CHALLENGES AND
OPPORTUNITIES OF GM CROPS
P. ANANDA KUMAR
Institute of Biotechnology
ANGRAU
Hyderabad 500030
INDIA
2008: 1.15 b
2050: 1.50 b
POPULATION
“Food Security exists when all people,
at all times, have physical and economic
access to sufficient, safe and nutritious
...
COMMODITY 2000 2010 2020
FOOD GRAINS 208.0 266.0 343.0
EDIBLE OIL 6.3 9.4 13.0
VEGETABLES 80.0 117.2 168.0
FRUITS 22.2 42....
INDIAN AGRICULTURE
• Agriculture represents 14% GDP
• 126 million farming families engaged in
Primary agriculture
• 234 mi...
CHALLENGES
 Urbanization
 Diminishing area of cultivated land
 Soil erosion
 Salinization of land
 Depleting water re...
SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
 Malnutrition (40% of global
malnourished)
 Hunger (1/5th population)
 Undernourishment
 Micronutrie...
GM CROPS - OPPORTUNITIES
• Break Yield Barriers (Next Quantum Jump)
• Improve productivity - output/input ratio
• Improve ...
GM CROPS-THE PROMISE
More food
Better quality food
Safer food
Healthy foods
Designer foods
PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING
Genetic manipulation of a plant
species by introduction and expression
of a foreign gene or its ...
Dr Bruce Chassy, UIUC
GM CROPS
(Transgenic Crops)
• Resistance to pests and diseases
• Tolerance to drought and salinity
• Production of high yi...
GM CROPS
GLOBAL STATUS
Area of GM crops in 2013
is 170 million hectares in 28 countries
Herbicide tolerance
Insect pest re...
SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL
BENEFITS - 1996-2012
•Increased crop production and value by US$ 116.60 billion
•Provid...
Slow-Ripening Tomato
“Flavr-Savr”
(First commercialized GM crop-1994)
• Improved texture
• Delayed ripening
• Facilitation...
PEST RESISTANCE
Bt Cotton - 1995
• Carries a gene coding for δ-endotoxin of Bt
(Bacillus thuringiensis, a biopesticide)
• ...
Non-Bt (Tigers) and Bt cotton
Bt-cotton - First GM crop – 2002
Area – >10.0 million hectares - 2013
Bt cotton hybrids - 1200 - 2013
Net economic ben...
Bt-BRINJAL VARIETIES
(Fruit Borer Protection)
IIVR, UAS-D, TNAU
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PATNERSHIP WITH M/S MAHYCO
ABSP II
Bt Normal
(Cry1Fa; Patent No. 242768)
Licensed to M/S Bejo Sheetal
NRCPB
RBLB
.
I
pBinBt9LB
.
cry1Fa1
35S Pro
Fruit damage...
Parent Null Transgenic BS 6H (Bt)
AAU, Jorhat & NRCPB
(Cry2Aa; NRCPB Patent)
Plant Science, 2010
Bt-CHICKPEA
Resistance to...
BROWN PLANT HOPPER RESISTANT RICE
Osmania University
Nagadhara et al., Theor. Appl. Gen., 2004;109: 1399-1405
Snowdrop Lec...
DISEASE RESISTANCE
GM Papaya - Resistant to Ring Spot Virus Late Blight Resistant Potato
(Hawaii and China) CPRI-Shimla
HERBICIDE RESISTANCE
Resistant to eco-friendly herbicides.
Soybean, Corn, Cotton, Canola & Alfalfa
CONSERVATION TILLAGE AN...
NURITIONAL QUALITY
NUTRITIONAL QUALITY
“GOLDEN RICE” - β-carotene - Provitamin A
Dr Gerard Barry, IRRI
IARI,
New Delhi
DRR,
Hyderabad
TNAU,
Coimbatore
INDIAN GOLDEN RICE NETWORK CENTRES
Swarna
Jaya
ADT43
ASD16
BPT5204
MTU1010...
Qu et al., Planta 2005; 222: 225-233
IRON AVAILABILITY
FERRITIN IN RICE ENDOSPERM
Improved Protein Quality
Introduction of an Amaranthus gene
coding for a protein with balanced
amino acid content (WHO sta...
OIL QUALITY
• High oleic acid canola and soybean.
(Unsaturated Fatty Acids-Healthy)
• High Laurate Canola (Industrial)
(Co...
HYBRID PRODUCTION
• Creation of male sterile and restorer lines
• Use of bacterial genes Barnase & Barstar
(E.g. Bacillus ...
DROUGHT TOLERANCE
Transgenic maize which
expresses an RNA chaperone
gene is tolerant to salt and
water stress - USA-2013
A...
THE ROAD AHEAD
1. Several speed breakers.
2. Enormous cost of biosafey tests
3. Excessive GM regulation-Impediment to PRS ...
THANK YOU
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IGIDR-IFPRI - Challenges and Opportunities of GM crops P Ananda Kumar, ANGRAU

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Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Studies(IGIDR), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) on
‘Harnessing Opportunities to Improve Agri-Food Systems’ on July 24-25 , 2014 in New Delhi.
The two day conference aims to discuss the agricultural priority of the government and develop a road map to realise these priorities for improved agri food systems.

