Aircraft Certification and Type of Certificates 3-9-13

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Aircraft Certification and Type of Certificates 3-9-13

  1. 1. Federal AviationAdministrationPart 21Aircraft Certification&Type Certificates•IA Seminar 3/9/13
  2. 2. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-2-NTCOverview
  3. 3. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-3-NTCObjectives• Identify what the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) is andthe roll the organization plays in aircraft maintenance.• Identify what type design data is.• Characteristics of a Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS).• Identify some of the key documents that make upContinued Airworthiness data, i.e., limitations, maintenancemanuals, and their changes.
  4. 4. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-4-NTCObjectives, cont.• Define “Airworthiness” and how it plays a roll in the IA’sworld.• Recognize the categories of TCs and generalrequirements that must be met for their issuance.• How TCs relate to airworthiness certificates.
  5. 5. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-5-NTCAircraft Certification Service(AIR)
  6. 6. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-6-NTCFAA Regions BoundariesFlight Standards Regions
  7. 7. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-7-NTCDirectorate Boundaries
  8. 8. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-8-NTCInterconnected
  9. 9. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-9-NTCAirworthiness• Part 21.1 defines airworthinessapproval as:“a document issued by the FAA for anaircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, orarticle which certifies that the aircraft,aircraft engine, propeller or articleconforms to its approved design and isin a condition for safe operation.”
  10. 10. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-10-NTCStandard Airworthiness CertificateUNITED STATES OF AMERICADEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATIONSTANDARD AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE1 NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION MARKS 2 MANUFACTURER AND MODEL 3 AIRCRAFT SERIALNUMBER4 CATEGORY5 AUTHORITY AND BASIS FOR ISSUANCEThis airworthiness certificate is issued pursuant to the 49 U.S.C. § 44704 and certifies that, as of the date of issuance, the aircraft towhich issued has been inspected and found to conform to the type certificate therefore, to be in condition for safe operation, and hasbeen shown to meet the requirements of the applicable comprehensive and detailed airworthiness code as provided by Annex 8 to theConvention on International Civil Aviation, except as noted herein.Exceptions:6 TERMS AND CONDITIONSUnless sooner surrendered, suspended, revoked, or a termination date is otherwise established by the FAA, this airworthiness certificate is effective as long as the maintenance, preventative maintenance, and alterations are performed in accordance with Parts 21, 43,and 91 of the Federal Aviation Regulations, as appropriate, and the aircraft is registered in the United States.DATE OF ISSUANCE FAA REPRESENTATIVE DESIGNATION NUMBERAny iteration, reproduction, or misuse of this certificate may be punishable by a fine not exceeding $1,000 or imprisonment not exceeding 3 years or both. THIS CERTIFICATE MUST BE DISPLAYED IN THE AIRCRAFT IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLEFEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS.
  11. 11. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-11-NTCAirworthiness Links• Standard Airworthiness Certificatesstates:“This airworthiness certificate iseffective as long as the maintenance,preventive maintenance, andalterations are preformed inaccordance with parts 21, 43, 91”
  12. 12. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-12-NTCPart 21, 43, 91 ConnectionUNITED STATES OF AMERICADEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATIONSTANDARD AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE1 NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION MARKS 2 MANUFACTURER AND MODEL 3 AIRCRAFT SERIALNUMBER4 CATEGORY5 AUTHORITY AND BASIS FOR ISSUANCEThis airworthiness certificate is issued pursuant to the 49 U.S.C. § 44704 and certifies that, as of the date of issuance, the aircraft to which issued has been inspected and found to conform to the type certificate therefore, to be in condition for safeoperation, and has been shown to meet the requirements of the applicable comprehensive and detailed airworthiness code as provided by Annex 8 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, except as noted herein.Exceptions:6 TERMS AND CONDITIONSUnless sooner surrendered, suspended, revoked, or a termination date is otherwise established by theFAA, this airworthiness certificate is effective as long as the maintenance, preventative maintenance,and alterations are performed in accordance with Parts 21, 43, and 91 of the Federal AviationRegulations, as appropriate, and the aircraft is registered in the United States.DATE OF ISSUANCE FAA REPRESENTATIVE DESIGNATION NUMBERAny iteration, reproduction, or misuse of this certificate may be punishable by a fine not exceeding $1,000 or imprisonment not exceeding 3 years or both. THIS CERTIFICATE MUST BE DISPLAYED IN THE AIRCRAFT IN ACCORDANCEWITH APPLICABLE FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS.
  13. 13. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-13-NTCWhat does this have to do with IA’s?CFR Part 65.95Privileges and Limitations:“Gives the IA the authority to inspect andapprove for return to service any aircraftor related part or appliance after a majorrepair or major alteration to it, inaccordance with Part 43.”
  14. 14. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-14-NTCReturn to Service StatementsCFR Part 43 gives the IA the authority tomake Return to Service Statements.These statements attest to conformity.What is Conformity?
