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Women’s empowerment in agriculture index
 

Women’s empowerment in agriculture index

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Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI), by Ms. Esha Sraboni, IFPRI

Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI), by Ms. Esha Sraboni, IFPRI

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    Women’s empowerment in agriculture index Women’s empowerment in agriculture index Presentation Transcript

    • Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index: Results from Bangladesh Esha Sraboni Bangladesh Policy Research and Strategy Support Program International Food Policy Research Institute Workshop on The Feed the Future Zone in the South and the Rest of Bangladesh: A Comparison of Food Security Aspects 16 January 2013 Dhaka
    • What is Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)? • Survey based index designed to measure empowerment and inclusion of women in the agricultural sector • Commissioned by the US government’s Feed the Future (FtF) initiative to track changes in women’s empowerment as a result of their interventions • However, it can be used more generally to assess the state of empowerment and gender parity of women in agriculture • The WEAI was developed by researchers at USAID, IFPRI and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). The Index was piloted in Bangladesh, Guatemala and Uganda during the latter half of 2011 • Among 19 Feed the Future countries, Bangladesh is the first to have WEAI data representative of USAID’s Feed the Future Zone of Influence, as well as the entire country 2
    • How is the WEAI constructed? Five domains ofempowerment (5DE) Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)Gender parity Index (GPI) All range from zero to one. Higher scores mean greater empowerment 3
    • The Five Domains of Empowerment (5DE) Input in productive decisions PRODUCTION Autonomy in production Ownership of assets RESOURCES Purchase, sale, or transfer of assets Access to and decisions on credit INCOME Control over use of income Group member LEADERSHIP Speaking in public Leisure TIME Workload 4
    • Gender Parity Index (GPI)• Reflects the percentage of women who are as empowered as the men in their household• For households which have not achieved gender parity, the GPI shows the gap that needs to be closed for women to reach the same level of empowerment as men• In order to calculate the 5DE and GPI, both the primary adult male and female in a household are surveyed using the same set of questions 5
    • Why is the WEAI innovative?• First index to directly capture women’s empowerment in agriculture. Does not rely on proxies such as income or education• The domains reveal the areas in which both women and men are more/less empowered• Shows whether there is an empowerment gap between women and men in the same household 6
    • Data for constructing the WEAI in Bangladesh• IFPRI’s Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) was specifically designed to measure the WEAI• BIHS included modules which asked detailed questions on each of the five domains of empowerment• The WEAI modules were implemented in the FtF zone as well as the rest of the country 7
    • RESULTS 8
    • How many women have gender parity with the primary male in their household?100%90%80%70%60% 50%50% 48% 46% 45% 42%40% 35% 35% 34% 33%30%20%10% 0% FTF BARISAL RAJSHAHI RANGPUR DHAKA SYLHET KHULNA CHITTAGONG BANGLADESH 9
    • How many women are empowered in the 5DE?100%90%80%70%60%50%40% 34% 31% 29%30% 23% 22% 24% 20%20% 15% 12%10% 0% FTF BARISAL DHAKA RAJSHAHI KHULNA RANGPUR SYLHET CHITTAGONG BANGLADESH 10
    • WEAI for All Regions 10.90.8 0.738 0.718 0.7110.7 0.678 0.673 0.677 0.626 0.6370.6 0.5740.50.40.30.20.1 0 FTF BARISAL DHAKA RAJSHAHI RANGPUR SYLHET KHULNA CHITTAGONG BANGLADESH 11
    • How does women’s empowerment in the 5DE vary with age? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 27% 28% 30% 17% 18% 20% 8% 10% 0% 16-25 26-45 46-55 56-65 >65 AGE GROUP 12
    • How does women’s empowerment in the 5DE vary with education? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 26% 29% 30% 23% 25% 24% 20% 10% 0% Less than primary Primary Secondary Higher secondary University or above LEVEL OF EDUCATION 13
    • How does women’s empowerment in the 5DE vary with income?100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30% 26 27 24 25 1820%10% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 PER CAPITA EXPENDITURE QUINTILE 14
    • Which domains contribute most to disempowerment of women? FtF Zone Bangladesh INADEQUACY INADEQUACY IN TIME IN TIME 12% INADEQUACY 13% INADEQUACY IN ININADEQUACY LEADERSHIP INADEQUACY IN LEADERSHIP 32% INPRODUCTION 35% PRODUCTION 16% 15% INADEQUACY INADEQUACY INADEQUACY IN IN INCOME IN INCOME RESOURCES INADEQUACY 20% 15% 21% IN RESOURCES 22% 15
    • Which indicators contribute most to disempowerment of women in the FtF zone? Dissatisfaction with workload 5% TIME 12% DISCOMFORT IN SPEAKING IN PUBLIC 15%LACK OF INPUT INPRODUCTIVE LEADERSHIPDECISIONS 11% PRODUCTION 32% LACK OF GROUP 16% MEMBERSHIP 17% INCOME LACK OF 19% RESOURCES CONTROL OVER 21% USE OF INCOME Inadequate ownership of 19% assets 5% 16
    • How do major disempowering factors differ by region? Comparing FtF zone and Rangpur divisionFTF ZONE Lack of control over RANGPUR use of income 19% INCOME Lack of control over 11% use of income 11% INCOME Lack of input in 19% productive decisions 11% TIME Inadequate leisure 11% 16% Discomfort in Discomfort inPRODUCTION speaking in public speaking in public 16% 15% 16% LEADERSHIP 35% LEADERSHIP 32% Lack of group Lack of group membership 17% membership 19% 17
    • Similarities and Differences in disempowering factors among men and women: FtF ZoneWOMEN Lack of control over MEN use of income 19% Insufficient access to and decisions on credit 12% Lack of input in RESOURCES INCOME 19% productive decisions 17% Dissatisfaction with 11% workload 13% Discomfort in speaking in publicPRODUCTION 15% TIME 16% 25% LEADERSHIP 38% LEADERSHIP Lack of group 32% membership 25% Lack of group membership 17% Discomfort in speaking in public 13% 18
    • Conclusions• A large proportion of women are disempowered relative to men within their households• In general, insufficient control of resources, lack of decision making power in production and weak leadership in the community are major factors contributing to lack of women’s empowerment• However, policymakers must take into account regional differences in factors contributing to lack of empowerment of women• Different programs and policies will need to be put in place to empower men and women alike 19
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