Welcome to “Line Up and Wait” – Formerly Taxi into Position and Hold, this Program will provide Taxi authorization and Runway Clearance Guidance for Airmen. Two Major Procedural changes are incorporated in the current revision to this course. A Safety Risk Management (SRM) panel was convened consisting of representatives from the Air Traffic Organization Terminal Services and the Flight Standards Service, and certain specialists, including experts in aviation human factors. The SRM panel conducted a study comprising analysis of risk and development of mitigations. The changes affect Taxi and Ground Movement Operations – Now requiring an ATC clearance prior to crossing ANY runway - Active, Inactive or Closed. In addition the course addresses the change concerning harmonization between the FAA and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) you will learn about the procedural change from “taxi into position and hold (TIPH)” to “line up and wait (LUAW)”. Authors Name: June Tonsing in cooperation with Runway Safety. Date: original - March 19, 2007 (Revised 8/2/2010) Phone No. 314-890-3815 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org PP 07051102
Our Objectives in this program are to Review and consider: Best Practices during taxi operations, Air Traffic Control Procedures and Phraseology, Pilot Responsibility, Awareness of airport markings and pilot responsibilities regrding Precision Obstacle Free Zone, Part 91 and Part 135 Single-Pilot Procedures during Taxi Operations, Use of Standard Operating Procedures during taxi operations, and best practices for avoidance of runway incursions.
Approval must be obtained prior to moving an aircraft or vehicle onto the movement area during hours an Airport Traffic Control Tower is in operation.
Always state your position on the airport when calling the tower for taxi instructions.
The movement area is normally described in local bulletins issued by the airport manager or control tower. These bulletins may be found in FSS’s, fixed base operators offices, air carrier offices, and operations offices.
This example shows Controlled Area AT TOWERED AIRPORTS (WITH the TOWER OPERATING)– There are THREE DISTINCT AREAS (dimensions may vary depending on airport certification. NON-MOVEMENT, MOVEMENT AND RUNWAY SAFETY AREA THINK OF THEM AS BUFFERS MOVEMENT/NON-MOVEMENT MARKINGS DEFINE the BOUNDARY OF ATC CONTROL HOLD MARKINGS DEFINE THE BOUNDARY OF THE RUNWAY SAFETY AREA AND ARE NORMALLY 250 FEET FROM runway CENTERLINE… WHICH BUILDS A MARGIN OF SAFETY FOR TAKEOFF AND LANDING TRAFFIC. The RUNWAY HOLD SIGN AFFORDS “VERTICAL” DEVELOPMENT TO HELP LOCATE THE HOLD MARKINGS HOLD SIGNS WILL ALWAYS BE CO-LOCATED WITH HOLD MARKINGS AND ALWAYS BE ON LEFT SIDE OF the TAXIWAY; COULD BE ON BOTH SIDES RUNWAY HOLD SIGNS AND MARKINGS MAY BE ON BOTH SIDES OF THE RUNWAY MANY RUNWAYS ALSO HAVE AN ENTRY POINT FOR ground vehicles.
If an airport diagram has been developed… have the diagram readily available during taxi operations. These charts are available from many sources. You can obtain them – free of- charge, on the internet, at WWW.naco.faa.gov
The Control Tower Issues bulletins describing areas where they cannot provide ATC service due to nonvisibility or other reasons.
Clearance is Required Prior to taxiing on a runway, taking off, or landing during hours an Airport Traffic Control Tower is in operation.
IF YOU ONLY TAKE ONE THING AWAY FROM THIS Program, KNOW AND UNDERSTAND THE MEANING OF THIS MARKING. The runway hold marking is the most critical marking on any airport Towered or Non-Towered… It defines the boundaries of the Runway Safety Area. 75% of all Pilot Deviations result from a failure to comply with this marking.
Try this to help you remember, At solid lines …wait for clearance before crossing. At dashed lines – clear the runway to the taxiway. Stop solidly at the solid lines… Dash across the dashed lines.
A recent change in ground operations communications requirements…Taxi instructions and runway crossing clearance are required prior to crossing ANY runway whether it is active, inactive or closed…during taxi and ground movement operations, Pilots can expect ATC to issue the route for the aircraft or vehicle to follow on the movement area…
This change establishes the requirement that an explicit runway crossing clearance be issued for each runway crossing whether it is (active / inactive or closed),
… and requires an aircraft or vehicle to have crossed the previous runway before another runway crossing clearance may be issued.
