Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Presentation to:Name:Date:Sun ‘n Fun – Safe...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012 Aircraft Weather Airspace Reality Ext...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Mechanical condition•Airworthiness• A –V –...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Systems•Basic instruments•AutomationAircra...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is the weather doing?•Proces...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Where do I start??
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Create wind (crosswinds...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Wind Ceiling & Visibility PerformanceWhat C...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Create wind (crosswinds...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Wind & Turbulence Can pilot/airplane “team...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Reduce ceiling and visi...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?When these conditions e...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Ceiling and Visibility Can I safely fly th...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Affect aircraft perform...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Affect aircraft perform...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Affect aircraft perform...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Aircraft Performance What is the expected ...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What airspace is around?•Process•...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012AirspaceAlwaysknow whereyou are…Tips to avo...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is really happening?•Process...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Reality
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is pushing me?•Process•What ...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Personal MinimumsIndividual pilot’s set of:...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Personal MinimumsSafety “reserve” between:S...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012 Tailored to individual training,experienc...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Category Ceiling (feet AGL) Visibility (mil...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Personal Minimums
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Baseline Personal MinimumsBaseline Personal...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012If you are facing:PilotIllness, medication,...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Carved in Stone??
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Rules to Live by…No matter how much they wh...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Rules to Live by… Experiment withcare - ke...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Don’tcut intoyourskillreserve.Rules to Live...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Don’t go to the‘unusable fuel’level of airc...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Stretching Personal MinimumsGain Experience...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Stick to the Plan!Within my personal minimu...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Would you go?
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Would you go?
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Would you go?
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Wind Ceiling & Visibility PerformanceWould ...
Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012www.faasafety.gov susan.parson@faa.gov
Be Aware Have a Positive Flight Attitude
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Be Aware Have a Positive Flight Attitude

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The FAA's Susan Parson discusses the science of situational awareness.

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  • Be Aware Have a Positive Flight Attitude

