Safety Management Systems (SMS) Fundamentals: Promotion


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  • The 4th Component of an SMS; is Safety Promotion.
    Earlier when we defined the components, the fourth component Safety Promotion didn’t have its’ own ellipse, because it infuses the other three Components. It may be considered like the oil in an engine. Safety Promotion permeates the entire SMS; it’s woven throughout the organization – the platform and foundation for a successful SMS.
    Management must promote a positive safety culture as a core value, and embed a sound safety culture into the operational sphere of an organization.
  • A good definition of Safety Promotion includes training, and knowledge sharing activities in support of the implementation and operation of an SMS in an organization. Saying safety promotion is the equivalent of saying safety activities! To be credible safety activities must be visibly supported at all levels of management, from the Top down, and must be effective and sustainable.
    During the implementation and continued operation of the SMS, organizations need to:
    Promote safety as a core value of the organization, and
    Embed a sound positive safety culture into the minds of the employees.
    Employees must embrace the concept of safety. They must feel they are an essential part – that their absence would create a hole in the organization’s mission. Most importantly, employees must believe and practice that when no one is looking, they still perform their job in the safe and correct manner, for the safety of themselves and the safety of the organization.
    If you think about these points, you will discover that most of them can be managed, by the organization, once they are identified as hazards in the workplace conditions.
  • Safety Culture also permeates an organization, runs across all SMS Components, and must be considered in the discussion of any SMS. Safety Culture relies, to a large degree, on safety Training and Communication.
    SMS, training should be developed in the context of the employee’s SMS roles and responsibilities; that is, all employees need to know the practical application of SMS components…
    …to include the how and why the company uses them.
    Explaining why safety actions are taken…
    …which develops an awareness of hazards…
    …and fosters the open discussion and reporting of safety concerns.
    Finally, accomplishment of initial and recurrent training.
    The “context of the employee’s SMS roles and responsibilities”. Generally, means that a safety department employee will probably need more in the way of detailed SMS training, such as safety risk analysis, system evaluation, and management system assessment as well as data mining, auditing, inspections, etc.
    Line managers may need to know the potential consequences of failure (How bad will our mistakes hurt us?) and system failure modes (what do hazardous conditions look like?)
    The Rank and File Employees may not need such detailed training. They may only need an overview of SMS Fundamentals for their operational department, that is, the hazardous aspects and safety critical tasks of their job, knowledge that it’s their responsibility to identify and report safety concerns, knowledge of how the organization’s non-punitive employee reporting system works and knowledge about how to provide feedback.
    It is the responsibility of the organizations management to make the determination of “how much training is enough.”
  • What is competency? AC 120-92 has a three sentence definition of competency that boils down to the skills, knowledge and abilities that an individual needs to perform occupational work successfully.
    What does this mean to an aviation service provider?
    It means that the organization should identify the skills, knowledge and abilities, the competencies, needed for the employee group.
    In order to gain critical SMS skills within your work force, you may either train existing employees or hire employees with the pre-existing skills…the criteria, selection and expected standards of each position and employee are left up to the organization.
    In the training arena…
    …the SMS competencies should be addressed just like your other training competencies to ensure…
    …that SMS skill competency is included in initial, recurrent and continuous training programs.
    We have talked about what SMS subjects to train and about how much training and when. Remember that these are all to be determined by the organization.
    Now, how do you know if your SMS competencies and training are on target? Audits are used to ensure, that the levels of competency and training to operate equipment and facilities safely are adequate and that the required levels of safety performance are being maintained.
  • Training for safety involves more than just “being safe out there”, and more than just the training administered as part of employees technical function, for example crew member training, mechanic training or pilot training.
    The “Instructional System Design” model, sometimes called the ADDIE model, is a standard training development tool.
    SMS training should be developed, using the SRM process, based on system/task description and analysis. This is derived from identifying the process, identifying the activities, identifying the workplace conditions that exist, and the safety critical job tasks.
    The “Analyze” segment of the ISD process then uses the safety critical job tasks, competencies, and the target audience to determine the training that will be necessary.
    The “Design” segment will consider the above training tasks, qualification standards, Courseware, etc.
    The “Develop” segment should consider the Training Medium, Lessons, Exercises, Activities, Tests, Evaluations, and so forth.
    The “Implement” segment brings us to the Safety Assurance component of the SMS. It should monitor the effectiveness of the training program, through things like training delivery, performance assessments, records, testing, and qualification demonstrations..
    The “Evaluate” segment of the ISD process is also a Safety Assurance component of the SMS. It should assess the effectiveness of the training program, through things like student evaluations & critiques, instructor critiques, On-the-Job-Training, and performance observations of trained personnel, etc.
  • Please consider the aspects of managements commitment to the Company’s SMS – the old adage about “Management must lead by example.”, is as appropriate today as it ever was.
    You can not buy or dictate a positive safety culture, it must be earned and two way Communication is paramount.
    Management must lead the way and employees must continuously see, hear and feel the presence of management in the safety management effort. It’s important to create a sense of ownership so that all employees make a personal investment in the organization because they know that management has made a personal investment.
    Managements attitude and actions speak louder than words.
  • Safety Management Systems (SMS) Fundamentals: Promotion

    1. 1. SMS Details: Federal Aviation Administration Safety Promotion Component Policy (Structure) Risk Management Safety Assurance Safety Promotion Federal Aviation Administration SL-1
    2. 2. Promotion: Definition Safety Promotion = a combination of: • Training and • Knowledge Sharing Activities that support the implementation and operation of SMS in an organization. Organizations must promote safety as a core value with practices that support a positive safety culture. Federal Aviation Administration SL-2
    3. 3. Training and Communication! • Employees must understand the SMS • Employees benefit from safety lessons learned • Explain why particular actions are taken • Develop awareness of hazards • Foster open reporting of safety concerns • Initial and ongoing training Federal Aviation Administration SL-3
    4. 4. Personnel Competencies and SMS Training • Identification of competency requirements • Selection and hiring criteria and standards • Training • Skill competency – Initial training – Recurrent training – Continuous training Federal Aviation Administration SL-4
    5. 5. ISD Processes SMS Processes Analyze SRM: System/ Task Description & Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate •Safety Critical Job Tasks •Competencies (KSA’s, etc) •Target audience characteristics •Training Tasks •Qualification Standards (SRM Risk Control) •Courseware •Medium •Lessons, Exercises, Activities •Tests, Evaluations SA: Monitoring •Training Delivery •Records •Testing/Qualifying SA: Assessment •Student Evaluation/critique •Instructor Critique •OJT & performance observations Federal Aviation Administration SL-5
    6. 6. Commitment to SMS • Documents alone will not guarantee development of a positive safety culture. • Employees must see evidence of management commitment to SMS. Management Attitudes & Actions = the most important factor. ICAO Doc. 9859 Federal Aviation Administration SL-6
    7. 7. Commitment to SMS • Documents alone will not guarantee development of a positive safety culture. • Employees must see evidence of management commitment to SMS. Management Attitudes & Actions = the most important factor. ICAO Doc. 9859 Federal Aviation Administration SL-6