2012/12/11-024 (I) PP Original Author: Jim Hein, FAASTeam Program Manager; POC Phil Randall, AFS-850, Greensboro FSDO, 336-369-3948; Revision 1, 03/13/2013, by Peter Wilhelmson, AFS-850 NOTE: Presenter may omit Behavior and Style segment, (Slides 26-46) if they feel uncomfortable or not proficient enough to present..
Present the objectives
These are the 12 human factors listed by the Canadian Department of Transport that affect maintenance safety. They are called the Dirty Dozen. You see that Lack of Communication is one of the Dirty Dozen. How often do you think “communications” is mentioned as either “the problem” or “the safety net” in these 12 dirty dozen?
Communication is mentioned 38 times as indicated by each number adjacent to each Dirty Dozen. This indicates the need for effective communication in order to avoid maintenance human error attributed to the “dirty dozen”.
So the answer to the question “Is communications important?”, is a resounding YES!!
Read the slide. Ask the audience to give examples. Go to next slide
Discuss any or all with audience participation. Possibly provide or ask participants to provide an example of any/or all
Read the slide. Ask the audience to give examples then go to next slide.
Read slide…………..most self explanatory, however tactile feedback refers to touch……….such as a “pat’ on the back
Consider what your life would be like if you were unable to communicate effectively with others. This situation unfortunately is the case in many organizations. Whether because of physical, organizational, or personal barriers, many operations suffer the effects of poor communication. The inability to communicate stifles both individual and organizational development and causes conflict. In some cases poor communication may contribute to an unsafe work environment that we want you to avoid as a professional aviation maintenance technician. Many maintenance organizations and technicians feel they have good communication skills. Do you? However, one must first understand the complete communication process to make a proper assessment. The definition above means that if what you are trying to say is not clearly understood, then you have not really communicated. There is more to the process of communication than simply verbalizing your thoughts.
Transition into the elements
There are five elements that make up the communication Process: 1. Need 2. Sender 3. Receiver 4. Feedback 5. Barriers
Discuss five elements that make up the communication process: NEED – SENDER – RECEIVER – FEEDBACK - BARRIERS
1. Need – Normally the sender is motivated by the conscious recognition of an external or internal stimulus. Something triggers the thought or idea to create the need to communicate. For example if you are turning over an incomplete maintenance task to night shift mechanic you realize communication is critical to assure the receiver understands what you did and what you didn’t do so the task is continued and completed error free.
Sender – The sender then goes through the process of encoding, or converting the stimulus into a form of communication. At this point the sender should ask two very important questions: “What is it that should be said?” and “How should I say it?” In other words the sender must formulate the content and select the delivery that would most effectively carry the message. Theses two factors, content and delivery, must compliment each other in order to have effective communication occur. Consider someone who treats everything as urgent. At first, individuals will respond to the urgency appropriately. Then after they realize that even routine communications are treated as urgent, they will begin to ignore the implied urgency. The same applies to the interpersonal communication of technicians working together. The message and delivery between coworkers must be appropriate if the desired outcome is to be achieved. Improper delivery can distort the message and lead to inaccurate information being communicated. This could cost time, money, or resources and can cause ill feelings among coworkers. The term normally associated with this imbalance is “mixed message.” A listener could interpret the message several ways depending on whether they focused on the delivery (how it was said) or the message (what was said). The sender bears a great responsibility in making sure that the delivery compliments and supports the message. Making sure that the message and the delivery are balanced will help the listener focus on what is important and will help you transfer your thoughts, feelings or ideas into a readily and clearly understood communication.
Receiver – The receiver is the person or persons for whom the message is intended. The receiver’s primary objective should be to accurately decode the message. To accomplish this, the receiver must attempt to understand the make-up of the sender’s filter’s, analyze the delivery and message, weigh them all together, and accurately interpret the message. It is important to understand that the receiver encounters every barrier the sender does and must work equally as hard to overcome these barriers. Every individual has different knowledge levels, experiences, and perceptions. We all view events from a different frame of reference. How we perceive things can be the greatest barrier to communication. Therefore, it is the responsibility of both the sender and the receiver to work to overcome their differences and complete the communication process. To be good communicators, both the sender and the receiver must be actively involved in the process.