When authorizing an aircraft to taxi to an assigned takeoff runway, Air Traffic Control will specify the departure runway followed by the specific taxi route. “Taxi To…” - ATC will specify… Runway Issue taxi instructions Hold short instructions
Air Traffic Control will issue hold short restrictions when an aircraft will be required to hold short of a runway or other points along the taxi route.
Practice Question Time! What does this airport sign indicate?
You are on Taxiway Alpha “A”… This taxiway Location Sign: Indicates the taxiway you are on. This sign may be co-located with direction signs or runway holding position signs, as shown in the graphic.
Now lets review ATC Procedures & Phraseology Air Traffic Controllers are required to obtain from the pilot a read back of all runway hold short instructions.
If a pilot is expected to hold short of a runway approach area or ILS holding position, ATC will issue instructions. This will occur when the ILS is in use AND the Weather is less than 800 feet and 2 miles visibility Advisory Circular 120-57, Surface Movement Guidance and Control System, commonly known as SMGCS requires a low visibility taxi plan for any airport which has takeoff or landing operations in less than 1,200 feet runway visual range (RVR) visibility conditions. These plans, which affect aircrew and vehicle operators, may incorporate additional lighting, markings and procedures to control airport surface traffic. They will be addressed at two levels; operations less than 1,200 feet RVR to 600 feet RVR and operations less than 600 feet RVR.
ATC will normally withhold landing clearances on a runway while another aircraft is holding on the same runway. This policy varies, our guidance to you is to “Listen Up” to the other radio communications to be alert for potential conflict with your position. Remember if you find yourself with a Line up and wait clearance… WAITING on the runway for longer than two minutes you may be in danger… Ask ATC!
ATC will issue traffic advisories to aircraft holding in position and to aircraft holding, departing, or arriving on an intersecting runway.
AFTER LANDING The tower will issue the pilot instructions which will permit the aircraft to enter another taxiway, runway, or ramp area when required.
AFTER LANDING Exit the runway without delay at the first available taxiway or on a taxiway as instructed by ATC. (AIM) At controlled airports, air traffic may clear a pilot to land and hold short of a runway or taxiway intersection. Pilots may accept such a clearance provided that the pilot-in-command determines that the aircraft can safety land and stop within the Available Landing Distance (ALD). ALD data are published in the special notices section of the Airport /Facility Directory (A/FD) and in the U.S. Terminal Procedures Publications. Controllers will also provide ALD data upon request. Student Pilots or pilots not familiar with Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) should not participate in the program.
Pilots shall not exit the landing runway onto another runway unless specifically authorized by ATC. Some locations may provide this information on ATIS.
With operating control tower: Pilots should not stop or reverse course on the runway without first obtaining ATC approval. Pilots can reject a take off with out ATC approval in case of an abnormal or emergency situation.
Taxi clear of the runway unless otherwise directed by ATC. An aircraft is considered clear of the runway when all parts of the aircraft are past the hold markings.
In the absence of ATC instructions, the pilot is expected to taxi clear of the landing runway by taxiing beyond the runway holding position markings… associated with the landing runway, even if that requires the aircraft to protrude into or cross another taxiway or ramp area. Once all parts of the aircraft have crossed the runway holding position markings, the pilot must hold unless further instructions have been issued by ATC.
When advised by the tower immediately change to ground control frequency and obtain a taxi clearance. The tower will issue instructions required to resolve any potential conflicts with other ground traffic prior to advising the pilot to contact ground control.
Pilots are required to read back taxi instructions and runway crossing clearance…Pilots not familiar with the taxi route should request “Progressive Taxi”. The pilot will then receive assistance in the form of additional specific taxi instructions from ATC.
ATC clearances or instructions pertaining to taxiing are predicated on known traffic and known physical airport conditions. Therefore, it is important that pilots clearly understand the clearance or instruction. Although an ATC clearance is issued for taxiing purposes, when operating in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR’s) it is the responsibility of the pilot to avoid collision with other aircraft. Since “the pilot-in-command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft” the pilot should obtain clarification of any clearance or instruction that is not understood.
