CFI Workshop - Module 5 Safety Trends in General Aviation

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CFI Workshop - Module 5 Safety Trends in General Aviation

CFI Workshop - Module 5 Safety Trends in General Aviation

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  • This presentation will provide an overview of trends in general aviation safety and will highlight some major causes of general aviation accidents. Original created by Jason Forshey, FAASTeam Program Manager, GA Ops, CVG FSDO CFI Workgroup POC: Jim Leavitt (james.w.leavitt@faa.gov) Technical information: There are two WMV video files that accompany this presentation, make sure that both files are in the SAME DIRECTORY FOLDER as this presentation before running the slide show. Otherwise, the video clips will not play. A third video clip is provided as optional material, the full version of the Bonanza scud run, to be shown at the presenter’s discretion. Make sure to go to windows media player, select the “options” under the “tools” menu, then check the checkbox next to “keep the player on top of other windows” so the clips will play on top of the powerpoint slide show.
  • (click to fade in each line) The number one priority of any pilot, from the weekend warrior in a Piper Cub to the high-profile corporate captain in a Gulfstream 550, is to arrive at the intended destination safely. Tonight we are talking about safety trends in general aviation. We will review some recent accident statistics and look at the trends. We will also examine some of the more common causes of general aviation accidents and discuss ways to prevent them. Finally, we will look at some of the recent technological innovations that have improved safety in General Aviation.
  • The 2010 Nall Report was released in the Spring of 2011. It is based on 2009 accident data—the last year for which enough accident investigations have been completed to provide a reasonably complete picture. This will give us a good jumping-off point for our examination of safety trends. All charts and tables depicting accident data will be from the 2010 Nall Report.
  • To access the Nall Report at your leisure, you can download it from this website. You can also find previous editions going back to 1997.
  • Before we dive into the statistics, and I know you’re all dying to get into those numbers, let us define what an accident is so that we know exactly what kind of events and/or damage we are talking about. These definitions are taken from FAA Order 8020.11C, the guidance document which instructs FAA Inspectors on the proper procedures of investigating aircraft accidents and incidents.
  • Definition of Substantial Damage
  • Definition of Serious Injury. Also deserving a clear definition is Fatal Injury, which is any injury that directly results in death within 30 days.
  • Here you can see the number of GA accidents taking place each year during a 10 year period. According to the Nall Report, more than 99% of all GA time in 2009 was either in powered fixed-wing airplanes or in helicopters. According to FAA estimates, non-commercial flying (which does not provide direct revenue to the operator) accounted for 87% of fixed-wing time and 58% of helicopter time. As you can see, with the exception of spikes in activity here and there, the overall trend has been downward in all four of these areas.
  • Here you can see the GA accident rates per 100,000 flight hours over a 10 year period. 2009 saw a total of 1,418 general aviation accidents involving 1,431 individual aircraft. (Because three were collisions between commercial and non-commercial aircraft or between helicopters and airplanes, the numbers of accidents within those categories sums to 1,421.) They included 255 fatal accidents that caused 452 deaths. All of these totals were the lowest in the past decade, but those reductions reflect a mixture of diminished activity in some sectors and actual improvements in the accident rates of others.
  • Here you can see the actual numbers for 2009 from the Nall Report.
  • I won’t bore you to death by reading the numbers.
  • You know how we at the government love our statistics.
  • Here we can see the pilot certificate held by those who were involved in fixed-wing accidents during 2009. We apologize for leaving the rotor-heads out of this one, but let’s face it. If your wings are moving faster than the rest of your fuselage you are not in an aircraft, you are in an abomination of the laws of physics.
  • A great man once wrote: Flying is the art of knowing how to throw yourself at the ground and miss. (bonus points to anyone who knows the author) Obviously, the vast majority of our accidents are happening whenever cumulo-granite is involved.