  15. 15. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-15-NTC• Definition Of The Term “Airworthy” for U.S. Type-Certificated (TC) Aircraft.Although the term “airworthy” is defined in 14 CFR § 3.5(a), a clearunderstanding of its meaning is essential for use in the FAA’s airworthinesscertification program. Below is a summary of the conditions necessary for theissuance of an airworthiness certificate. A review of case law relating toairworthiness reveals two conditions that must be met for an aircraft to beconsidered “airworthy.” Title 49, United States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 44704(c) and14 CFR § 21.183(a), (b), and (c) state that the following two conditionsnecessary for issuance of an airworthiness certificate:• a. The aircraft must conform to its type design. Conformity to the typedesign is considered attained when the aircraft configuration and the engine,propeller, and articles installed are consistent with the drawings, specifications,and other data that are part of the TC. This includes any supplemental typecertificate (STC) and repairs and alterations incorporated into the aircraft.• b. The aircraft must be in a condition for safe operation. This refers to thecondition of the aircraft relative to wear and deterioration, for example, skincorrosion, window delamination/crazing, fluid leaks, and tire wear.
  16. 16. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-16-NTCIt all Start HereThe Birth Certificate of anAircraftType Certificate Data Sheet(TCDS)
  17. 17. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-17-NTC§21.41, Type CertificatesA type certificate is issued upon FAA approval ofApplicant design documentation for aircraft, engine, orpropeller.The TC includes:Type Design(including the flightmanual containingoperating limitations,instructions, andother data)Limitations that theFAA imposeson thecertificateTC DataSheetAirworthiness &EnvironmentalRequirements
  18. 18. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-18-NTC
  19. 19. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-19-NTC
  20. 20. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-20-NTC
  21. 21. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-21-NTC
  22. 22. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-22-NTC2-22§21.31, Type design includes technical data —to definean approved configuration and allow for its “reproducibility”Design datamaychange, butit mustundergoFAAapproval§21.31, Type Design
  23. 23. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-23-NTCChanges in Type DesignChanges in type design may be due to:• Product improvements• Tooling changes• Usage ChangesChange RequiresSome type of FAA engineering approvalSubmission of revised/changed data
  24. 24. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-24-NTCMore About TCsEligibility, § 21.13 – Any interested personPrivileges, § 21.45 – May obtain:Airworthiness Certificates;Approval for Installation;A Production Certificate, including approval ofreplacement partsResponsibilities,§ 21.3 – Report malfunctions, failures and defects§ 21.49 – Make the TC available to FAA & NTSB§ 21.99 – Make design changes to correct unsafeconditions
  25. 25. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-25-NTC2-25Requires FAA approval§21.50, Instructions for ContinuedAirworthinessFAA can imposelimitations ininterest of safetyICAAirworthinessLimitationsSection(Typically inMaintenance Manuals) Chapters 4 or 5
  26. 26. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-26-NTC2-26Changes to AirworthinessLimitationsAirworthinessLimitationsSectionDesign Approval Holder must providechanges to owners and make themavailable to repair stations, etc.[21.50(b)]
  27. 27. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-27-NTCTC Categories• Standard• Primary• Restricted• Surplus military• Import Products
  28. 28. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-28-NTC§21.21, Standard US TC§21.21, Issue of TC for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic,Commuter, Transport Aircraft; Manned Free Balloons;Special Classes of Aircraft; Aircraft Engines; PropellersThe applicant who meets the requirements of eithersubparagraphs (a) or (b) is entitled to a TC
  29. 29. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-29-NTC§21.24, Primary Category: PurposeA means to create a source of simple, relativelyinexpensive, aircraft for recreational flying through—• Simpler certification standards• Streamlined process• Means for owner to perform certain preventativemaintenance• Not for carrying people or property for compensation orhire
  30. 30. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-30-NTC§21.21 & §21.24 ComparedEngines & propellersCertification BasisShowing & finding ofcompliance:TC’d separatelyRigidRequires proposedtype design, detailedsubstantiating data,and statement ofcomplianceTC’d as part of aircraftSome flexibilityRequires certifyingstatement of compliance& summary reportWhat 21.2421.21Regardless of the process, the FAA may still review data at its discretion
  31. 31. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-31-NTC§21.25, Restricted CategorySpecial purpose operations, such as:• Agricultural• Forest and wildlife conservation• Aerial surveying• Patrolling• Weather control• Aerial advertising• Operation specified by FAATwo avenues for type certification• Civil; purpose-built—21.25(a)(1)• Surplus U.S. military—21.25(a)(2)
  32. 32. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-32-NTC§21.25(a)(1) & (a)(2) ComparedUnder 21.25(a)(1) Under 21.25(a)(2) Have no feature or characteristic that makes it unsafewhen operated within its prescribed limitations Meet noise standards of 14 CFR 36(exception: special purpose)Must meet airworthinessrequirements of a standardcategory,Exception: Thoseinappropriate for the specialpurposeAccepted for use by themilitary and found acceptablefor civilian use as “modified”and with appropriatelimitationsI Part21
  33. 33. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-33-NTC§21.27, Surplus Military• Specifies the type certification of surplus aircraft of theU.S. Armed ForcesNo typecertificatedcivilcounterpart?Does have atype certificatedcivilcounterpart?§21.27(a), allows surplus militaryaircraft to be type certificated tothe airworthiness standards in thetable contained in §21.27(f)§21.27(b), allows these surplusmilitary aircraft to be typecertificated to the standards forthat counterpart
  34. 34. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-34-NTC§21.29, Import ProductsFocuses on productsmanufactured in a countrywith an “agreement” (BAAor BASA) with the USOur approval isdependent upon theFCAA’sFCAA FAA
  35. 35. Federal AviationAdministrationDesign Approval; New TCsSL-35-NTCObjectives Review

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