What do these taxiway centerline markings indicate?
Enhanced Taxiway Centerline Markings are used mostly at larger airports. These markings indicate that the aircraft is approaching a runway. Prior to a runway holding position marking, the taxiway centerline will be “enhanced” to include a set of yellow dashed lines.
Good operating practice dictates that pilots acknowledge all runway crossing, hold short, or takeoff clearances unless there is some misunderstanding, at which time the pilot should query the controller until the clearance is understood.
FAA NOTICE N JO 7110.536 Effective September 30, 2010, implements the policy change in accordance with the Runway Safety Call-to-Action Committee recommendations and the Safety Risk Management (SRM) document, this change replaces TIPH with LUAW…
We have all been used to hearing “Taxi into position and hold”… now we will only hear “Line up and wait”…
When cleared to “line up and wait” a pilot should anticipate an imminent takeoff clearance. A pilot should ask ATC about any unexplained delay in receiving that clearance.
To protect yourself you will want to create the “best” visual profile you can to ATC and potential conflicting traffic. Taxi into position slightly off-center of the runway centerline with taxi and landing lights (if able) directed toward the tower. Keep in mind there are other pilots from commercial operations that have a culture and Standard Operating Procedures with strict guidance regarding use of taxi and landing lights. For example: taxi lights are turned on when the aircraft is beginning to move under its own power to taxi. Landing lights are turned on when the takeoff roll begins. This set of protocols does not protect the smaller profile aircraft regarding showing as large a visual target as possible. Of course it is courteous to turn off your landing lights if you think you may be blinding another pilot during night operations. But also consider the height of your aircraft to the opposing aircraft and consider that your aircraft may “ sit” too low to shine lights into that 747 cockpit.
When holding short and when holding in position a pilot should be especially attentive to all radio transmissions from ATC, as well as acknowledgements from other aircraft.
This runway incursion accident, where an aircraft, holding in position was struck from behind by a departing aircraft. (STL 11/1994) Pilots operating a single pilot aircraft should monitor only assigned ATC communications after being cleared onto the active runway for departure. Single pilot aircraft should not monitor other than ATC communications until flight from Class B, Class C or Class D surface area is completed. This same procedure should be practiced from after receipt of the clearance for landing until the landing and taxi activities are complete. Proper effective scanning for other aircraft, surface vehicles, or other objects should be continuously exercised in all cases.
If the pilot is unfamiliar with the airport or for any reason confusion exists as to the correct taxi routing, a request may be made for progressive taxi instructions which include step-by-step routing directions. Progressive instructions may also be issued if the controller deems is necessary due to traffic or field conditions; i.e. Construction or closed taxiways
What does this taxiway marking indicate?
Holding Position Markings for Taxiway and Taxiway intersections indicate an area where aircraft can be held short of a taxiway intersection. If instructed by ATC to hold short of a taxiway, the pilot must stop the aircraft BEFORE it crosses the taxiway holding lines.
At airports with the requirement for two-way communications…when radio communications cannot be established, pilots shall obtain a clearance by visual light signal prior to taxiing on a runway and prior to takeoff and landing.
Steady Green lights authorize: Movement of Vehicles, Equipment & Personnel Cleared to cross proceed or go Aircraft on the Ground – Cleared for Takeoff Aircraft in Flight – Cleared to Land
Flashing Green lights authorize: Movement of Vehicles , Equipment & Personnel Not applicable Aircraft on the Ground – Cleared for Taxi Aircraft in Flight – Return for landing ( to be followed by steady green at the proper time)
Steady Red lights authorize: Movement of Vehicles , Equipment & Personnel STOP Aircraft on the Ground – STOP Aircraft in Flight – Give way to other aircraft and continue circling
Flashing Red lights authorize: Movement of Vehicles , Equipment & Personnel Clear the taxiway/runway Aircraft on the Ground – Taxi clear of the runway in use Aircraft in Flight – Airport unsafe, do not land
Flashing White lights authorize: Movement of Vehicles , Equipment & Personnel Return to starting point on airport Aircraft on the Ground – Return to starting point on airport Aircraft in Flight – Not Applicable
Alternating Red and Green lights authorize: Movement of Vehicles , Equipment & Personnel Exercise Extreme Caution Aircraft on the Ground – Exercise Extreme Caution Aircraft in Flight – Exercise Extreme Caution
Pilots and aircraft operators should be constantly aware that during certain low visibility conditions the movement of aircraft and vehicles on airports may not be visible to the tower controller. This may prevent visual confirmation of an aircraft’s adherence to taxi instructions.
