Loss of Control Series: MultiEngnie


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Loss of Control Series: MultiEngnie

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  • Concept Design: June Tonsing -314-890-4815… OBJECTIVE: Present to Trainers, and Designees and General Population of Pilots of Importance re: Awareness That in Aviation as in all of Life's challenges… there are limits… and to maintain SAFE operations…we must… MUST… be observant to remain within the boundary of safety … items discussed in this presentation… are basic concepts available in, Airplane Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-3… Aviation Instructors Handbook FAA-H-8083 confines… Loss of Control Accidents. This presentation for use to facilitate discussion is a “core” tool and “local” content is encouraged. Presentation Collaboration: Kevin Clover, June Tonsing, Producer: Felice Brunner This is the fifth in a series of FAASTeam Loss of Control educational outreach presentations. These concepts are meant to encourage awareness for Designees, CFIs and any other airman delivering training, The next few slides will discuss the components of awareness and importance of basic airmanship skills re: Transition Training – Multi-Engine
  • INTRODUCTION: Many Loss of Control accidents have occurred where airmen were unfamiliar with the many systems now available and can lead to finding themselves in a situation beyond their skills when the equipment fails or reaches its limits of capability. The speaker will want to touch briefly on the need to obtain adequate instruction re: how to operate Multi-Engine Aircraft … nd as always a consideration of related Human Factors.
  • Some of the following consequences might be discussed: Loss of Control Accidents and Accident statistics -Accident/incident  Speaker OPTIONAL: Discussion goals might include… Understand accidents/incidents caused by loss of control – How and why they happen. –Recognize and understand your safety margin AS it changed during flight. – Understand personal limitations and the potential results of exceeding them (Beware Hazardous Can you recognize when you are becoming too focused on one thing and missing other things. Pilots are certainly a hard sell, but if we show them how the undeniable benefits far out weigh the potential costs and/or perceived inconveniences, they probably more likely to buy in, or at least demonstrate a greater sense of awareness. 
  • it might be appropriate to discuss OPTIONAL LOCAL: Learn how to manage Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM), create what if …scenarios.. Learn the steps to reach a successful outcome. – Learn to identify YOUR stress level and the point at which you tend to lose the big picture and focus on one thing. Consider Discussion with audience of how [best practices or personal examples] how to pull your attention back to the point… -Reduce Pilot workload / Overload – You plan to load shed ..but do you choose the right thing? Can you identify what you missed?
  • The basic difference between operating a multi-engine airplane and a single-engine airplane is the potential problem involving an engine failure.
  • The penalties for loss of an engine are two-fold; performance and control. The most obvious problem is the loss of 50% of power, which reduces climb performance 80 to 90 percent, sometimes even more. The other is the control problem caused by the remaining thrust, which is now asymmetrical. Attention to both of these factors is crucial to safe One Engine Inoperative (OEI) flight. The performance and systems redundancy of a multi-engine aircraft is a safety advantage only to a trained and Proficient pilot.
  • Addition of Vmc, Minimum Control Speed with the Critical Engine Inoperative…Marked with Red line on Airspeed indicator…. AND Vyse Best Rate-of-Climb speed with one engine inoperative. Marked with Blue line on Airspeed indicator…When above the Single engine Service ceiling…Vyse yields the minimum rate of sink.
  • Train with an appropriately rated CFI…that is experienced in Your make aircraft… and adhere to AFM/POH guidance.
  • Consider you already have a yaw situation… get Instruction from an appropriately rated and experienced CFI…learn your systems…and know when to balance your fuel..when to “Cross-feed’ Fuel
  • Follow specific make/model guidance for your aircraft
  • Climb performance is greatly reduced if correct actions and control input is not applied…
  • See configuration
  • Optional Slide
  • Optional slide
  • Your Instructor will show you the best method to determine performance considerations, and develop a habit of checking performance capabilities for “Conditions for that Flight” PRIOR to FLIGHT
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12 Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Not all multi-engine airplanes have published Accelerate- Go distances in their AFM/POH, and fewer still publish climb gradients. When such information is published, the figures will have been determined under ideal flight testing conditions…It is unlikely that this performance will be duplicated in service conditions. : additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Optional Slide: additional information found in… FAA-H-8083-3 Chapter 12
  • Keep the Practical Test Standards in mind as you train and test. These windows of proficiency were developed with consideration to assure the airman has full command authority over the aircraft, [Knowledge AND Skills] The FAA bases the PTS on Minimum standards required for the test involved. Instructors tend to teach students to meet the requirements fo the PTS ..to pass the test. Valuable support knowledge is missing because the instructor was never taught… and neither were YOU… Many CFI’s have NO experience outside their own training which lead immediately to that CFI job. Their instructors also only taught the minimum. They are teaching what they learned – usually the very minimum required to pass the check ride of their favorite examiner. Now their student buys his /her own aircraft and encounters one of the many real life situations that their instructor did not cover during training. Will they live – or die. Will anyone ever look into his training beyond the fact that he passed the flight test? Probably not, pilot error, end of story, but was it or was it poor training that only met the MINIMUM standards. In aviation, we really don’t have a way to learn what we have taught someone. All the blocks are checked. However, what was the quality of the training? Was it adequate? Or was it a one time minimal demo of something the CFI was not comfortable teaching in detail.
  • Consider the Human Factors issues, has the airman had enough rest, other health issues, had recent meals and hydration… should you be flying at all. Is there something…’bugging you?’ Other speaker considerations for discussion Possibly, including complacency or laziness. Is illness affecting the pilot, is the pilot medicated, stress about something like money, or is the pilot under the consumption of alcohol, fatigued or lack of rest, and emotions are affecting his or her behavior. In addition, a few more human factors are hurry up and wait. Therefore, by not doing a thorough preflight instead take shortcuts by doing quick checks through acronyms instead of following the checklist, item by item. After the line guys are finished topping off the airplane, does the pilot check to make sure the fuel lids are in place and properly tightened. Other speaker consideration: The Pilot’s Health One of the best ways pilots can mitigate risk is a self evaluation to ensure they are in good health. A standardized method used in evaluating health employs the IMSAFE checklist. It can easily and effectively be used to determine physical and mental readiness for flying and provides a good overall assessment of the pilot’s well being. 1. Illness—Am I sick? Illness is an obvious pilot risk. 2. Medication—Am I taking any medicines that might affect my judgment or make me drowsy? 3. Stress—Am I under psychological pressure from the job? Do I have money, health, or family problems? Stress causes concentration and performance problems. While the regulations list medical conditions that require grounding, stress is not among them. The pilot should consider the effects of stress on performance. 4. Alcohol—Have I been drinking within 8 hours? Within 24 hours? As little as one ounce of liquor, one bottle of beer, or four ounces of wine can impair flying skills. Alcohol also renders a pilot more susceptible to disorientation and hypoxia. 5. Fatigue—Am I tired and not adequately rested? Fatigue continues to be one of the most insidious hazards to flight safety, as it may not be apparent to a pilot until serious errors are made. 6. Emotion—Have I experienced any emotionally upsetting event? Risk Management Handbook FAA-8083-2 page 3-3 and 3-4.
  • Review and discuss critical questions from the audience
  • Loss of Control Series: MultiEngnie