Feedback – Feedback completes the communication loop. It gives the sender and the receiver the assurance that the message was accurately transmitted and received. The sender and the receiver both bear a responsibility to ensure that accurate communication occurred. It is usually the sender that requests some indication from the receiver that the message was received. Feedback from the receiver to the sender is extremely critical because it is the opportunity for both parties to make sure they agree on the message. If this portion of the communication is skipped, there is no guarantee that the message sent is the message that was received. Another potential problem at this step is when the sender settles for indefinite feedback.
Indefinite feedback occurs when the sender settles for less than clear acknowledgement of understanding from the receiver. The receiver will usually acknowledge with words or phrases such as, “yes,” “I think so,” “maybe,” “okay,” or a simple nod of the head. With this type of feedback, there is no guarantee of understanding. Often poor feedback is accepted due to familiarity with the receiver, or a fear of being too assertive. In the maintenance career field, the sender should not give the receiver the benefit of the doubt and assume that the message is understood. This assumption can be costly so verification of understanding is critical. Fear of asking for feedback is another error on the sender’s part. Fear can be due to the sender’s personality style, lack of experience, lack of knowledge, or familiarity or unfamiliarity with the receiver. Remember that it is the responsibility of both the sender and the receiver to make sure that the message is accurately received and decoded.
Express that this can lead to maintenance error……………….especially if work in progress is handed off to another AMT without clear written/or verbal turnovers.
Internal barriers are those within us. These internal barriers are the filters through which we view and judge the world. Our likes, dislikes, biases, prejudices, are internal barriers unique to each of us. Consider a large group of technicians in a hanger socializing. Put yourself in one corner with a few technicians involved in conversation. All of a sudden you hear your name being mentioned in a group on the other side of the hanger. Why is it you became so aware of their conversation you heard your name? The truth is you were subconsciously aware of their conversation but were filtering it out so you could pay attention to the conversation you were involved in. Only when your brain recognized and registered your name, did it become important enough for you to really listen to what was being said. This is a normal physiological response. Our auditory system is impacted every second of the day with sound “bytes”. Whether in the hanger or on the flight line, we have learned to be selective about what sounds we consider important enough to give attention . Each individual operates a filtering system that allows them to hear or tune in what they think is important. At any given moment, and individual’s experience, knowledge level, and degree of alertness can contribute to “tuning in” what they feel is important, and “tuning out” what they feel is unimportant. This is often referred to as selective listening.
First Bullet: This process is usually more recognizable in our personal lives. For instance, parents learn to tune out certain communication or behavior from their children while the same noise made by someone else's child can be irritating and distracting. Spouses learn when it is important to really listen to each other and when they can tune out communication. However, in both cases tuning out can cause undesirable results. (LOL) Second Bullet: This filtering or fine-tuning can also have a very negative effect in the workplace. If each individual selectively hears only what he wants to hear, or what he thinks is important, how can there be assurance that everyone is safe and aware of potential dangers? The only way is with training. Individuals must be trained to apply common filters in the workplace. As children, we are taught that certain sounds and words deserve attention. Sounds such as a police siren, fire alarm, and school bell evoked a certain response from us. Words like stop, no, hot, fire, and run got our attention very quickly. The reason is that we were trained to listen and give immediate recognition to them. .
First Bullet: More efficiency, productivity, quality and SAFETY can be achieved in the workplace if everyone is trained to give attention to certain communication processes and signals in the work environment. Every work environment contains risks that over time may be taken for granted. Poor or inadequate training can allow complacency to build and block or distort clear recognition of danger. The stronger the barrier, the stronger the stimulus needed to penetrate it. Therefore, each technician must be trained in proper operational procedures and danger recognition in order to develop and apply the correct responses. Second Bullet: Many individual filters are by-products of experience. Understanding that past experiences shape who we are has been the basis of behavior studies since the mid 1880’s. It is now realized that the way we communicate is largely based on self-perception, along with our perception of the person or persons with whom we are attempting to communicate. As the old saying goes, “the eye sees what the mind tells it to see.” In other words, what we think about others will affect our perception of, and interactions, with them. To complicate this further, we all see things differently because, for the most part, we have all had different experiences.
Message sent based on Sender Experience may be perceived differently by Receiver due to experience differences: Context shift.
Message Received based on Receiver Experience may be skewed by variations in Receiver experience: Context shift.