It is important for pilots to notify the controller when difficulties are encountered or at the first indication of becoming disoriented. Pilots should proceed with extreme caution when taxiing toward the sun. When vision difficulties are encountered pilots should immediately inform the controller.
At all times but especially when low visibility conditions exist , pilots should focus their entire attention on the safe operation of the aircraft while it is moving. Checklists and nonessential communication should be withheld until the aircraft is stopped and the brakes set. Keep in mind there are a few aircraft with systems which require the aircraft to be moving to accomplish a successful test, these tests usually fall within the taxi checklist.
To avoid interfering with Precision Approach Guidance: The POFZ Must be clear when: An aircraft on vertically guided final apch Within 2 NM of the runway threshold AND - Reported ceiling is below 250 feet OR – Visibility less than ¾ SM OR – Runway Visual Range below 4,000 ft The POFZ is considered clear even if the wing of the aircraft holding on a taxiway waiting for runway clearance penetrates the POFZ
However, neither fuselage nor the tail may infringe on the POFZ. The POFZ is applicable at all runway ends including displaced thresholds.
This example of Standard Airport Signs and Markings for the POFZ… Advisory Circular 150/5340-1J and AC 150/5340-18D provide additional guidance.
If a hold position is used to protect the POFZ, an ILS hold is used. Note the location of the POFZ marking relative to the Runway holding marking.
The potential for runway incidents and accidents can be reduced through adequate planning, coordination, and communication. The following guidelines are intended to help pilots cope more effectively with current airport conditions during taxi operations. All pilots will benefit from this guidance, which is grouped into five major categories: Planning, Situational Awareness, Use of Written Taxi Instructions, ATC/Pilot Communication, and Taxiing.
Now lets review, Standard Operating Procedures for Runway Incursion Prevention
SOPs provide a structure that helps to decrease the probability of human error and capture errors before they result in a runway incursion. By applying SOPs to surface operations, pilots can reduce the probability of a runway inccursion by increasing and maintaining situational awareness. Situational awareness is a continuous process of attentiveness and survellance.
The SOPs contained in AC 91-73A, are designed to help pilots use all available resources to detect and correct errors – both their own, pilots of other aircraft, and air traffic controllers – BEFORE the errors result in a runway incursion. Implementation of these SOPs is a low-cost action with a potential for a high return in a reduction of incidents.
Pilots should give themselves a pre-taxi/departure briefing that includes the expected taxi route and restrictions.
After taxi clearance has been received Determine: Runway assigned Any Restrictions Taxi Route If in doubt, seek clarification from ATC.
It is no secret. When a flight crew’s attention is diverted from the task of flying, the chance of error increases. Over the years there have been dozens of air carrier accidents that occurred when the crew diverted attention from the task at hand and became occupied with items totally unrelated to flying. Consequently, important things were missed. Things like setting the flaps prior to takeoff, or extending the landing gear before landing. Things like monitoring altitude on an instrument approach, or using engine anti-ice for takeoff during a blinding snow storm.
In 1981 the FAA enacted FAR 121.542 and FAR 135.100 to help curb the number of these accidents. Commonly known as the “sterile cockpit rule”, these regulations specifically prohibit crew member performance of non-essential duties or activities while the aircraft is involved in taxi, takeoff, landing, and all other flight operations conducted below 10,000 feet MSL, except cruise flight. We recommend as a Best Practice for you to practice the sterile cockpit concept, especially during taxi.
Have Airport Diagram out and ready for use.
When approaching an active runway Verify compliance with hold short or crossing clearance. Discontinue other tasks, programming GPS or Flight Management System FMS or company radio calls.
Prior to crossing or taxiing onto any runway visually scan the runway and approach area. And “Look Both ways…”
Read back all clearances/ instructions to: Enter a specific runway Hold Short of a Runway Taxi onto a runway for “line up and wait” Include the Runway designator.