    1. 1. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Presentation to:Name:Date:Sun ‘n Fun – Safety SeminarSusan ParsonMarch 2012Positive FlightAttitudeThe Science ofSituational Awareness
    2. 2. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is “it” doing?•Process•What can “it” do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?Situational Awareness
    3. 3. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012 Aircraft Weather Airspace Reality External PressuresA-W-A-R-E
    4. 4. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Mechanical condition•Airworthiness• A –V –1 –A – T – E•Preflight•In-flight•Post-flightAircraft
    5. 5. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Systems•Basic instruments•AutomationAircraftRiskManagementAutomationManagementInformationManagement
    6. 6. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is the weather doing?•Process•What can it do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?Weather
    7. 7. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Where do I start??
    8. 8. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Create wind (crosswinds)Reduce ceiling and visibility(clouds, fog, rain)Affect aircraft performance(high density altitude, ice)
    9. 9. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Wind Ceiling & Visibility PerformanceWhat Can Weather Do?
    10. 10. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Create wind (crosswinds)When these conditions exist, thereare questions to ask about both thepilot and the airplane.Pilot:• Crosswind skill?Airplane:• Max. demonstratedcrosswind component?
    11. 11. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Wind & Turbulence Can pilot/airplane “team” handle currentand forecast wind conditions? Do I know power setting for maneuveringspeed (VA) at the expected weight? Do I have the conditions / equipment toavoid thunderstorm encounters?What Can Weather Do?
    12. 12. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Reduce ceiling and visibility (clouds, fog, rain)
    13. 13. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?When these conditions exist,it’s (mostly) about the pilot: Instrument rated? Legally current? Proficient?Reduce ceiling & visibility (clouds, fog, rain)
    14. 14. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Ceiling and Visibility Can I safely fly the planned altitudes? Do I have a terrain avoidance plan? Are ceiling/visibility okay for approach? Do I need an alternate? Where is the nearest GOOD weather? Are conditions within personalminimums?What Can Weather Do?
    15. 15. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
    16. 16. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
    17. 17. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
    18. 18. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012http://www.skyvector.com
    19. 19. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Affect aircraft performance(high density altitude, ice)When theseconditions exist,it’s (mostly)about theairplane.
    20. 20. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Affect aircraft performance(high density altitude, ice)Just call meSUPER-Pilot!
    21. 21. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012What Can Weather Do?Affect aircraft performance(high density altitude, ice)…but evenSuper-Pilothas limitswhen flying aSuper-Cub!
    22. 22. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Aircraft Performance What is the expected aircraft performance? What are the takeoff & landing distances? How about climb & cruise performance? Where is the forecast freezing level?What Can Weather Do?
    23. 23. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What airspace is around?•Process•What can it do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?Airspace
    24. 24. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012AirspaceAlwaysknow whereyou are…Tips to avoid traps: Know before you go Use moving map + chart Make verbal position calls Avoid edges & ledges Say no to NORDO Use flight following Close VFR flight plan!
    25. 25. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is really happening?•Process•What can it do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?Reality
    26. 26. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Reality
    27. 27. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012•Perceive•What is pushing me?•Process•What can it do to me?•Perform•What can I do to be safe?External Pressures
    28. 28. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Personal MinimumsIndividual pilot’s set of:ProceduresRulesCriteriaGuidelinesfor deciding whether, andunder what conditions, tooperate or continue operating.
    29. 29. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Personal MinimumsSafety “reserve” between:Skills & aircraftperformance required forthe specific flight you wantto make, and theSkills and aircraftperformance available toyou (training, experience,currency, and proficiency).
    30. 30. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012 Tailored to individual training,experience, currency, and proficiencywith winds, ceiling & visibility, andperformance. Consistent with pilot / aircraft“team” characteristics & capabilities.Personal Minimums
    31. 31. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Category Ceiling (feet AGL) Visibility (miles)VFR > 3,000 and > 5MVFR 1,000 to 3,000 and/or 3 to 5IFR 500 to 999 and/or 1 to < 3LIFR < 500 and/or < 1Personal Minimums
    32. 32. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Personal Minimums
    33. 33. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Baseline Personal MinimumsBaseline Personal MinimumsWeather Condition VFR MVFR IFR LIFRCeilingDay    Night    Visibility    Day    Night    Winds SE ME Make/ModelSurfaceWind Speed    SurfaceWind Gust    CrosswindComponent    Performance SE ME Make/ModelShortestrunway    Highestterrain    Highestdensity altitude    
    34. 34. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012If you are facing:PilotIllness, medication,stress, or fatigue; lack ofcurrency (e.g., haven’tflown for several weeks)AddAt least500 feet to ceilingAt least½ mile to visibilityAircraftAn unfamiliar airplane, oran aircraft with unfamiliaravionics/ equipment:At least500 ft to runwaylengthenVironmentAirports and airspace withdifferent terrain orunfamiliar characteristicsReduceAt least5 knots from windsExternalpressures“Must meet” deadlines,passenger pressures; etc.Personal MinimumsAdjust baseline personalminimums to:
    35. 35. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Carved in Stone??
    36. 36. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Rules to Live by…No matter how much they whine…NEVER weakenyour personalminimums inorder to make aspecific flight.
    37. 37. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Rules to Live by… Experiment withcare - keep allother variablesconstant. Talk through“push-the-envelope” planswith a flightinstructor.
    38. 38. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Don’tcut intoyourskillreserve.Rules to Live by…
    39. 39. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Don’t go to the‘unusable fuel’level of aircraftperformance orpiloting ability.Rules to Live by…
    40. 40. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Stretching Personal MinimumsGain ExperienceReassess & ReviewModify with Care
    41. 41. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Stick to the Plan!Within my personal minimums?• Each pilot’s response is unique to individualtraining, experience, confidence, and aircraft.
    42. 42. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Would you go?
    43. 43. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Would you go?
    44. 44. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Would you go?
    45. 45. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012Wind Ceiling & Visibility PerformanceWould you go?
    46. 46. Federal AviationAdministrationThe Science of Situational Awareness – March 2012www.faasafety.gov susan.parson@faa.gov

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