The average technician has very little control over most of these issues. What can be controlled is the communication process. If you are communicating or someone is trying to communicate with you, take the necessary action to alleviate as much distraction as possible. When possible, leave a noisy area, or delay the conversation until you can talk without shouting. If weather conditions or crows are affecting communication, take the time to relocate to a more suitable environment, or again, delay the conversation if possible. In the long run, the time used to relocate may save you or someone else a lot of trouble. The use of an inter-phone system will sometimes help with environmental issues, but not always. Never take chances. When you are not absolutely sure that you or a coworker understands the instructions, do whatever is necessary to gain complete understanding. If the barrier is lighting, hangar layout, or cleanliness, it should be brought to management’s attention as a safety issue. Work to identify external barriers, and alleviate those that have a negative affect on communications.
NOTE: FPM or Presenter may omit of this segment, (Slides 26-46 Behavior and Style) if they feel uncomfortable or not proficient enough to present.
How we perceive others to be affects how we communicate with them. And, their perception of us affects how they communicate in return. If perceptions concerning the receiver are inaccurate, we may fail to communicate effectively. For instance, if we assume that an individual is a task-oriented self-starter who needs little instruction, we may abbreviate our message or we may not request as much feedback as we might otherwise. We develop a false sense of comfort and fail to follow through in our communication process. When in fact, the individual may be withdrawn and require a great deal of instruction in order to feel comfortable in your communication process. All obstacles to obtaining feedback must be overcome if the communication process is to be completed. And completing the communication process is essential for improving efficiency and safety.
Communication styles vary among individuals and are often the source of our communication problems. A review of the various personality style surveys will begin to give some insight into our own style, as well as the styles of those with whom we must live and work … communicate with. We often cast individuals as “having an attitude”, when in fact we have simply not been using the appropriate communication style to reach that individual. Understanding communication styles and their effect on our ability to give and get feedback will take us a long way in improving our communications, and improving our understanding and tolerance of others. When attitudes wont’ change and communications efforts have no effect then alternative methods to reach the individual must be investigated
Transition into effective communication
Discuss human assets for communication. ………………………..note the ratio
An individual’s ability to listen will ultimately determine how successfully they are in communicating. Research indicate that people have the ability to process information four to five times faster than the average person can speak. This is why the average person’s mind wanders during conversation. As the mind wanders, the focus on communication is lost and miscommunication can occur. After 24 hours the average person will understand and retain only 50% of a conversation. Within 48 hours this drops to 25%. In order to be an effective listener, skills must be developed to counteract the natural tendency for our thoughts to drift. We will offer some tools to help prevent our minds from wandering.
PREPARATION: Preparing to listen seems like a strange task; however, it is necessary In order to gain the full benefit of communication. Knowing the speaker and the topic is the first step in preparation. If you know you are going to attend an important meeting or a lengthy presentation, research your speaker and the topic. Being able to compare your notes with the speaker’s information gives you an active role to help hold your attention. Even with in a one-on-one conversation that you dread, the same advice applies. The more you know about the sender and the subject the better off you will be. Preparation also includes getting enough sleep, eating, going to the restroom, dressing comfortably, or clearing your schedule. These actions make sure your biological functions and time constraints do not distract you. TAKING NOTES: Recording primary and secondary objectives of the message can help with current situational awareness and future clarification. It also shows the speaker that you are interested in the topic and have a sincere desire to understand. This tool can work for one-on-one conversation as well. However, it may be beneficial to ask the sender if note taking will be an annoyance or distraction.
OBSERVING BODY LANGUAGE: This is an opportunity to practice your communication skills. Become an active observer; watch the sender’s eye contact, posture and hand gestures. A skilled listener will use these cues to determine the intensity of the message and the sender’s attitude. In other words, sum up the messenger’s real intentions beyond the words by observing their body language. You may see a hidden meaning behind the message, as well as how the communication process is affecting the sender. If you think the sender is talking around a subject, you can open up the conversation by remarking on your observations. The sender may either deny or affirm your suspicions, but will also be aware of how in touch you are with the conversation. FEEDBACK, REPEATING, PARAPHRASING: Develop the habit of repeating or paraphrasing the sender’s thoughts. This commits you to really listening to the message, shows your interest, and checks your understanding. However, doing this every minute or so will cause unacceptable interruptions and will have a negative effect on the sender. Timing should be gauged properly; normally paraphrase after main points, not in the middle of a thought. Also, resist the tendency to repeat verbatim what the sender said. Rote repetition does not guarantee understanding, and too much of it could make you look silly. Remember that good listening skills will put the sender at ease. It is important to realize that the listener is just as responsible for getting the correct information as the sender is for providing it.