Do Not acknowledge ATC instructions or clearances by using call sign and “Roger” or “Wilco” The use of Standard Radio Phraseology as outlined in the AIM – Pilot/Controller Glossary improves communication clarity.
When entering a runway after being cleared for takeoff, or when taxiing onto the runway for a “line up and wait” clearance, make your aircraft more conspicuous to aircraft on final behind you and to ATC by turning on lights (especially landing lights) that highlight your aircraft’s silhouette. Remember to be courteous regarding your lights and other pilots night vision… and many commercial operators have Standard Operating Procedures SOPs to turn on taxi lights when taxiing and turn on landing lights when rolling for takeoff… You must make this decision for your own safety, which lights on will be most appropriate.
Be vigilant when instructed to taxi onto a runway for “line up & wait”: At night During Reduced Visibility Scan full length of the Runway Scan for aircraft on final approach when taxiing onto a runway either end or intersection. Contact ATC with concerns. When “waiting on the runway for takeoff clearance” consider pointing the aircraft slightly off runway centerline and toward the tower with your lights on for better visibility to the controller.
Be vigilant when instructed to taxi onto a runway “line up & wait” for a reason : Wake Turbulence Traffic on an intersecting Runway Another aircraft is on the runway You should expect an imminent takeoff clearance, unless advised of a delay. Contact ATC with concerns.
Be vigilant when instructed to taxi onto a runway “line up & wait” if traffic is a factor : The tower is required to inform you of the closest traffic that is cleared to land. Touch and go Stop and Go Or Low approach on the same runway Note position of that aircraft & elapsed time while waiting for takeoff clearance
NOTE: FAA analysis of accidents and incidents involving aircraft holding in position indicate TWO MINUTES or more elapsed between the time the instruction was issued t…and the resulting event ATC should advise you of any delay in receiving your takeoff clearance… while holding on the runway. Pilots should consider the length of time that they have been holding on the runway…. whenever they HAVE NOT been advised of any expected delay to determine when it is appropriate to query the controller.
To signal intent to aircraft downfield, turn on landing lights when cleared for takeoff. Turn on taxi light when the aircraft is moving or intending to move on the ground, and turn it off when stopped, yeilding, or as a considedration to other pilots or ground personnel.
At night use edge lights to distinguish between taxiways ( blue ) and runways (white)
Prior to turning onto that taxiway or beginning your take-off roll: Verify Compass heading to confirm proper runway or taxiway selection
When on final approach, actively monitor the assigned Tower Frequency (or CTAF) for potential conflicts involving your runway. And do not accept last minute turnoff instructions from the tower unless you clearly understand the instructions and are certain that you can comply. When operating at times when the tower is closed or at a non-towered airport, consider a means to verify potential conflicting traffic.
Related Publications: AC 91-73A Single-Pilot Procedures During Taxi Operations AC 120-74 Flightcrew Procedures During Taxi Operations Notice JO 7110.528 Taxi and Ground Movement Operations
Related Publications: AC 90-42 Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports without Operating Control Towers AC 90-66 Recommended standard traffic patterns & practices for aeronautical operations at airports without operating control towers. NOTICE JO 7110.536 Line Up and Wait Operations (LUAW) Effective Sept 30, 2010 The Runway Incursion Information Evaluation Program has been Renewed – FAA plans to forego punitive legal enforcement for pilots and maintenance technicians who are involved in a runway incursion – see the Federal Register Notice for more information.
The Central Region FAA Safety Team (FAASTeam) is dedicated to Quality Customer Service and we would value your feedback Please provide your feedback at: WWW. faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_ offices/avs/offices/afs/qms
Thank you for participating in the Safety Program: Check out our website: FAASAFETY.gov
Federal AviationAdministrationLine Up and WaitLUAW(Formerly TIPH)Taxi Authorization &Runway ClearanceGuidance for Airmen
Federal AviationAdministration2Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Objective: Review and Consider Taxiing - General ATC Procedures and Phraseology Pilot Responsibilities Precision Obstacle Free Zone (POFZ) Part 91 and Part 135 Single-PilotProcedures during Taxi Operations Use of SOP’s During Taxi Operations Runway Incursion Surveillance
Federal AviationAdministration3Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Taxiing - GeneralApproval must be obtained prior to movingan aircraft or vehicle onto the movementarea during hours an Airport Traffic ControlTower is in operation.TaxiwaysRamp
Federal AviationAdministration4Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Taxiing – Communication RequiredAlways state your position on theairport when calling the tower fortaxi instructions.