  • (click to make picture appear) Now let’s talk about some of the more common causes of GA accidents, or as I like to call them, “Goofy Pilot Tricks.” The classic VFR-into-IFR scenario has played out countless times. You all know how it goes: a pilot who is not instrument rated flies into weather that is below VFR minimums and decides to press on despite the bad conditions. Without the proper training to recognize the difference between what the instruments say and what the inner ear says, and without the proper training on instrument scan technique, this can spell disaster for the pilot and his/her passengers. All it takes is just one miniscule bump to set off the fluids in the inner ear, making the pilot perceive a bank or pitch change that isn’t really happening. They make what they feel is an appropriate correction and before they know it they are in a “graveyard spiral.” (I know most of the clip-art is not of GA airplanes, but they are the best depictions of the subject matter that I could find)
  • Does this scenario require the pilot to fly into a cloud or a fog bank? Absolutely not. Haze, smoke, smog, debris in the air or any number of other conditions can impair flight visibility. Darkening skies as day turns into night, combined with a lack of visible landmarks or cues on the ground below, throw in a little humidity haze….. Remember what happened to John Kennedy Jr?
  • (click to make picture appear) Among pilots, I don’t think there is an accident cause that is more preventable or more inexcusable than fuel starvation. It has many causes: Not putting in enough fuel to begin with. Putting in the wrong type of fuel. Over-estimating how much fuel you have or how efficient your engine is. Not putting the caps back on correctly. Improper management of pumps and/or tank valves. Failure to drain the sumps. Improper use of engine controls. Yes, you can suffer from fuel starvation even if your tanks are close to full. Remember, the only time you will ever have too much fuel is when you are on fire.
  • (click to make picture appear) Any number of things can make the fine art of landing an airplane turn into a bone shattering, teeth rattling disaster.
  • We’ve seen this one many times. A pilot who is not instrument rated runs into conditions where the ceiling is getting lower and lower and lower, and therefore the pilot must fly closer and closer to the ground. With the recent advent of synthetic vision systems and terrain avoidance systems, pilots are getting a little more bold with scud running. (click the text “scud running” to play video, brief slow-mo snippet from the video of a Bonanza that almost smashed into a mountain, look for a blur of green on the right side, those are bushes)
  • (click to make picture appear) This one is not to be confused with an emergency landing. In an emergency landing, the pilot is fully aware that they are about to impact the ground whether they want to or not. With CFIT, the pilot is usually blissfully unaware of the impending encounter with Mother Earth.
  • (click to make picture appear) We both have wings, so why can’t we just get along. Also, for those of you looking for a new aviation career, I hear the engine testing facility is accepting resumes for the chicken cannon gunner.
  • (click to make picture appear) We’ve all heard that old saying: there are those of us who have done it and there are those of us who will. That’s got to be the most gut-wrenching feeling for a pilot.
  • (click to make picture appear) Let’s be honest, can a Cessna 172 with 4 seats REALLY carry: 4 grown adults who average 200 pounds each, a full load of gas, 4 suitcases, 4 sets of golf clubs, a cooler full of “drinks,” the pilot’s flight bag, a weekend’s worth of camping gear and a dog (optional)? Would it be prudent and/or wise to put all of your cargo into the “way back” of a Cessna or the front compartment of a Cherokee 6?
  • (click to make pictures appear one at a time) It’s a big sky up there, and there can’t POSSIBLY be another aircraft that could be in conflict with us. Right? Right? Bueller?
  • This one is a catch-all when it comes to “Goofy Pilot Tricks.” Let’s throw out some examples of things that would fall under this category. (click the text “showing off” to play video, a shot of a Cessna Caravan doing an extremely low highspeed flyby over a party) (group discussion ensues, hopefully)
  • (click to make lines appear one at a time) (discussion ensues)
  • (click to make lines fade in one at a time) Technology has played a major role in improving the safety of General Aviation. Sometimes those innovations are a direct part of the aviation industry, and sometimes those innovations are from another industry or application but have found a place in aviation. Improvements in navigation equipment, communications systems, safety gear that improves crash survivability and advances in training have all made flying much safer for all of us.
  • (Special thanks to the membership of ProPilotWorld.com for their contributions to this portion of the presentation) (click to make each line fade in) Let’s look at some of these innovations, in no particular order… (discussion ensues)
  • (Special thanks to the membership of ProPilotWorld.com for their contributions to this portion of the presentation) (click to make each line fade in) Let’s look at some of these innovations, in no particular order… (discussion ensues)
  • (Special thanks to the membership of ProPilotWorld.com for their contributions to this portion of the presentation) (click to make each line fade in) Let’s look at some of these innovations, in no particular order… (discussion ensues)

