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Federal AviationAdministrationAircraft MaintenanceRecords&AirworthinessDirectivesMark Laughridge – FAASTeam Program ManagerMarch 9, 2013
Federal AviationAdministration2Aircraft Maintenance RecordsIntroductionThis course provides a review of aircraftmaintenance documentation requirements,emphasizing the importance of accurate andcomplete documentation.It identifies common documentation problemsthat can lead to maintenance errors.
Federal AviationAdministration3Aircraft Maintenance RecordsAircraft Maintenance RecordsThe basic requirements for Aircraft MaintenanceRecords are the same.The method of meeting those requirements may bedifferent depending on the type of operation.
Federal AviationAdministration4Aircraft Maintenance RecordsCommon problems• No documentation.• Inadequate description of work performed.• Using the wrong references.• Poor shift turnovers
Federal AviationAdministration5Aircraft Maintenance RecordsRegulation Cited
Federal AviationAdministration6Aircraft Maintenance RecordsSept. 11, 1999 near Eagle Lake Texas.Continental Express Flight 2574 an EMB 120In flight the left horizontal stabilizer leading edge bent downand then separated from the aircraft.Attaching hardware had been left out of the upper lefthorizontal stabilizer leading edge.14 passengers and crew killed near Eagle Lake Texas.
Federal AviationAdministration7Aircraft Maintenance Records
Federal AviationAdministration8Aircraft Maintenance RecordsNTSB FindingDepartures from approved procedures included failuresto give proper shift / turnover reports, failures to usemaintenance work cards as approved, failures tocomplete required maintenance/inspection shift /turnover forms, and a breach in integrity of the qualitycontrol system.
Federal AviationAdministration9Aircraft Maintenance RecordsShift /TurnoverThe transfer of critical information between work groups orshiftsIt needs to be as detailed as necessary, depending on thetasks involvedSharing of information by the people doing the task
Federal AviationAdministration10Aircraft Maintenance RecordsWhy is Shift/Task Turnover ImportantData shows that poor shift/task turnover is a contributingfactor to accidents/incidents.Challenges related to shift turnover include:1. A high demand for teamwork and communication skills2. Lack of structured and standardized policies andprocedures3. Using a location that is not conducive for discussion andplanning
Federal AviationAdministration11Aircraft Maintenance RecordsWhy is Shift/Task Turnover Important4. Finishing workers are tired and want to depart the facility.5. Lack of adequate shift overlap to provide time to give one-on-one briefings between the teams.6. Absence of a process to ensure departing personnel havedocumented all tasks accomplished or started.7. Minimal training on procedures for shift/task turnover.High-quality shift/task turnover procedures enableimprovement in safety and accountability to allinvolved in the work.
Federal AviationAdministration12Aircraft Maintenance RecordsImplement a Shift/Task Turnover process• Formalize policy and procedures that make theturnover as important as the work.• Communicate policy and procedures to all personnel.• Deliver initial and recurrent training on how to conduct agood shift/task turnover.• Provide a time and place for formal shift/task turnover.• Consider technology enhancements that improve thetransfer of visual information (e.g., photos, graphics).
Federal AviationAdministration13Aircraft Maintenance RecordsPart 43.3 Persons Authorized to PerformMaintenanceThe holder of a Mechanic Certificate…The holder of a Repairman Certificate…The holder of a Repair Station Certificate…The holder of a Air Carrier Operating Certificate…The holder of a Pilot Certificate…
Federal AviationAdministration14Aircraft Maintenance RecordsPart 43.5 Approval for Return to Service AfterMaintenance, Preventive Maintenance…No person may approve for return to service any aircraft…that has undergone maintenance…unless,(a) The maintenance record entry required by 43.9 or 43.11has been made…
Federal AviationAdministration15Aircraft Maintenance RecordsPart 43.7 Persons Authorized to ApproveAircraft, Aircraft engines…for return to serviceafter maintenance…The holder of a mechanic certificate or an inspectionauthorization…The holder of a repair station certificate…The manufacturer…The holder of a air carrier operation certificate…The holder of a private pilot certificate…
Federal AviationAdministration16Aircraft Maintenance RecordsPart 43.9 Content, Form, and Disposition ofMaintenance Records(a)…each person who maintains, performs preventivemaintenance, rebuilds, or alters an aircraft, engine,propeller, appliance, or component part, shall makean entry in the maintenance record of thatequipment(1) A description of work performed.(2) Date of completion of the work performed.(3) The name of the person performing the work(4) The signature, certificate number, and kind ofcertificate held by the person approving the work.