Federal AviationAdministration5Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Taxiing – Movement AreaThe movement area is normallydescribed in local bulletins issuedby the airport manager or controltower. These bulletins may be foundin FSS’s, fixed base operatorsoffices, air carrier offices, andoperations offices.
Federal AviationAdministration6Line Up And Wait - LUAW201027927Apron – Non Movement AreaA 9 D 27B 9-27 C 9-27250’1,000250’1,0009 EVehicularentrypointWith Runway Hold Markings & Hold Position SignsTaxiways - Movement AreaRunways – Runway Safety AreaControlled Areas
Federal AviationAdministration7Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Taxi - ChartNACO.faa.gov
Federal AviationAdministration8Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010The Control TowerIssues bulletins describing areaswhere they cannot provide ATCservice due to nonvisibility orother reasons.
Federal AviationAdministration9Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Clearance RequiredPrior to taxiing on a runway, takingoff, or landing during hours anAirport Traffic Control Tower isin operation.
Federal AviationAdministration10Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Runway Hold MarkingIt Defines the Boundaries of the Runway Safety Area!The Runway Hold Marking is the Most Critical Markingon Any Airport ……Towered or Non-Towered!75% of ALLPilot DeviationsResult From AFailure toComply WithThis Marking!
Federal AviationAdministration11Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Hol Marking Guidance dStop Solidly at Solid linesSTOPSOLIDLYAT THESOLIDLINESDASHACROSSTHEDASHEDLINES
Federal AviationAdministration12Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010“Taxi and Ground MovementOperations…”ATC willissue the routefor the aircraft tofollow on themovement area…
Federal AviationAdministration13Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010“Taxi and Ground MovementOperations…”This changeestablishes therequirement …explicit runwaycrossing clearancebe issued…
Federal AviationAdministration14Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010“Taxi and Ground MovementOperations…”…and requires theaircraft to havecrossed the previousrunway … beforeanother runwaycrossing clearancemay be issued.
Federal AviationAdministration15Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010ATC will specify…• Runway• Issue taxi instructions• Runway crossing clearances• Hold short instructionsWhen authorizing an aircraft toproceed on the movement area.
Federal AviationAdministration16Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010ATC will issue hold short ……of a runwayor other pointsalong the taxi route.
Federal AviationAdministration17Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Practice QuestionWhat does thisairport signindicate?
Federal AviationAdministration18Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Taxiway Location Sign
Federal AviationAdministration19Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010ATC Procedures & PhraseologyAir Traffic Controllers are required toobtain from the pilot a read back ofall runway hold short instructions.
Federal AviationAdministration20Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010ATC Procedures & PhraseologyIf a pilot is expected tohold short of a runwayapproach area or ILSholding position, ATCwill issue instructions.
Federal AviationAdministration21Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010ATC Procedures & PhraseologyATC will normallywithhold landingclearances on arunway whileanother aircraft isholding on the samerunway.
Federal AviationAdministration22Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010ATC Procedures & Phraseology• ATC will issue trafficadvisories to aircraftholding in position andto aircraft holding,departing, or arrivingon an intersectingrunway.
Federal AviationAdministration23Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010AFTER LANDING:The tower will issue the pilotspecific instructions which willpermit the aircraft to enteranother taxiway, runway, orramp area when required.
Federal AviationAdministration24Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010AFTER LANDING:Exit the runway withoutdelay at the first availabletaxiway or on a taxiway asinstructed by ATC. (AIM)If No LAHSO: It’s Your Runway Full Length
Federal AviationAdministration25Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010AFTER LANDING:Pilots shall not exit the landing runwayonto another runway unlessauthorized by ATC.
Federal AviationAdministration26Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010AFTER LANDING:With operating control tower:Pilots should not stop orreverse course on therunway without firstobtaining ATC approval.EXCEPT for Rejected Take off
Federal AviationAdministration27Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010AFTER LANDING:Taxi clear of the runwayunless otherwise directedby ATC.