Transcript

  • 1. Presented to: Certified Flight Instructors By: National FAASTeam CFI Workshop group Date: October 1st, 2011 Federal Aviation AdministrationCFI Workshop 5 Core Topic 9 Safety Trends in General Aviation
  • 2. Federal Aviation Administration 2 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Objective • Review recent accident statistics • Examine common accident causes • Explore recent safety innovations
  • 3. Federal Aviation Administration 3 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 The Nall Report
  • 4. Federal Aviation Administration 4 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 The Nall Report http://www.aopa.org/asf/publications/nall.html
  • 5. Federal Aviation Administration 5 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Definitions • Aircraft Accident - an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and until such time as all such persons have disembarked, and in which any person suffers death or serious injury, or in which the aircraft receives substantial damage.
  • 6. Federal Aviation Administration 6 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Definitions • Substantial Damage - damage or failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and which would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component. Engine failure or damage limited to an engine if only one engine fails or is damaged, bent fairings or cowling, dented skin, small punctured holes in the skin or fabric, ground damage to rotor or propeller blades, and damage to landing gear, wheels, tires, flaps, engine accessories, brakes, or wing tips are not considered substantial damage for the purpose of this order.
  • 7. Federal Aviation Administration 7 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Definitions • Serious Injury - any injury which: (1) requires hospitalization for more than 48-hours, commencing within 7-days from the date an injury was received; (2) results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes, or nose); (3) causes severe hemorrhages, or nerve, muscle, or tendon damage; (4) involves any internal organ; or (5) involves second- or third-degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5-percent of the body surface.
  • 8. Federal Aviation Administration 8 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 GA Accident Trends
  • 9. Federal Aviation Administration 9 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 GA Accident Trends
  • 10. Federal Aviation Administration 10 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 GA Accident Trends
  • 11. Federal Aviation Administration 11 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Numbers for Helicopters
  • 12. Federal Aviation Administration 12 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Numbers for Airplanes
  • 13. Federal Aviation Administration 13 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Who’s having the accidents?
  • 14. Federal Aviation Administration 14 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 When are these accidents happening?
  • 15. Federal Aviation Administration 15 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents VFR into IFR
  • 16. Federal Aviation Administration 16 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents VFR into IFR Does this scenario require flying into clouds and/or fog?
  • 17. Federal Aviation Administration 17 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents Fuel Starvation
  • 18. Federal Aviation Administration 18 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents Hard Landing
  • 19. Federal Aviation Administration 19 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents Scud Running(Click to play video)
  • 20. Federal Aviation Administration 20 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents Controlled Flight Into Terrain
  • 21. Federal Aviation Administration 21 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents Bird Strike
  • 22. Federal Aviation Administration 22 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents Gear Up Landing
  • 23. Federal Aviation Administration 23 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents Improper Loading
  • 24. Federal Aviation Administration 24 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents Mid Air Collision
  • 25. Federal Aviation Administration 25 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Major Causes of GA Accidents Showing Off(Click to play video)
  • 26. Federal Aviation Administration 26 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Famous Last Words in Aviation • “Watch this!” • “Why is it doing that?!” • “Where are we?” • “I’ve never seen that before…” • “No problem, we can make it.” • “We’ve got plenty of room/fuel.” • “Sure, if it fits through the door we can take it.” • “Oh <BLEEP>!!!!!!!!” Can you think of some more?
  • 27. Federal Aviation Administration 27 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Safety Innovations • Navigation • Communication • Crash-Worthiness • Education and Training
  • 28. Federal Aviation Administration 28 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Safety Innovations • XM Datalink Weather • Active Noise Cancelling Headsets • IPads and Jeppview • Ballistic Recovery Systems • Wide Area Augmentation System • ADS-B • TCAS • 406 mHz ELT
  • 29. Federal Aviation Administration 29 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Safety Innovations • Synthetic Vision • GPS and Active Location in Cellphones • Software Based Maintenance Tracking • LLWS Alerting Systems • LED Aircraft Lights • Aircraft CCTV Cameras • Glass Flight Decks • Computerized Taxi Diagrams
  • 30. Federal Aviation Administration 30 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Safety Innovations • FADEC for Piston Engines • GPS RNAV Approaches • TAWS • CVR/FDR • Diesel Engines • Online Safety Training Courses • Level D Flight Simulators • Shoulder Harness Air Bags
  • 31. Federal Aviation Administration 31 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Quiz Time! 1. The Nall report is an analysis of general aviation accidents and incidents that is published annually by __________. a. NTSB b. FAA c. AOPA d. ICAO
  • 32. Federal Aviation Administration 32 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Quiz Time! 2. Most GA accidents in 2009 took place during which phase of flight? a. Takeoff/Climbout b. Cruise/Maneuvering c. Descent/Approach d. Landing
  • 33. Federal Aviation Administration 33 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Quiz Time! 3. Most FATAL GA accidents in 2009 took place during which phase of flight? a. Takeoff/Climbout b. Cruise/Maneuvering c. Descent/Approach d. Landing
  • 34. Federal Aviation Administration 34 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Quiz Time! 4. CFIT is an acronym that stands for what?
  • 35. Federal Aviation Administration 35 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Quiz Time! 5. BRS is an acronym that stands for what?
  • 36. Federal Aviation Administration 36 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Answer Time! 1. The Nall report is an analysis of general aviation accidents and incidents that is published annually by __________. a. NTSB b. FAA c. AOPA d. ICAO
  • 37. Federal Aviation Administration 37 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Answer Time! 2. Most GA accidents in 2009 took place during which phase of flight? a. Takeoff/Climbout b. Cruise/Maneuvering c. Descent/Approach d. Landing
  • 38. Federal Aviation Administration 38 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Answer Time! 3. Most FATAL GA accidents in 2009 took place during which phase of flight? a. Takeoff/Climbout b. Cruise/Maneuvering c. Descent/Approach d. Landing
  • 39. Federal Aviation Administration 39 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Answer Time! 4. CFIT is an acronym that stands for what? Controlled Flight Into Terrain
  • 40. Federal Aviation Administration 40 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 Answer Time! 5. BRS is an acronym that stands for what? Ballistic Recovery System
  • 41. Federal Aviation Administration 41 Safety Trends in General Aviation October, 2011 This completes CFI Workshop Module 5 Core Topic 9 Safety Trends in General Aviation Thank you for attending! Stand by for Core topic 10!