Federal AviationAdministration17Aircraft Maintenance Records“Note”“The signature constitutes the approval for returnto service only for the work performed.”
Federal AviationAdministration18Aircraft Maintenance RecordsPart 43.11 Content, Form, and Dispositionof Records for Inspections(a) The person approving an aircraft for return to service…shall make an entry in the maintenance record of thatequipment containing the following information:
Federal AviationAdministration19Aircraft Maintenance RecordsPart 43.11 Content, Form, and Disposition ofRecords for Inspections(1) The type of inspection and a brief description.(2) The date of the inspection and aircraft total time inservice.(3) The signature, the certificate number, and kind ofcertificate held by the person approving the aircraft forreturn to service.(4) Certifying statement
Federal AviationAdministration20Aircraft Maintenance Records43.13 PERFORMANCE RULES (GENERAL)43.13 PERFORMANCE RULES (GENERAL)(a) Each person performing maintenance, alteration, or(a) Each person performing maintenance, alteration, orpreventive maintenance on an aircraft, engine, propeller, orpreventive maintenance on an aircraft, engine, propeller, orapplianceappliance shall use the methods, techniques, and practicesshall use the methods, techniques, and practicesprescribed in the current manufacturer’s maintenanceprescribed in the current manufacturer’s maintenancemanual or Instructions for Continued Airworthiness preparedmanual or Instructions for Continued Airworthiness preparedby its manufacturerby its manufacturer, or other methods, techniques, and, or other methods, techniques, andpractices acceptable to the Administrator, except as noted inpractices acceptable to the Administrator, except as noted in43.16. He43.16. He shall useshall use the tools, equipment, and test apparatusthe tools, equipment, and test apparatusnecessary to assure completion of the work in accordancenecessary to assure completion of the work in accordancewith accepted industry practices.with accepted industry practices. If special equipment orIf special equipment ortest apparatus is recommended by the manufacturertest apparatus is recommended by the manufacturerinvolved, he must use that equipment or apparatusinvolved, he must use that equipment or apparatus oror itsitsequivalent acceptable to the Administrator.equivalent acceptable to the Administrator.
Federal AviationAdministration21Aircraft Maintenance RecordsI’ve always done it this way!This is an example of what happens when we do not pay attention to detail, and do not followinstructions and checklists!A KC-135 Aircraft was being pressurized at ground level. The outflow valves which are usedto regulate the pressure of the aircraft were capped off during a 5 year overhaul and neveropened back up. The post-investigation revealed: that a civilian depot technician who, "hadalways done it that way," was using a homemade gauge, and no procedure.The technicians gauge didnt even have a max "peg" for the needle and so it was no surprise hemissed it when the needle went around the gauge the first time. As the technician continued topressurize the aircraft, and as the needle was on its second trip around the gauge the aircraftwent "boom" - the rear hatch was blown over 70 yards away, behind a blast fence!An incident like this is never funny and is further regrettable when we consider that thismistake is one that we (the taxpayers) will end up paying for. Fortunately, no one was reportedas being injured.This was a good "Lessons Learned" for making sure we have trained people, who have the righttools, and who are following detailed procedures. And it should serve as a reminder that justbecause you’ve always done it that way, it does not make it the “right” way!
