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Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
Pilots & Weather Considerations
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Pilots & Weather Considerations

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Pilots & Weather Considerations

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  • Rich Martindell
    http://www.wild-blue-yonder.com
    619.253.7649
    May 31, 2007
    This flight originated in sunny San Diego on a Christmas trip to Oregon. Our fearless pilot did some things right and some things could have been done better, BUT in every case he used good judgment once he analyzed the situation. We’ll discuss these throughout the presentation.
  • As much as possible, we need to get the decision making process out of the subjective and into an objective set of criteia.
  • Weather that is “legal” by FARs may not be appropriate or safe for the situation a pilot is facing.
  • You set the minimums and you can change them based on the conditions if there is a good reason to do so. For instance, if you have been flying regularly you might feel comfortable lowering your minimums but if you haven’t flown for a while you definitely want to raise them. Also, minimums around your home field where you are comfortable and familiar with the area might be some what lower than what you’d want to live with on a cross country into a strange field.
  • Same as previous slide
  • Pilot, weather and environment are important considerations in setting personal minimums. Don’t let External Pressures override your sound judgment regarding the others.
  • The fearless pilot in our example knew his limitations and his aircraft’s capabilities. He was prepared to deal with the weather and fully understood that he needed to combat the external pressures of his family waiting for him in Oregon to celebrate Christmas. He left two days early for a one day trip to allow time to sit out bad weather. His trip up to Oregon from San Diego went perfectly and he was able to fly all three flights in one day. While he was in Oregon a front went through and dumped snow on his airplane as you saw in the opening picture. His mistake was to not clear the snow off the airplane as soon as it accumulated. While he was waiting for the weather to clear, snow melted and the water froze on the controls and in the starter for the engine. Once the weather broke he then had to thaw out the airplane so he enlisted the help of a local with a heated hangar. It took him longer to get going than he had planned so he only made it half way from Oregon to San Diego on the first day of his return trip. He stopped in Mojave, CA to spend the night. Again, he had time to get back to San Diego before he had to be back at work after the Christmas break.
  • This is local stuff for San Diego and Southern California. Other briefers can substitute information for their local area.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Pilots & Weather Considerations Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration 1
    • 2. Pilots & Weather Considerations Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 3. Pilots & Weather Considerations  What this seminar isn’t – Weather 101 – How to read METARs Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 4. Weather Considerations  Personal Rules to LIVE by – Bright Lines you don’t cross    Personal WX minima VFR/IFR PAVE (pre-flight planning) CARE (in-flight decision making) Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 5. Weather Considerations  Establish weather criteria in the comfort of your own home when you don’t have a specific trip in mind  Recognize the difference between “legal” and “appropriate” Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 6. Weather Considerations  Personal VFR Minimums – Ceiling – Visibility – Max X-Wind Component – Fuel Reserves (Day/Night) Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 7. Weather Considerations  Personal IFR Minimums – Precision Approaches  Ceiling (above published mins)  Visibility (above published mins) – Non-Precision Approaches – Takeoff Minimums – Fuel Reserves – Freezing Level height above cruise alt Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 8. PAVE During Pre-flight planning evaluate:  Pilot  Aircraft  enVironment  External Pressures Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 9. PAVE In pre-flight planning the PAVE checklist reminds you to consider:  Pilot: Health (IMSAFE - Illness, Medication, Stress, Alcohol, Fatigue, and Emotional state) qualifications, capabilities, currency, proficiency, IFR/VFR  Aircraft: Equipment, performance, load, fuel capacity, runway surface and length, operating ceiling, limitations Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 10. PAVE The PAVE checklist continued:  EnVironment: Weather, personal minimums, terrain, over water, high altitude operations, airspace and NOTAMs  External Pressures: Expectant host, planned meeting, special event, passengers Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 11. Elements in the PAVE checklist are cumulative. A major problem in any area is reason to cancel the flight but multiple minor problems in more than one area can also make delaying the flight a good idea. A single problem in any area should be a yellow flag to take notice but two or more problem areas should be a red flag to take action and change your plan. Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 12. CARE In flight monitor changes in the PAVE criteria and consider:  Consequences  Alternatives  Reality  External Pressures Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 13. CARE Once you’re airborne use the CARE checklist to stay on top of factors affecting the flight.  Consequences: Consider consequences of changing risk factors during the flight ( Pilot, Aircraft, EnVironment, and External pressures) and the decisions you make regarding them.  Alternatives: Have a back up when you can’t continue as planned, remembering that your alternatives will decrease as the flight progresses and you burn the fuel that will allow you to take a different route or divert Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 14. CARE The CARE checklist continued:  Reality: Maintain situational awareness and deal with the actual conditions, not what you hoped or planned would happen. Accept change and take proper action  External pressures: Other people or personal commitments cause goal oriented behavior at the expense of making good decisions. Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 15. CARE As with the PAVE checklist, items in the CARE checklist are also cumulative. While a single major problem in any area can cause a complete change of plans, minor problems in two or more items of the CARE checklist should cause you to re-evaluate the situation and take appropriate action Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 16. Weather Considerations The PAVE and CARE checklists are your virtual co-pilot, the challenging voice in the back of your head that causes you to evaluate each flight management decision you make and validate that decision against a personal standard rather than just winging it. Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 17. Weather Considerations  Local Weather Stuff – Lingering Marine Layer – Santa Ana Winds  Turbulence  Mountain Wave – Low freezing levels  Snow & Ice away from home Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 18. Weather Considerations  Would you be happy with the headline in tomorrow’s newspaper?  Would you do this with 100 paying passengers in the back? Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 19. FAASafety.gov  Register at FAASafety.gov – Document your support for the program  Attend Safety Seminars – Green Stamps in the Bank  NASA Incident Reporting – Immunity for unintentional violations – 5 year clock – Must be able to document to be able to use Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration
    • 20. Flying is not inherently dangerous, but to an even greater extent than the sea, it is terribly unforgiving of any carelessness, incapacity, or neglect. Thank you for attending. Pilots & Weather Considerations Federal Aviation Administration

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