Concept Design: June Tonsing -314-890-4815… OBJECTIVE: Present to Trainers, and Designees and General Population of Pilots of Importance re: Awareness That in Aviation as in all of Lifes challenges… there are limits… and to maintain SAFE operations…we must… MUST… be observant to remain within the boundary of safety … items discussed in this presentation… are basic concepts available in, Airplane Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-3… Aviation Instructors Handbook FAA-H-8083 confines… Loss of Control Accidents. This presentation for use to facilitate discussion is a “core” tool and “local” content is encouraged. Presentation Collaboration: Kevin Clover, Steve Keesey, June Tonsing, Producer: Felice Brunner This is the fifth in a series of FAASTeam Loss of Control educational outreach presentations. These concepts are meant to encourage awareness for Designees, CFIs and any other airman delivering training, The next few slides will discuss the components of awareness and importance of basic airmanship skills re: Transition Training
INTRODUCTION: Many Loss of Control accidents have occurred where airmen were unfamiliar with the many systems now available and can lead to finding themselves in a situation beyond their skills when the equipment fails or reaches its limits of capability. The speaker will want to touch briefly on the need to obtain adequate instruction re: how to operate this new Advanced Avionics Systems … when to use them, how these tools affect the pilot and the way the pilot flies, and as always a consideration of related Human Factors. Transition to a complex or High performance airplane often involves regulatory and/or Insurance required training and experience requirements [depending on the type/configuration of the aircraft]… It is always a good idea for the airman to obtain Ground AND Flight training from an appropriate CFI… PRIOR to venturing out on your own…
Some of the following consequences might be discussed: Loss of Control Accidents and Accident statistics -Accident/incident Speaker OPTIONAL: Discussion goals might include… Understand accidents/incidents caused by loss of control – How and why they happen. –Recognize and understand your safety margin AS it changed during flight. – Understand personal limitations and the potential results of exceeding them (Beware Hazardous Can you recognize when you are becoming too focused on one thing and missing other things. Discuss the Advantages of obtaining structured training during the transition to a Complex and/or High Performance Aircraft… statistics show pilots that take Advanced instruction during aircraft transitions, experience fewer accidents associated with equipment specific issues. Pilots are certainly a hard sell, but if we show them how the undeniable benefits far out weigh the potential costs and/or perceived inconveniences, they probably more likely to buy in, or at least demonstrate a greater sense of awareness.
Discuss local … there are usually one or two local aircraft that have some characteristics but not all. Either way… Transition training recommended.
A Stabilized Approach is one in which the pilot establishes and maintains a constant angle glide path towards a predetermined point on the runway. When you “Step-Up” to the next level aircraft… Proper instruction will [besides meeting regulatory and insurance requirements] help you feel like the MASTER of your domain… In control… and affords you a comfort level… that now you have to knowledge and skills to make the aircraft …Do what you want…when you want… [within the AFM/POH bounds] : )
Discuss Function of Flaps: Flaps work primarily by changing the camber of the airfoil since deflection adds aft camber. Flap deflection does not increase the critical (stall) angle of attack, and in some cases flap deflection actually decreases the critical angle of attack. Deflection of trailing edge control surfaces, such as the aileron, alters both lift and drag. With aileron deflection there is asymmetrical lift (rolling moment) and drag (adverse yaw). Wing Flaps differ in that deflection acts symmetrically on the airplane. There is no roll or yaw effect, and pitch changes depend on the airplane design. Pitch behavior depends on flap type, wing position, and horizontal tail location. The increased camber from flap deflection produces lift primarily on the rear position of the wing. This produces a nose down pitching moment; however, the change in tail load from the downwash deflected by the flaps wash over the horizontal tail has a significant influence on the pitching moment. Consequently, pitch behavior depends on the design features of the particular airplane. Flap deflection of up to 15 Degrees primarily produces lift with minimal drag. The tendency to balloon up with initial flap deflection is because of lift increase, but the nosedown pitching moment tends to offset the balloon. Deflection beyond 15 Degrees produces a large increase in drag. Drag from flap deflection is Parasite Drag, and as such is proportional to the square of the speed. Also, deflection beyond 15 Degrees produces a significant nose up pitching moment in most high-wing airplanes because the resulting downwash increases the airflow over the horizontal tail.
