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Patterns of agricultural production and practices

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Patterns of Agricultural Production and Practices, by Dr. Akhter Ahmed and Dr. Bingxin Yu, IFPRI at the The Feed the Future Zone in the South and the Rest of Bangladesh: …

Patterns of Agricultural Production and Practices, by Dr. Akhter Ahmed and Dr. Bingxin Yu, IFPRI at the The Feed the Future Zone in the South and the Rest of Bangladesh:
A Comparison of Food Security Aspects
Results of the 2011-2012 IFPRI Household Survey for the
Policy Research and Strategy Support Program --


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  • 1. Patterns of Agricultural Production andPractices: Feed the Future Zone and Other Regions of Bangladesh Akhter Ahmed Bingxin Yu Bangladesh Policy Research and Strategy Support Program International Food Policy Research Institute Workshop on The Feed the Future Zone in the South and the Rest of Bangladesh: A Comparison of Food Security Aspects 16 January 2013 Dhaka
  • 2. DataData for the analysis came from the Bangladesh IntegratedHousehold Survey (BIHS).Agricultural module of BIHS collected information onLandownership and tenure; agricultural production, input useand costs (plot-level data); livestock, poultry and fisheriesproduction practices; marketing practices and revenuesBIHS sample is: nationally representative of rural Bangladesh representative of rural areas of each of the 7 administrative divisions of the country representative of the FTF Zone of InfluenceBIHS started in October 2011 and ended in March 2012 2
  • 3. SURVEY RESULTS 3
  • 4. Inequality in Distribution of Arable Land Gini coefficients 0.6 0.5800.58 0.575 0.571 0.5580.56 0.551 0.5480.54 0.5200.52 0.508 0.503 0.50.480.46 FTF zone Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Rangpur Sylhet Bangladesh 4
  • 5. Inequality in Land Distribution in FTF ZoneThe distribution of ownership of 100 Cumulative percentage of owned arable landarable land in the FTF zone isextremely unequal 8042.5% of all households arelandless—they own no arable 60landAmong those who own land, 40bottom 25% of all householdsown only 3.5% of total cultivableland 20The other extreme: top 5% of allhouseholds own 27.7% and top 010% own 43.9% of all cultivable 0 20 40 60 80 100 Cumulative percentage of households in FtF zoneland in the FTF zone Lorenz curve Line of equalityGini coefficient: 0.55 5
  • 6. Purely Tenant Farmers 40 37 37 36 35 34 34 34 34 30 30 25 24Percent 20 15 10 5 0 FTF zone Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Rangpur Sylhet Bangladesh Divisions 6
  • 7. Distribution of Farm Size Groups FTF Zone Rural Bangladesh50 50 43.8 44.640 37.2 40 36.3 37.8 32.8 31.130 27.8 26.7 30 21.620 20 15.6 11.8 8.3 7.8 9.610 10 7.30 0 Marginal Small (0.5 - Medium (1.5 Large (2.5 Marginal Small (0.5 - Medium (1.5 Large (2.5 (less than 0.5 1.49 acres) - 2.49 acres) acres and (less than 0.5 1.49 acres) - 2.49 acres) acres and acre) more) acre) more) Percent of farmers Percent of farmers Percent of total operated land Percent of total operated land 7
  • 8. Fertilizer Use by Farm Size Groups FTF Zone Bangladesh 250 250 226 219 221 208 214 203 200 200 194Metric tons per hectare Metric tons per hectare 180 150 150 100 100 50 50 0 0 Marginal Small (0.5 - Medium Large (2.5 Marginal Small (0.5 - Medium Large (2.5 (less than 1.49 acres) (1.5 - 2.49 acres and (less than 1.49 acres) (1.5 - 2.49 acres and 0.5 acre) acres) more) 0.5 acre) acres) more) Urea fertilizer Urea fertilizer 8
  • 9. Rice Yields by Farm Size Groups FTF Zone Bangladesh 2.95 3 2.82 3 2.90 2.87 2.83 2.81 2.68 2.62Metric tons per hectare Metric tons per hectare 2 2 1 1 0 0 Marginal Small (0.5 - Medium Large (2.5 Marginal Small (0.5 - Medium Large (2.5 (less than 1.49 acres) (1.5 - 2.49 acres and (less than 1.49 acres) (1.5 - 2.49 acres and 0.5 acre) acres) more) 0.5 acre) acres) more) Yield of all rice Yild of all rice 9
  • 10. Comparing Fertilizer Application With Recommended Dose for Rice Crops: FTF Zone HYV aman HYV boro 200 300 269 260 181 166 250 Kilograms /hectareKilograms /hectare 150 200 101 100 91 150 131 130 121 69 100 50 43 64 50 0 0 Urea TSP MoP Urea TSP MoP Recommended dose Recommended dose Actual use Actual use 10
  • 11. Yields of Rice: FTF Zone 5 4.07Yield (metric tons/hectare) 4 3.75 3.80 3 2.81 2.51 2.32 2.13 1.93 2 1.41 1.51 1.18 1 0 Aus local Aus HYV All aus B. aman T. aman T. aman All aman Boro Boro All boro All rice local HYV HYV hybrid 11
  • 12. Cost of Production for Major Rice Crops: FTF Zone Cost per hectare Cost per metric ton 70000 65266 25000 20817 60000 Taka/metric tonTaka/hectare 20000 50000 46935 47765 15000 13749 40000 37632 12827 11773 31779 30000 10000 9295 9182 20360 20000 5000 10000 0 0 Local aman HYV aman HYV boro Local aman HYV aman HYV boro Full cost Cash cost Full cost Cash cost 12
  • 13. Way Forward (1)Improvement in food security can be enhanced by rapidly increasingthe incomes of small commercial farmers. These farmers dominateagricultural production. Providing smallholders with adequate accessto institutional credit and effective agricultural extension services arecritical for agricultural development in the FTF zone.Since there is little or no fallow land now available, future productionincreases in Bangladesh will have to come from higher yieldsThis will mean developing new technologies and innovations throughresearch to address production problems in flood, drought, andsalinity induced stress conditionsFood and agricultural technologies must be disseminated to farmersthrough effective extension systems 13
  • 14. Way Forward (2)Prevalence of landlessness is very high and increasing. The capacity toabsorb the growing rural labor force in agriculture is extremelylimited. A shift of rural labor force out of agriculture requires thecreation of rural non-farm employment opportunities in higherproductivity sectors. Rapid development of rural-urban food valuechains is important for generating non-farm employment andincomes.While private sector activities are increasingly creating employmentopportunities and income, the public sector should continue tocomplement private-sector activities. The GOB’s role in providing anenabling policy environment for the private sector is crucial in thisregard. 14