REMOVE DISTRACTIONS: Take the time to assess the environment and surrounding areas to consider if the possibility of distractions exists. If so, make every effort to relocate and or remove the distracting elements that surround you.
Be cautious not to misinterpret and be distracted by the body language. This can reduce the effectiveness of communication.
To communicate verbally is to utter words or articulate sounds with the voice. Expressing thought, opinions, or feelings orally – talking – is verbal communication. There are several elements of verbal communication that are often taken for granted. Many consider them to be instinctive; however, they are learned speed patterns or habits that have been formed over the years. Changing habit patterns requires commitment and practice. If an improvement in communication skills is desired, then observing how you currently use these elements and noting needed improvements is the first step in the process of change. The elements addressed here are considered to be crucial to the communication process. Others may come to mind; however, these are the fundamental elements necessary for a message to be successful. To improve communication skills, these elements must be identified and considered prior to sending a message. TONE: Is the pitch used when communicating verbally. It is often associated with emotion or state of frustration, and it can make a dramatic difference in how the receiver decodes the message. Most individuals translate tone as a personal indicator of how the sender feels about them. For instance, if the sender’s tone suggests anger, the receiver may become defensive until additional processing is accomplished or other cues transfer the direction of the anger away from the receiver. Using excessive tone changes distorts the message and distracts the receiver; it may sound as if the sender is trying to sing the message.
If the opposite occurs and the sender never changes pitch, the transmission is called monotone. This type of delivery may result in the message being interpreted as unimportant. Also, the receiver will tire of listening and may be easily distracted. Tone changes must be used to emphasize important items. They are extremely helpful in maintaining the receiver’s attention and ensuring the correct message is sent. Tone is an important part of your delivery. It must match the message and the receiver’s communication style. VOLUME: Volume is a signal in itself. Someone yelling usually gets attention immediately. Volume is also used to indicate emotion. High volume accompanied by a harsh tone can immediately trigger a defensive mechanism, and the receiver may begin to respond to the emotional signal rather than the real message. Volume coupled with the tone will determine how your message is received. Of the in work situations, we find it necessary to shout. Experience shows trying to communicate by shouting is not the safest or most efficient form of communication. Whenever possible, shouting should be avoided. The time required to connect to the inter-phone is nothing when compared to the time wasted or injury caused by poor communication. If the volume is excessively low or high the message may be distorted or misinterpreted. Consideration should be give to the environment when determining a comfortable volume for both the sender and the receiver.
SPEED: The speed of transmission must compliment the message. If the message is delivered too quickly, The receiver may not be able to process it correctly. If delivery is too slow, the receiver may become anxious and try to fill in gaps, which ultimately interrupts the message. Controlling the speed of the message can determine the success of your communication.
CLARITY: Clarity is defined as precision of thought or expression. It is using exactly the right words in precisely the right way. In haste to send a message, the sender may fail to choose the most appropriate wording. Poor word choice can lead to mixed messages and bruised feelings. When considering the proper wording, you must consider the receiver and what frame of reference will be used to decode the message. Your words should be at the appropriate level for the receiver’s understanding. Using words above or below the receiver’s normal communication level will distract from the clarity of the message. TERMINOLOGY Each industry has technical or special terms used to identify elements, events or items specific to it alone, and or industry is among the worst. In some cases individual aircraft manufacturers have developed their own terminology. Add to this the fact there is more cultural diversity in the workplace than ever before, and you quickly realize that to communicate effectively, the diversity of the industry and culture must be taken into consideration. The sender must use terms the receiver can understand or must explain as necessary the terminology used in the message. When unsure of the receiver’s background, it is better to use d common terminology that is readily understood by all.
TERMINOLOGY: Each industry has technical or special terms used to identify elements, events or items specific to it alone, and or industry is among the worst. In some cases individual aircraft manufacturers have developed their own terminology. Add to this the fact there is more cultural diversity in the workplace than ever before, and you quickly realize that to communicate effectively, the diversity of the industry and culture must be taken into consideration. The sender must use terms the receiver can understand or must explain as necessary the terminology used in the message. When unsure of the receiver’s background, it is better to use d common terminology that is readily understood by all.
CONCISENESS: Concise is defined as marked by brevity or expression or statement: free from all elaboration and superfluous details In other words, to be concise, say what needs to be said and no more. Unnecessary detail can before the listener and take away the real meaning of the message. On the other hand, being brief or too the point may seem rude, or indifferent. Getting to know your receiver will help you determine how concise you really need to be. Remember that feedback should be obtained to ensure that the proper message was received.