Fixed-Pitch propellers are designed for best efficiency at one speed of rotation and forward speed. This type of propeller will provide suitable performance in a narrow range of airspeeds; however, efficiency would suffer considerably outside of this range. To provide high propeller efficiency through a wide range of operation, the propeller blade angle must be controllable. The most convenient way of controlling the blade angle is by means of a constand-speed governing system.
Values are approximate
The turbocharged engine allows the pilot to maintain sufficient cruise power at high altitudes where there is less drag, which means faster true airspeeds and increased range with fuel economy. At the same time the powerplant has flexibility and can be flown at a low altitude without the increased fuel consumption of a turbine engine. When attached to the standard powerplant the turbocharger does not take any horsepower from the powerplant to operate; it is relatively simple mechanically, and some models can pressurize the cabin as well.
The primary benefits of retractable landing gear are increased climb performance and higher cruise airspeeds due to the resulting decrease in drag. Retractable landing gear systems may be operated hydraulically or electrically, or may employ a combination of the two systems. Warning systems are provided in the cockpit to show the pilot when the wheels are down and locked and when they are up and locked or intermediate positions.
Systems for emergency operation are also provided.
Group Discussion: Bragging rights…who can spit out their Gear V-speeds…. And who else knows why they exist… Answer: The complexity of the retractable landing gear system requires that specific operating procedures be adhered to and that certain operating limitations not be exceeded.
These are suggested ‘minimum’ training times
it might be appropriate to discuss OPTIONAL LOCAL: Learn how to manage Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM), create what if …scenarios.. Learn the steps to reach a successful outcome. – Learn to identify YOUR stress level and the point at which you tend to lose the big picture and focus on one thing. Consider Discussion with audience of how [best practices or personal examples] how to pull your attention back to the point… -Reduce Pilot workload / Overload – You plan to load shed ..but do you choose the right thing? Can you identify what you missed? Inc Consid L discretion:
Opportunity for discussion
Opportunity for discussion
Keep the Practical Test Standards in mind as you train and test. These windows of proficiency were developed with consideration to assure the airman has full command authority over the aircraft, [Knowledge AND Skills] The FAA bases the PTS on Minimum standards required for the test involved. Instructors tend to teach students to meet the requirements fo the PTS ..to pass the test. Valuable support knowledge is missing because the instructor was never taught… and neither were YOU… Many CFI’s have NO experience outside their own training which lead immediately to that CFI job. Their instructors also only taught the minimum. They are teaching what they learned – usually the very minimum required to pass the check ride of their favorite examiner. Now their student buys his /her own aircraft and encounters one of the many real life situations that their instructor did not cover during training. Will they live – or die. Will anyone ever look into his training beyond the fact that he passed the flight test? Probably not, pilot error, end of story, but was it or was it poor training that only met the MINIMUM standards. In aviation, we really don’t have a way to learn what we have taught someone. All the blocks are checked. However, what was the quality of the training? Was it adequate? Or was it a one time minimal demo of something the CFI was not comfortable teaching in detail.
Consider the Human Factors issues, has the airman had enough rest, other health issues, had recent meals and hydration… should you be flying at all. Is there something…’bugging you?’ Other speaker considerations for discussion Possibly, including complacency or laziness. Is illness affecting the pilot, is the pilot medicated, stress about something like money, or is the pilot under the consumption of alcohol, fatigued or lack of rest, and emotions are affecting his or her behavior. In addition, a few more human factors are hurry up and wait. Therefore, by not doing a thorough preflight instead take shortcuts by doing quick checks through acronyms instead of following the checklist, item by item. After the line guys are finished topping off the airplane, does the pilot check to make sure the fuel lids are in place and properly tightened. Other speaker consideration: The Pilot’s Health One of the best ways pilots can mitigate risk is a self evaluation to ensure they are in good health. A standardized method used in evaluating health employs the IMSAFE checklist. It can easily and effectively be used to determine physical and mental readiness for flying and provides a good overall assessment of the pilot’s well being. 1. Illness—Am I sick? Illness is an obvious pilot risk. 2. Medication—Am I taking any medicines that might affect my judgment or make me drowsy? 3. Stress—Am I under psychological pressure from the job? Do I have money, health, or family problems? Stress causes concentration and performance problems. While the regulations list medical conditions that require grounding, stress is not among them. The pilot should consider the effects of stress on performance. 4. Alcohol—Have I been drinking within 8 hours? Within 24 hours? As little as one ounce of liquor, one bottle of beer, or four ounces of wine can impair flying skills. Alcohol also renders a pilot more susceptible to disorientation and hypoxia. 5. Fatigue—Am I tired and not adequately rested? Fatigue continues to be one of the most insidious hazards to flight safety, as it may not be apparent to a pilot until serious errors are made. 6. Emotion—Have I experienced any emotionally upsetting event? Risk Management Handbook FAA-8083-2 page 3-3 and 3-4.