    1. 1. Federal AviationAdministrationLoss of ControlEducation SeriesTransition TrainingMulti-Engine Aircraft
    2. 2. Federal AviationAdministration2August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingObjective- Awareness & Discussion• The Difference between Singleand Multi-Engine Training• Single Engine Performance• Additional V-speeds• Complex Fuel Systems• Accelerate “go” ?• HF – Human Factors
    3. 3. Federal AviationAdministration3August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    4. 4. Federal AviationAdministration4August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingADM
    5. 5. Federal AviationAdministration5August 24, 2012 Transition Training… Things we should know better- Why is this aircraft …in a yaw !!!- How do you identify the“Inoperative Engine”
    6. 6. Federal AviationAdministration6August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingThe basic difference
    7. 7. Federal AviationAdministration7August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    8. 8. Federal AviationAdministration8August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingRed line….Blue line• What are mymemory –firstaction itemswhen faced withengine fail• at Blue line?• Below Blue line?
    9. 9. Federal AviationAdministration9August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingExample Engine-out check-list
    10. 10. Federal AviationAdministration10August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingEngine Out – Fuel Balance?
    11. 11. Federal AviationAdministration11August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingExample Engine out checklist
    12. 12. Federal AviationAdministration12August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingClimb Performance
    13. 13. Federal AviationAdministration13August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingLower Drag
    14. 14. Federal AviationAdministration14August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    15. 15. Federal AviationAdministration15August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    16. 16. Federal AviationAdministration16August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    17. 17. Federal AviationAdministration17August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    18. 18. Federal AviationAdministration18August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingAccelerate - GO
    19. 19. Federal AviationAdministration19August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingGo - Around
    20. 20. Federal AviationAdministration20August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    21. 21. Federal AviationAdministration21August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingEngine Fail Take-off- Unable to climb
    22. 22. Federal AviationAdministration22August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    23. 23. Federal AviationAdministration23August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    24. 24. Federal AviationAdministration24August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingPropeller System
    25. 25. Federal AviationAdministration25August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    26. 26. Federal AviationAdministration26August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    27. 27. Federal AviationAdministration27August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    28. 28. Federal AviationAdministration28August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    29. 29. Federal AviationAdministration29August 24, 2012 Transition Training
    30. 30. Federal AviationAdministration30August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingPractical Test StandardsPTSPTS
    31. 31. Federal AviationAdministration31August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingHuman FactorsHF
    32. 32. Federal AviationAdministration32August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingREVIEW -•The Difference between Single andMulti-Engine Training•Single Engine Performance•Additional V-speeds•Complex Fuel Systems•Accelerate “go” ?•HF – Human Factors
    33. 33. Federal AviationAdministration33August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingQuestions- Additional Discussion
    34. 34. Federal AviationAdministration34August 24, 2012 Transition TrainingThank YouWe Welcome your Feedback[Enter feedback link here]