Federal AviationAdministration28Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010AFTER LANDING:In the absence of ATCinstructions, the pilot isexpected to taxi clear of thelanding runway by taxiingbeyond the runway holdingposition markings…
Federal AviationAdministration29Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010AFTER LANDING:When advised by the towerimmediately change toground control frequencyand obtain a taxi clearance.
Federal AviationAdministration30Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010AFTER LANDING:Read back taxiinstructions andrunway crossingclearance…
Federal AviationAdministration31Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010“The pilot-in-commandof an aircraft is directlyresponsible for, andis the final authorityas to the operationof any aircraft”Pilot Responsibility
Federal AviationAdministration32Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Practice QuestionWhat do these taxiway centerline markings indicate?
Federal AviationAdministration33Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Answer
Federal AviationAdministration34Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Acknowledge All ClearancesEppley Airfield, Omaha, Nebraska
Federal AviationAdministration35Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010No longer“taxi into position and hold”“line up and wait…”
Federal AviationAdministration36Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010No longer“taxi into position and hold”“line up and wait…”
Federal AviationAdministration37Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Taxi Into Position and hold“line up and wait…”
Federal AviationAdministration38Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Taxi Into Position and Hold“line up and wait…”
Federal AviationAdministration39Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010When holding in position…Pilot Responsibility
Federal AviationAdministration40Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Pilots operating single pilot aircraft
Federal AviationAdministration41Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Unfamiliar with the airport?
Federal AviationAdministration42Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Practice QuestionWhat does this taxiway marking indicate
Federal AviationAdministration43Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Answer
Federal AviationAdministration44Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Light Gun Signals
Federal AviationAdministration45Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Color & Type ofSignalSteady GreenMovementof VehiclesAircraft onthe GroundAircraft inFlightCleared Cleared Cleared to landFlashing GreenSteady RedFlashing RedFlashing WhiteAlternatingRed & GreenN/A Cleared Return for landingSTOP STOP Give way - circleCleartaxiway/runwayTaxi clear ofrunway in useAirport unsafe,do not landReturn to startpoint on airportReturn to startpoint on airportN/AExerciseExtreme cautionExerciseExtreme cautionExercise Extremecaution
Federal AviationAdministration46Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Steady GreenMovement of Vehicles, Equipment & PersonnelCleared to cross proceed or goAircraft on the Ground –Cleared for TakeoffAircraft in Flight –Cleared to Land
Federal AviationAdministration47Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Flashing GreenMovement of Vehicles, Equipment & PersonnelNot applicableAircraft on the Ground –Cleared for TaxiAircraft in Flight –Return for landing ( to befollowed by steady green at the proper time)
Federal AviationAdministration48Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Steady RedMovement of Vehicles, Equipment & PersonnelSTOPAircraft on the Ground –STOPAircraft in Flight –Give way to other aircraft andcontinue circling
Federal AviationAdministration49Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Flashing RedMovement of Vehicles, Equipment & PersonnelClear the taxiway/runwayAircraft on the Ground –Taxi clear of the runway in useAircraft in Flight –Airport unsafe, do not land
Federal AviationAdministration50Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Flashing WhiteMovement of Vehicles, Equipment & PersonnelReturn to starting point on airportAircraft on the Ground –Return to starting point on airportAircraft in Flight –Not Applicable
Federal AviationAdministration51Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Alternating Red and GreenMovement of Vehicles, Equipment & PersonnelExercise Extreme CautionAircraft on the Ground –Exercise Extreme CautionAircraft in Flight –Exercise Extreme Caution
Federal AviationAdministration52Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Taxi During Low visibility
Federal AviationAdministration53Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010FOG
Federal AviationAdministration54Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010When low visibility conditions exist
Federal AviationAdministration55Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Precision Obstacle Free Zone(POFZ)Must be clear when:• An aircraft on vertically guided final apch• Within 2 NM of the runway threshold• AND - Reported ceiling is below 250 feet• OR – Visibility less than ¾ SM• OR – Runway Visual Range below 4,000 ft
Federal AviationAdministration56Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Precision Obstacle Free Zone
Federal AviationAdministration57Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Sign Standards for POFZ
Federal AviationAdministration58Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Airport Marking for POFZ
Federal AviationAdministration59Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Part 91 & 135 Single-PilotProcedures during Taxi OperationsAdvisory Circular 91-73 A1. Planning2. Situational Awareness3. Use of Written Taxi Instructions4. ATC/ Pilot Communication5. Taxiing
Federal AviationAdministration60Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Standard Operating Proceduresfor Runway Incursion Prevention
Federal AviationAdministration61Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Use of SOP’s During Taxi
Federal AviationAdministration62Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Situational Awareness• The location of the aircraft•Weather•Traffic•The clearance from Air Traffic Control ATC•All other factors that affect the safety of flight
Federal AviationAdministration63Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Pre-Taxi/Departure Briefing
Federal AviationAdministration64Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010After taxi clearance hasbeen receivedDetermine:• Runway assigned• Any Restrictions• Taxi RouteIf in doubt, seek clarificationfrom ATC.