skills and knowledge that each pilot should have in their basic toolkit. …Accidents are most often the result of some sort of distraction – and there are many in flight ( Discussion opportunity here) Pilot Response may vary depending on AS for the numbers – if we could “Download” what the pilot was ‘thinking’, doing, managing, not managing or trying to accomplish, ..at the time of the accident…We could be better at knowing all of the causes of Loss of Control accident/incidents… So at best we have to work to be better.. Improve awareness, Improve Quality of Training, Quality of Testing. And Shared Responsibility owning an IMPROVED Safety Culture.
Loss of control Series: Transition Complex
Federal AviationAdministrationLoss of ControlEducation SeriesTransition TrainingComplex Aircraft
Federal AviationAdministration2August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingObjective- Awareness & Discussion• The advantages of Structured Training• Wing Flaps• Controllable-pitch Propeller• Turbo-charging• Retractable Landing-gear• Transition Training• HF – Human Factors
Federal AviationAdministration3August 24, 2012 Transition Training
Federal AviationAdministration4August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingComplex vs. High PerformanceComplex:• RetractableLanding Gear• Wing Flapsand• Controllable pitchPropellerHigh Performance:• An airplane withan engine havingmore than200 Horse-power
Federal AviationAdministration5August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingTransition Training• Constant angle glide-path• Vigilance for deviations from desired glide-path• Pilot to make slight and frequent adjustments.
Federal AviationAdministration6August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingWing Flaps• Obtain training fromappropriate CFI• Learn how various Flapconfigurations affectyour aircraft.• Gain Knowledge andSkill for use.• WINGS -PilotProficiency Program
Federal AviationAdministration7August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingControllable Pitch Propeller
Federal AviationAdministration8August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingBlade Angle Range
Federal AviationAdministration10August 24, 2012 Transition Training
Federal AviationAdministration11August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingRetractable Landing Gear
Federal AviationAdministration12August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingLanding Gear -Preflight view
Federal AviationAdministration13August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingEmergency Gear Extension
Federal AviationAdministration14August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingComponents
Federal AviationAdministration15August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingStructure – Airspeed Limitations
Federal AviationAdministration16August 24, 2012 Transition Training
Federal AviationAdministration17August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingADM
Federal AviationAdministration18August 24, 2012 Transition Training… Things we should know better- Why can’t I see the gear lights …- My Flaps are stuck down…can I take off ?- What is my new approach V-speed withPartial or No-Flap ?
Federal AviationAdministration19August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingHow the new features affect …• The way you make decisions• Now system manager• Enhance pilot awareness of the aircraft– Systems,– Position,– Surroundings.
Federal AviationAdministration20August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingPractical Test StandardsPTSPTS
Federal AviationAdministration21August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingHuman FactorsHF
Federal AviationAdministration22August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingREVIEW -•The need for Instruction when transitioning toComplex or High Performance Aircraft• Get Instruction on unfamiliar -Systems•We talked about appropriate use of various systems•Best Practices in use of Advanced Systems•HF – Human Factors
Federal AviationAdministration23August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingQuestions- Additional Discussion
Federal AviationAdministration24August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingThank YouWe Welcome your Feedback[Enter feedback link here]
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