELSA Only)• Aircraft Class, S/N, “N” Number– Requires 16 Hours Of Training In Aircraft Class– Suspended Upon Sale Of Aircraft– Privileges• Annual Condition Inspection Of Owner’s Aircraft
Sport Aviation Safety98Federal AviationAdministrationLSA Repairman Certificate• Maintenance Rating– Issued By Class of Aircraft• Not Issued For Gyroplanes– Must Complete Required Training For Class– Privileges:• Annual Condition Inspections (Both SLSA/ELSA)• Maintenance on SLSA Aircraft By Class– 100 Hour Inspections (Towing, Flight Training)– Perform FAA Airworthiness Directives– Perform Manufacturer’s Safety Directives– Major Repair & Alterations» Only By Approval of Manufacturer
Sport Aviation Safety99Federal AviationAdministrationAnnual Condition Inspection• ELSA –– Owner With Inspection Rating– Repairman With Maintenance Rating– Airframe & Powerplant Mechanic– Appropriately Rated Part 145 Repair Station• SLSA –– Repairman With Maintenance Rating– Airframe & Powerplant Mechanic– Appropriately Rated Part 145 Repair Station
Sport Aviation Safety100Federal AviationAdministrationMaintenance-• ELSA– Anyone• SLSA– Repairman: Maintenance Rating• With The Appropriate Class– Airframe & Powerplant Mechanic• Must Meet Part 65.81 – Previously Performed– Appropriately Rated Part 145 Repair Station• Preventive Maintenance– Part 43, Appendix A (c)
Sport Aviation Safety101Federal AviationAdministrationPrecautions101
Sport Aviation Safety102Federal AviationAdministration102Maintenance Manuals• Ground Test.• Check of Liquid Levels.• Re-torque Cylinder HeadNuts.• Re-torque Exhaust ManifoldScrews.• Check of Rewind StarterRope.• Rewind Starter Dismantling.• Rewind Starter Reassembly.Contains Information Such As:Contains Information Such As:
Sport Aviation Safety103Federal AviationAdministrationRotax LMM-912
Sport Aviation Safety104Federal AviationAdministrationSummaryOur safety message is not unique to SportPilots or Sport Aircraft. We encourage theuse of all the safety tools available.
Sport Aviation Safety105Federal AviationAdministrationEAA Flight Advisor program
Sport Aviation Safety106Federal AviationAdministrationEAA Technical Counselor Program
Sport Aviation Safety107Federal AviationAdministrationFAASafety.gov
Sport Aviation Safety108Federal AviationAdministrationHope I did not forget anything !If I did, call me, Scott R. Landorf at (630) 443-3119ThanksThanksfor Havingfor HavingMe!!!Me!!!
Sport Aviation Safety109Federal AviationAdministrationLets not meet by accident!