Without giving thought, every individual communicates non-verbally. When you enter your place of work each morning you send an unspoken message to coworkers concerning your physical and mental state. If you are smiling, greeting people nicely, and showing some energy in your step, then you appear to be feeling well both mentally and physically. If you are slumped over with face drawn, not greeting coworkers, generally unresponsive and slow in movement, then you appear to be in poor physical or mental condition – or maybe both. Of course, the more familiar you are with an individual, the better your ability to interpret his/her body language. Remember, all of us send nonverbal messages whether we intend to or not.
EYE CONTACT: Communication specialists indicate that the ideal length of time for maintaining eye contact between sender and receiver is 90% of the communication time. To hold eye contact longer causes intimidation or discomfort, and to hold it for less time could be interpreted as inattention. Giving someone your full attention while sending or receiving a message give importance to the message and shows a desire for understanding. Appropriate use of eye contact can also demand the sender or receiver’s attention. Often you can determine the importance of the message being delivered by observing the message expressed in the sender’s eyes.
HAND GESTURES : When used appropriately, hand gestures can add significant value to a message. When used inappropriately, they are distracting and obtrusive. Hand gestures show enthusiasm, direct attention to detail, and emphasize key points. When not being used, hands should be placed in an open and neutral position. Interlocked fingers are thought to be a power position. Avoid doing this if you are trying to pull someone into a conversation or solicit ideas and opinions. Tapping fingers annoys some people and could imply a lack of interest, boredom, lack of time, and frustration. Very similar to this is the habit of clicking fingernails together or tapping with a pen, pencil, or any other object. Slapping your thighs with your hands or constantly rubbing your neck can be interpreted as a lack of interest. Try to avoid excessive movement, but if you do need to shift, stretch, or turn, explaining why may put the other party at ease. When gestures and movement do not add to a message, every effort should be made to avoid them.
FACIAL EXPRESSION : Facial expressions are excellent for showing interest, concern, enthusiasm and intensity. Unfortunately they also show boredom, anxiety, fatigue, and frustration. Being aware of the message you are sending through your facial expression can be critical to the communication process. When engaged in a conversation, the importance and sincerity of the message can be identified through facial expression. Tilting the head, raising the eyebrows, smiling, nodding back and forth, squinting the eyes, and general changes of facial expression are all tolls that can be used to show involvement in the conversation. By watching the other person’s expression, you can determine their mood and often their attitude toward the topic of the conversation.
POSTURE: Posture can show attention boredom, anxiety, energy, alertness, understanding and current frame of mind. It can make a difference as to whether people communicate with you or not. The nonverbal message sent by posture will either invite communication or ward it off. No one likes to be considered intrusive. If you make others feel uncomfortable, chances are they will go out of their way to avoid you. Posture should be considered when sitting or standing. Your posture should be open, comfortable, and relaxed. Standing too erect and tense could be viewed as a power position or threat, while slumping or leaning on objects can indicate lack of interest. Your arms and hands should always compliment your posture. Standing with your elbows out and hands on hips, also know as the superman stance, could be read as a power or dominating position. Folding your arms across your chest or waistline was once thought to be a closed position. It is now accepted as a position of comfort. Whether sitting or standing, constantly changing positions could be a distraction. Try to find and maintain a comfortable position. It is highly accepted to mirror the position of the sender or receiver. When you mirror someone, your body position is identical to theirs so that when they shift position, you shift position. This puts the other party at ease without their conscious awareness of what your are doing. If you choose not to use the mirroring techniques, you should remember always to position yourself into the conversation. Lean forward or move in closer, not so close as to cause discomfort but close enough to show that you are interested in what the other person has to say and consider it important. Showing you are actively involved in the conversation will improve communication and open up the discussion.
There are three communication techniques that can be used to increase situational awareness: Inquiry, Advocacy, and Assertiveness.
Inquiry is defined as the act or an instance of seeking truth, information, or knowledge about something. You are using inquiry when you attempt to increase either your own or someone else’s situational awareness by simply asking questions. Through inquiry, you can make others aware of events or possible outcomes. The key to being successful is the application of appropriate communication skills when using inquiry. Human egos do not like to be second-guessed. Delivering a question in what could be interpreted as a harsh or condescending manner will be offensive. To avert this perception, proper tone, volume, cord choice, and facial expressions are critical. When asking a question, you should have a quizzical or inquiring look on your face. Your tone should be calm and inquiring. Your word choice should indicate your need to understand. If you ask a question with a strong air of confidence, a know-it-all look on your face and an “I’m just here to help you” attitude, you will eventually find yourself alienated from the individual or group. No one will want your help, or want to help you. You will decrease situational awareness rather than increase it.