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Federal AviationAdministration24Aircraft Maintenance Records
Federal AviationAdministration25Aircraft Maintenance Records(c) ((c) (CContinuousontinuous AAirworthinessirworthiness MMaintenanceaintenance PProgramsrogramsapproved under FAR Part 121, 127, 135, and 129 constitute anapproved under FAR Part 121, 127, 135, and 129 constitute anacceptable means of compliance with this section).acceptable means of compliance with this section).(b) Each person maintaining or altering or performing(b) Each person maintaining or altering or performingpreventive maintenance,preventive maintenance, shall do that work in such a mannershall do that work in such a mannerand use material of such a quality, that the condition of theand use material of such a quality, that the condition of theaircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or applianceaircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or applianceworked on will be at least equal to its original or properlyworked on will be at least equal to its original or properlyaltered conditionaltered condition (with regard to aerodynamic(with regard to aerodynamicfunction, structural strength, vibration and deteriorationfunction, structural strength, vibration and deteriorationresistance, and other qualities affecting airworthiness).resistance, and other qualities affecting airworthiness).43.13 PERFORMANCE RULES (GENERAL) (cont.)43.13 PERFORMANCE RULES (GENERAL) (cont.)
Federal AviationAdministration26Aircraft Maintenance Records91.417 Maintenance RecordsRecords of maintenance…must include--A description (or reference to data acceptable to theAdministrator) of the work performed; andThe date of completion of the work performed; andThe signature, and certificate number of the personapproving the aircraft for return to service.
Federal AviationAdministration27Aircraft Maintenance Records91.417 Maintenance RecordsThe total time in service of the airframe, each engine,each propeller, and each rotor.The current status of life-limited parts of each airframe,engine, propeller, rotor, and appliance.The time since last overhaul of all items installed on theaircraft which are required to be overhauled on aspecified time basis.The current inspection status of the aircraft, including thetime since the last inspection required by the inspectionprogram under which the aircraft and appliances aremaintained.
Federal AviationAdministration28Aircraft Maintenance Records91.417 Maintenance RecordsThe current status of applicable airworthiness directives(AD) and safety directives including, the method ofcompliance, the AD or safety directive number andrevision date. If the AD or safety directive involvesrecurring action, the time and date when the next actionis required.Copies of the forms prescribed by Sec. 43.9(a) for eachmajor alteration to the airframe, and currently installedengines, rotors, propellers, and appliances.
Federal AviationAdministration29Aircraft Maintenance RecordsRecord retention• The owner or operator shall retain the following recordsfor the periods prescribed:• The records specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this sectionshall be retained until the work is repeated orsuperseded by other work or for 1 year after the work isperformed.• The records specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this sectionshall be retained and transferred with the aircraft at thetime the aircraft is sold.
Federal AviationAdministration30Aircraft Maintenance RecordsINCORPORATION BY REFERENCE• You don’t have to write a book.• The regulations permit reference to technical data inlieu of making a long step by step detailed entry.• Common references include maintenance manuals,service letters, bulletins, work orders, advisory circulars(AC43.13-1B), and others.• Major alterations may reference STC’s.• Reference documents must be retained.
Federal AviationAdministration31Aircraft Maintenance RecordsWhat Must Be In The MaintenanceRecords?• Description of the work performed• Date the work was completed• Signature and certificate number of the personapproving the workΙ χερτιφψ τηατ τηισ αιρχραφτ ηασ βεεν ινσπεχτεδ ιν αχχορδανχε ωιτη αν αννυαλ ινσπεχτιον ανδ ωασ δετερµινεδ το βε ιν αν αιρωορτηψ χονδιτιονSIGNATURE ΙΑ 4456782435
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Federal AviationAdministration33Aircraft Maintenance RecordsAIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVESAn unsafe condition exist in a product.The condition is likely to exist or develop in other productsof the same design.
