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Be Aware Have a Positive Flight Attitude
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Be Aware Have a Positive Flight Attitude

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The FAA's Susan Parson discusses the science of situational awareness.

The FAA's Susan Parson discusses the science of situational awareness.

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Be Aware Have a Positive Flight Attitude Be Aware Have a Positive Flight Attitude Presentation Transcript

  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Presentation to:Name:Date:Sun ‘n Fun – Safety SeminarSusan ParsonMarch 2012Positive FlightAttitudeThe Science ofSituational Awareness
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is “it” doing?•Process•What can “it” do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?Situational Awareness
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012 Aircraft Weather Airspace Reality External PressuresA-W-A-R-E
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Mechanical condition•Airworthiness• A –V –1 –A – T – E•Preflight•In-flight•Post-flightAircraft
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Systems•Basic instruments•AutomationAircraftRiskManagementAutomationManagementInformationManagement
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is the weather doing?•Process•What can it do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?Weather
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Where do I start??
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Create wind (crosswinds)Reduce ceiling and visibility(clouds, fog, rain)Affect aircraft performance(high density altitude, ice)
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Wind Ceiling & Visibility PerformanceWhat Can Weather Do?
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Create wind (crosswinds)When these conditions exist, thereare questions to ask about both thepilot and the airplane.Pilot:• Crosswind skill?Airplane:• Max. demonstratedcrosswind component?
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Wind & Turbulence Can pilot/airplane “team” handle currentand forecast wind conditions? Do I know power setting for maneuveringspeed (VA) at the expected weight? Do I have the conditions / equipment toavoid thunderstorm encounters?What Can Weather Do?
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Reduce ceiling and visibility (clouds, fog, rain)
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?When these conditions exist,it’s (mostly) about the pilot: Instrument rated? Legally current? Proficient?Reduce ceiling & visibility (clouds, fog, rain)
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Ceiling and Visibility Can I safely fly the planned altitudes? Do I have a terrain avoidance plan? Are ceiling/visibility okay for approach? Do I need an alternate? Where is the nearest GOOD weather? Are conditions within personalminimums?What Can Weather Do?
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Affect aircraft performance(high density altitude, ice)When theseconditions exist,it’s (mostly)about theairplane.
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Affect aircraft performance(high density altitude, ice)Just call meSUPER-Pilot!
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Affect aircraft performance(high density altitude, ice)…but evenSuper-Pilothas limitswhen flying aSuper-Cub!
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Aircraft Performance What is the expected aircraft performance? What are the takeoff & landing distances? How about climb & cruise performance? Where is the forecast freezing level?What Can Weather Do?
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What airspace is around?•Process•What can it do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?Airspace
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012AirspaceAlwaysknow whereyou are…Tips to avoid traps: Know before you go Use moving map + chart Make verbal position calls Avoid edges & ledges Say no to NORDO Use flight following Close VFR flight plan!
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is really happening?•Process•What can it do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?Reality
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Reality
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is pushing me?•Process•What can it do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?External Pressures
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Personal MinimumsIndividual pilot’s set of:ProceduresRulesCriteriaGuidelinesfor deciding whether, andunder what conditions, tooperate or continue operating.
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Personal MinimumsSafety “reserve” between:Skills & aircraftperformance required forthe specific flight you wantto make, and theSkills and aircraftperformance available toyou (training, experience,currency, and proficiency).
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012 Tailored to individual training,experience, currency, and proficiencywith winds, ceiling & visibility, andperformance. Consistent with pilot / aircraft“team” characteristics & capabilities.Personal Minimums
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Category Ceiling (feet AGL) Visibility (miles)VFR > 3,000 and > 5MVFR 1,000 to 3,000 and/or 3 to 5IFR 500 to 999 and/or 1 to < 3LIFR < 500 and/or < 1Personal Minimums
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Personal Minimums
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Baseline Personal MinimumsBaseline Personal MinimumsWeather Condition VFR MVFR IFR LIFRCeilingDay    Night    Visibility    Day    Night    Winds SE ME Make/ModelSurfaceWind Speed    SurfaceWind Gust    CrosswindComponent    Performance SE ME Make/ModelShortestrunway    Highestterrain    Highestdensity altitude    
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012If you are facing:PilotIllness, medication,stress, or fatigue; lack ofcurrency (e.g., haven’tflown for several weeks)AddAt least500 feet to ceilingAt least½ mile to visibilityAircraftAn unfamiliar airplane, oran aircraft with unfamiliaravionics/ equipment:At least500 ft to runwaylengthenVironmentAirports and airspace withdifferent terrain orunfamiliar characteristicsReduceAt least5 knots from windsExternalpressures“Must meet” deadlines,passenger pressures; etc.Personal MinimumsAdjust baseline personalminimums to:
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Carved in Stone??
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Rules to Live by…No matter how much they whine…NEVER weakenyour personalminimums inorder to make aspecific flight.
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Rules to Live by… Experiment withcare - keep allother variablesconstant. Talk through“push-the-envelope” planswith a flightinstructor.
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Don’tcut intoyourskillreserve.Rules to Live by…
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Don’t go to the‘unusable fuel’level of aircraftperformance orpiloting ability.Rules to Live by…
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Stretching Personal MinimumsGain ExperienceReassess & ReviewModify with Care
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Stick to the Plan!Within my personal minimums?• Each pilot’s response is unique to individualtraining, experience, confidence, and aircraft.
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Would you go?
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Would you go?
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Would you go?
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Wind Ceiling & Visibility PerformanceWould you go?
  • Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012www.faasafety.gov susan.parson@faa.gov