Discuss slide topics
To be an advocate is to encourage, advance forward , or support. To increase situational awareness through advocacy is to support advance or encourage others in their effort to know what is going on around them. Any action taken to achieve this goal is an act of advocacy. You may commonly use advocacy through inquiry. However, if you are an experienced team member, you may find yourself giving instruction or guidance to people with less experience. This is also a form of advocacy: you are supporting their efforts to learn and increase their situational awareness in the process
Discuss the tips. Consider adopting these tips in your profession as a aviation maintenance technician. You will increase communication effectiveness an reduce risk of human error.
Typically, individuals who routinely work alone have a problem being assertive. They are not used to communicating, much less being firm with others. However, when used correctly, assertiveness can be an effective tool for increasing situational awareness. Having the skill to respectfully demand information, and show others the benefit of giving it, is a benefit to the team.
Discuss each tip…………try relate them to a maintenance scenario regarding following maintenance or inspection procedures ..or understanding the procedures…………….such as an aircraft owners resistance to a specific repair of maintenance action you support.
Discuss the objectives………….if covered in this presentation
If you think communication has been effective…………….but it wasn’t…………… then the stage has been set for maintenance human error.
Advise and Promote each bullet. Solicit FEEDBACK…………….either verbal, phone, e-mail or to our current QMITS feedback link:
2Communications for Aviation MechanicsObjective• Provide information about thecommunication process.• Increase awareness of variouscommunication methods and styles.• Provide ways mechanics can improve theircommunications.• Provide ways to overcome commoncommunication barriers.
3Communications for Aviation MechanicsIs Communication Important ?• ““Dirty Dozen” Human Factors:Dirty Dozen” Human Factors:• Lack of Communication• Complacency• Lack of Knowledge• Distraction• Lack of Teamwork• Fatigue• Lack of Resources• Pressure• Lack of Assertiveness• Stress• Lack of Awareness• Norms
4Communications for Aviation MechanicsIs Communication Important ?• ““Dirty Dozen” Human Factors:Dirty Dozen” Human Factors:• Lack of Communication - 3• Complacency - 1• Lack of Knowledge - 4• Distraction - 5• Lack of Teamwork - 3• Fatigue - 1• Lack of Resources - 3• Pressure - 4• Lack of Assertiveness - 3• Stress - 5• Lack of Awareness - 4• Norms - 238 references to the need for communications.
5Communications for Aviation MechanicsIs Communication Important ?
Presented to:By:Date:What is the purposeof Communication ?
7Communications for Aviation MechanicsPurposes for communications• ProfessionalProfessional• Non-essentialNon-essential• CulturalCultural• ConfrontationalConfrontational• Pre and Post briefingPre and Post briefing• InstructionalInstructional• SocialSocial• AdversarialAdversarial• SupportiveSupportive• InquiryInquiry• ComfortComfort• Capture AttentionCapture Attention• InstitutionalInstitutional• EntertainmentEntertainment
9Communications for Aviation MechanicsTypes of Communication• WrittenWritten• OralOral• Body LanguageBody Language• Hand signalsHand signals• ElectronicElectronic• Tactile FeedbackTactile Feedback• Facial expressionsFacial expressions
10Communications for Aviation MechanicsWhat is Communication ?AA processprocess by whichby which informationinformation isis exchangedexchangedbetween individuals through a commonbetween individuals through a common systemsystem ofofsymbols, signs, or behaviorsymbols, signs, or behavior..Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary•Key Words:• Process• Information exchange• System• Symbols – signs – behavior
Presented to:By:Date:Five Elements ofCommunication ?The Pieces
12Communications for Aviation MechanicsProcess Elements …• Need for communicationNeed for communication• Sender to encode and transmitSender to encode and transmit• Receiver to obtain and decodeReceiver to obtain and decode• Feedback to check accuracyFeedback to check accuracy• Barriers - make this difficultBarriers - make this difficult– Internal and externalInternal and external
13Communications for Aviation MechanicsThe Communication ProcessFEEDBACKNEED SENDER RECEIVERInternal andExternalBarriersExternalBarriersInternalBarriersOperational GoalFEEDBACKContentEncodeDeliverDecodeAnalyzeInterpretFive ElementsSend
14Communications for Aviation MechanicsNeed …• Motivated - Triggered by a thought, idea or event.– conscious recognition of stimulus– internal or external
15Communications for Aviation MechanicsSender …• Perceives the need for communication• Encodes the message• Transmits the message• Requires feedback• Evaluates feedback– Confirms or adjusts message as necessary
16Communications for Aviation MechanicsReceiver …• Collects the message• Decodes the message– context– delivery method– content• Must overcome barriers• Provides feedback
17Communications for Aviation MechanicsFeedback …• Assurance the message arrived• Sender must insist on feedback• Receiver must provide feedback• Sender must utilize feedback to assureaccuracy