Federal AviationAdministration34Aircraft Maintenance RecordsRESPONSIBILITYThe Owner/Operator is primarily responsible formaintaining the aircraft in an airworthy condition,including compliance with ADsThe Owner/Operator is responsible for ensuring thatproperly certificated persons perform the work.
Federal AviationAdministration35Aircraft Maintenance RecordsRESPONSIBILITYMaintenance personnel are responsible when they areperforming inspections to determine that all airworthinessrequirements are met.Part 43.15
Federal AviationAdministration36Aircraft Maintenance RecordsRECORDSThe owner must keep a record showing the currentstatus of all applicable ADs.This record must include the following:The current status of ADs applicable to the aircraft,including the AD number and revision date, the methodof compliance, and the time in service‑ ‑ , or the cycles,and the date and/or time when the next action isrequired for a recurring AD.
Federal AviationAdministration37Aircraft Maintenance RecordsSteps to performing a successful ADresearch• Un-cowl and completely open the aircraft for theinspection.• Clean the aircraft.• Starting with the aircraft serial number, write downeach and every part number and serial number ofall installed equipment, to include the engine andits components, and the prop.• There are a number of good forms available for thison the internet.
Federal AviationAdministration38Aircraft Maintenance Records• Climbing under the panel with a flashlight andmirror to collect the model and serial numbers fromall the instruments is difficult.BUT…..• Murphy’s Law says that the instrument you misswill be the one with the AD note that is overdue.Steps to performing a successfulAD research
Federal AviationAdministration39Aircraft Maintenance RecordsAD sign offs in the records.• Some common yet incorrect entries foundin some records are:– “PCW” with no other informationor– “N/A” with no other informationor– an entry without enough informationor– “All ADs complied with”
Federal AviationAdministration40Aircraft Maintenance Records•No reference to next due date and time. “All other ADnotes checked for compliance” is an incorrect signoff.Problem maintenance record entry?
Federal AviationAdministration41Aircraft Maintenance Records
Federal AviationAdministration42Aircraft Maintenance RecordsSample Logbook EntryN12345 Tach/Hobbs: ____________ ACTT: ____________Enter the type of inspection(s) performed:Enter accomplishment of all A.D.’s including the number, revision date,method of compliance, and if recurring, the next time/date it is due.Enter replacement or inspection of any component part with AirworthinessLimitations (include part, serial number, and total time in service for thatcomponent).Enter removal and installation of any serialized components(include part, serial number, and total time in service for that component).Enter description of any other general maintenance performed.I certify that this aircraft was inspected in accordance with a (insert type)inspection and was determined to be in an airworthy condition. All workwas accomplished in accordance with current Federal AviationRegulations and manufacturer’s maintenance instructions.Signature_______________ Certificate #_______________ Date__________
Federal AviationAdministration43Aircraft Maintenance RecordsDESCRIPTION OF WORK PERFORMEDThe description should be in sufficient detail to permita person unfamiliar with the work, to understand whatwas done, and the methods and procedures used.“Show the same pride in your record entries as youdo in your work”.
Federal AviationAdministration44Aircraft Maintenance RecordsSummaryIt may be a simple airframe, engine, propeller log book,or an air carrier’s maintenance record system.A description of the work performed, date the work wasperformed and the signature with certificate number andtype are always required.
Federal AviationAdministration45Aircraft Maintenance RecordsCommon problems• No documentation.• Inadequate description of work performed.• Using the wrong reference.• Poor shift turnovers
Federal AviationAdministration46Aircraft Maintenance RecordsEasy solutions• Follow the regulations.• Follow company procedures (GMM).• Use the Maintenance Personal Minimums Checklist !
Federal AviationAdministration47Aircraft Maintenance RecordsBefore thetask
Federal AviationAdministration48Aircraft Maintenance RecordsAFTER
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Federal AviationAdministration50Aircraft Maintenance RecordsThe Southern Region FAASTeam isdedicated to quality customer serviceand we would appreciate yourfeedback on the critique sheetprovided.Thank You