Federal AviationAdministration65Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Observe “Sterile Cockpit”Especially While Taxiing
Federal AviationAdministration66Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Observe “Sterile Cockpit”Especially WhileTaxiing
Federal AviationAdministration67Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Airport DiagramHave Airport Diagramout and readyfor use.
Federal AviationAdministration68Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010When approaching an active runway• Verify compliance with hold short orcrossing clearance.• Discontinue other tasks, programming GPSor Flight Management System FMS orcompany radio calls.
Federal AviationAdministration69Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010“Look Both ways…”
Federal AviationAdministration70Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Runway Incursion SurveillanceRead back all clearances/ instructions to:• Enter a specific runway• Hold Short of a Runway• Taxi onto runway for “line up and wait”• Include the Runway designator.
Federal AviationAdministration71Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Runway Incursion SurveillanceDo Not :acknowledge instructionsor clearancesby using call signand “Roger” or “Wilco”
Federal AviationAdministration72Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Runway Incursion SurveillanceMake your aircraft more conspicuous…
Federal AviationAdministration73Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Runway Incursion SurveillanceBe vigilant when instructed to taxi onto arunway for “line up & wait”:• At night• During Reduced Visibility• Scan full length of the Runway• Scan for aircraft on final approach whentaxiing onto a runway either end orintersection.• Contact ATC with concerns.
Federal AviationAdministration74Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010“line up and wait” for a reasonBe vigilant :• Wake Turbulence• Traffic on an intersecting Runway• Another aircraft is on the runway• You should expect an imminent takeoffclearance, unless advised of a delay.• Contact ATC with concerns.
Federal AviationAdministration75Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010“line up and wait”when traffic is a factorBe vigilant :• The tower is required to inform you ofthe closest traffic that is cleared to land.• Touch and go• Stop and Go• Or Low approach on the same runway• Note position of that aircraft & elapsedtime while waiting for takeoff clearance
Federal AviationAdministration76Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Runway Incursion SurveillanceNOTE:FAA analysis of accidents and incidentsinvolving aircraft holding in positionindicate TWO MINUTESor more elapsed between the timethe instruction was issuedand the resulting event
Federal AviationAdministration77Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Runway Incursion SurveillanceTo signal Intent – Turn on lights
Federal AviationAdministration78Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Runway Incursion SurveillanceAt night use edge lights to distinguish betweentaxiways (blue) and runways (white)
Federal AviationAdministration79Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Verify Compass headingconfirm proper runway or taxiway selection.
Federal AviationAdministration80Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Monitor assigned Tower Frequency
Federal AviationAdministration81Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Related Publications• AC 91-73A Single-Pilot Procedures DuringTaxi Operations• AC 120-74 Flight crew Procedures DuringTaxi Operations• Notice JO 7110.528 Taxi and GroundMovement Operations
Federal AviationAdministration82Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Related Publications• AC 90-42 Traffic Advisory Practices atAirports without Operating Control Towers• AC 90-66 Recommended standard trafficpatterns & practices for aeronauticaloperations at airports without operatingcontrol towers.• NOTICE JO 7110.536 Line Up and WaitOperations (LUAW) Effective Sept 30, 2010
Federal AviationAdministration83Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Quality Customer ServiceThe Central Region FAA Safety Team(FAASTeam) is dedicated toQuality Customer Service andwe would value your feedback.Please provide your feedback at:WWW. faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/qms
Federal AviationAdministration84Line Up And Wait - LUAW2010Thank You For AttendingFederal Aviation AdministrationFederal Aviation AdministrationSafety Team (FAASTeam)Safety Team (FAASTeam)Thanks You for participating