18Communications for Aviation MechanicsIndefinite Feedback …• Less than clear acknowledgement that theReceiver understands the communication:• Feedback responses like:– Yes– Maybe– We’ll see– Should ….– … Head Nod …
19Communications for Aviation Mechanics“THE GREAT DIVIDE”“I know you thought you understood what I said…. BUT WHAT BOTHERS ME ….is that what you heard is not what I meant”Anonymous
20Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Internal ….• Selective listening• Perceptions• Difference in life experience between senderand receiver• Prejudices• Biases• “Context shift”
21Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Internal ….• Tuning out communication• Filtering communication
22Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Internal ….• Training improves communication• Prior experience can affect communications
23Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Context ShiftMessage to be Sent Context Window(Filter)SenderExperienceWrong Message SentContext ShiftMessage sent based on Sender Experience may be perceived differentlyby Receiver due to experience differences: Context shift.Need PerceivedEncoding SelectedTransmission Method ChosenNeed IncorrectEncoding IncorrectTransmission Method Wrong
24Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Context ShiftMessage Received Context Window(Filter)ReceiverExperiencePerceived MessageContext ShiftMessage Received based on Receiver Experience may be skewed byvariations in Receiver experience: Context shift.Need Incorrectly InterpretedDecoding IncorrectTransmission Method Unexpected
25Communications for Aviation Mechanics• Noise• Lighting• Intercom• Telephone• Room Temperature• Random Noise• Crowded hangarBarriers – External ….
Presented to:By:Date:Behavior and StyleforCommunicationsThe Methods
27Communications for Aviation MechanicsBehavior and Communication• How we perceive others• How others perceive ourselves• Communicate with others the way we wantothers to communicate with us• “By their fruit, you shall know them”Famous scholar – 2000 years ago
28Communications for Aviation MechanicsStyle vs Attitude …AN INDIVIDUAL’S PREVAILINGTENDENCY TO RESPOND FAVORABLYOR UNFAVORABLY TO AN OBJECT,PERSON, OR GROUP OF PEOPLE, EVENTOR SITUATION
29Communications for Aviation MechanicsTest your style …• Rate yourself on a scale 1 to 10Rate yourself on a scale 1 to 10– -5 = I am and “Extremely Formal” person– +5 = Formality is not important to me– This is your “X axis Rating” (self perceived)
30Communications for Aviation MechanicsTest your style …• Rate yourself on a scale 1 to 10Rate yourself on a scale 1 to 10– -5 = I am and “Extremely Formal” person– +5 = Formality is not important to me– This is your “X axis Rating” (self perceived)• Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10– +5 = I am very concerned about relationships– -5 = My job and the company come first– This is your “Y axis Rating” (self perceived)
32Communications for Aviation MechanicsBREAK - ASSIGNMENTMUST COME BACK IN 10 MINUTESWatch this screen for timerDO THE COMPLETE ASSIGNMENTTwo part assignment (includes math)BE READY TO ASSESS YOURCOMMUNICATION STYLE
33Communications for Aviation MechanicsBreak Assignment …• Ask 5 people* to rate you on a scale 1 to 10– -5 = I am and “Extremely Formal” person– +5 = Formality is not important to me– Average these 5 numbers– This is your “X axis Rating” (group perceived)• Ask 5 people* to rate you on a scale of 1 to 10– +5 = I am very concerned about relationships– -5 = My job and the company come first– Average these 5 numbers– This is your “Y axis Rating” (group perceived)* 10 people who you don’t knowMaximum 10 minutes to do thisGO
SupporterFormal InformalRelationshipsBusinessSupporter• Family First !!• Helpful to others• Martyrs• Good Friends
SupporterPromoterFormal InformalRelationshipsBusiness• Original thinker• Quick starter• Poor Follow through• Great SocializerSupporter• Family First !!• Helpful to others• Martyrs• Good Friends
SupporterPromoterControllerFormal InformalRelationshipsBusiness• Original thinker• Quick starter• Poor Follow through• Great SocializerSupporter• Family First !!• Helpful to others• Martyrs• Good FriendsController• Business First !!• Just needs facts• Quick Decision maker• Social Positioning
SupporterPromoterController AnalyzerFormal InformalRelationshipsBusiness• Original thinker• Quick starter• Poor Follow through• Great SocializerAnalyzer• Deep thinker• Requires lots of data• Slow to react• Great DecisionsSupporter• Family First !!• Helpful to others• Martyrs• Good FriendsController• Business First !!• Just needs facts• Quick Decision maker• Social Positioning
S-C Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer
P-A Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer
P-S Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer
C-A Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer
P-C Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer
S-A Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer
Presented to:By:Date:How to EffectivelyCommunicateThe How
EvErybody wants to talk,FEw want to think,and nobody wants to listEn.
49Communications for Aviation MechanicsHow much of each skill?“See The Ratio?”One BrainOne MouthTwo EyesTwo EarsTwo Hands
50Communications for Aviation MechanicsListening Skills …After 24 hours the average persons understands andAfter 24 hours the average persons understands andretains only 50% of a conversationretains only 50% of a conversationAfter 48 hours – 25% retentionAfter 48 hours – 25% retentionAmerican Society of Training Development
54Communications for Aviation MechanicsTwo Types of Send-Receive …• VerbalVerbal• Non-VerbalNon-Verbal– 58% of a message is interpreted through body58% of a message is interpreted through bodylanguagelanguage
55Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness
56Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness
57Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness
58Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness
59Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness
60Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness
61Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language
62Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language
63Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language
64Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language
65Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language
67Communications for Aviation MechanicsINQUIRY:• The act of seeking truth, Information orThe act of seeking truth, Information orknowledge about something.knowledge about something.• Simply asking questions.Simply asking questions.
68Communications for Aviation MechanicsINQUIRY TIPS ….• Questions should be carefully directedQuestions should be carefully directed• Questions should be clear and conciseQuestions should be clear and concise• Questions should relate concerns accuratelyQuestions should relate concerns accurately• Require feedbackRequire feedback• Do not be condescendingDo not be condescending• Always keep an open mind.Always keep an open mind.• Draw conclusions from valid informationDraw conclusions from valid information
69Communications for Aviation MechanicsADVOCACY:• To be an advocate is to encourage, advanceforward, and to support.• Helps increase the SA of others by providinginstruction Guidance or Information• Advocacy through inquiry is very common
70Communications for Aviation MechanicsADVOCACY TIPS ….• Explain why you are asking a question orExplain why you are asking a question orproviding adviceproviding advice• Suggest solutions with your questionsSuggest solutions with your questions• Be persistentBe persistent• Be timely.Be timely.• Listen carefullyListen carefully• Keep an open mind.Keep an open mind.
71Communications for Aviation MechanicsASSERTIVENESS:The ability to stand up for what is right withoutcreating a stressful work environment.
72Communications for Aviation MechanicsASSERTIVENESS TIPS ….• State your position; show a need.State your position; show a need.• Provide solutions through inquiryProvide solutions through inquiry• Be persistentBe persistent• Carefully select the time to be assertiveCarefully select the time to be assertive• Listen carefully – show respectListen carefully – show respect• Keep an open mindKeep an open mind• Combine assertiveness with participationCombine assertiveness with participation
74Communications for Aviation MechanicsObjectives …• Introduce the need for bettercommunications in maintenance• Introduce the five elements of goodcommunication• Introduce communication style assessment• Discuss ways to effectively communicate
75Communications for Aviation MechanicsThe Challenge …• Go back to your shop with a new attitudetoward communications• Assess the communication styles of yourco-workers• Assess communication effectivenessthroughout your organization• Increase communication awareness andeffectiveness
76Communications for Aviation MechanicsSomething to ponder …“The greatest problem incommunication is …the illusion that it has beenaccomplished.”George Bernard Shaw
77Communications for Aviation MechanicsAdditional Information:• www.faasafety.govwww.faasafety.gov• AMT Awards ProgramAMT Awards Program• General Aviation Award ProgramGeneral Aviation Award Program• Give us feedbackGive us feedback
78Communications for Aviation MechanicsThank you