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IGIDR-IFPRI - Challenges and Opportunities of GM crops P Ananda Kumar, ANGRAU

  1. 1. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF GM CROPS P. ANANDA KUMAR Institute of Biotechnology ANGRAU Hyderabad 500030
  2. 2. INDIA 2008: 1.15 b 2050: 1.50 b POPULATION
  3. 3. “Food Security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preference for an active and healthy life” World Food Summit, 1996: FAO, 1996 FOOD SECURITY
  4. 4. COMMODITY 2000 2010 2020 FOOD GRAINS 208.0 266.0 343.0 EDIBLE OIL 6.3 9.4 13.0 VEGETABLES 80.0 117.2 168.0 FRUITS 22.2 42.9 81.0 MILK 84.0 153.1 271.0 MEAT, FISH & EGGS 6.2 12.7 27.0 SUGAR 12.8 17.3 22.0 TIFAC: TECHNOLOGY VISION 2020 FUTURE NEED Million Tonnes
  5. 5. INDIAN AGRICULTURE • Agriculture represents 14% GDP • 126 million farming families engaged in Primary agriculture • 234 million in agriculture sector • Average farm size – 1.41 Ha • 90 % production - domestic use • Export – $6 billion (1.5% of total exports) • 700 million people living in 683,000 villages • Human development index: 134/182 • Global hunger index: 23.7 (World 14.6)
  6. 6. CHALLENGES  Urbanization  Diminishing area of cultivated land  Soil erosion  Salinization of land  Depleting water resources  Vanishing energy resources  New threats (E.g., Ug99)  Global climate change
  7. 7. SPECIFIC PROBLEMS  Malnutrition (40% of global malnourished)  Hunger (1/5th population)  Undernourishment  Micronutrient deficiency  Anemia in women and children  Strict consumer preferences
  8. 8. GM CROPS - OPPORTUNITIES • Break Yield Barriers (Next Quantum Jump) • Improve productivity - output/input ratio • Improve quality of foods (Nutrition) • Minimize chemical inputs – pesticides and fertilizers (Safe & Sustainable agriculture) Mitigate adverse effects of Climate Change JUDICIOUS COMBINATION OF PLANT BREEDING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  9. 9. GM CROPS-THE PROMISE More food Better quality food Safer food Healthy foods Designer foods
  10. 10. PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING Genetic manipulation of a plant species by introduction and expression of a foreign gene or its own gene to confer a novel trait or character
  11. 11. Dr Bruce Chassy, UIUC
  12. 12. GM CROPS (Transgenic Crops) • Resistance to pests and diseases • Tolerance to drought and salinity • Production of high yielding hybrids • Improvement of protein and oil quality • Post-harvest traits • Metabolic manipulation • Therapeutics • Edible vaccines • Phytoremediation
  13. 13. GM CROPS GLOBAL STATUS Area of GM crops in 2013 is 170 million hectares in 28 countries Herbicide tolerance Insect pest resistance Virus resistance Male sterility Modified oil quality ISAAA, 2007 ISAAA, 2014
  14. 14. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS - 1996-2012 •Increased crop production and value by US$ 116.60 billion •Providing a better environment, by saving 443 m kg of pesticides •Reducing CO2 emissions-19 billion kg = 9 m cars off the road-2010 •Conserved biodiversity by saving 91 million hectares of land •Helped alleviate poverty by helping 15.0 million small farmers who are some of the poorest people in the world Brookes and Barfoot, 2014
  15. 15. Slow-Ripening Tomato “Flavr-Savr” (First commercialized GM crop-1994) • Improved texture • Delayed ripening • Facilitation of transportation
  16. 16. PEST RESISTANCE Bt Cotton - 1995 • Carries a gene coding for δ-endotoxin of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis, a biopesticide) • The gene confers resistance to bollworms • Protects the yield • Drastically reduces pesticide consumption (290,000 METRIC TONS OF PESTICIDE INGREDIENT)
  17. 17. Non-Bt (Tigers) and Bt cotton
  18. 18. Bt-cotton - First GM crop – 2002 Area – >10.0 million hectares - 2013 Bt cotton hybrids - 1200 - 2013 Net economic benefit - $ 225/ha Yield gain - 31% Reduction in pesticide sprays – 39% Increase in profit – 88% Second in global cotton production (34 million bales - 2013-14) Bt-COTTON IN INDIA
  19. 19. Bt-BRINJAL VARIETIES (Fruit Borer Protection) IIVR, UAS-D, TNAU PUBLIC-PRIVATE PATNERSHIP WITH M/S MAHYCO ABSP II
  20. 20. Bt Normal (Cry1Fa; Patent No. 242768) Licensed to M/S Bejo Sheetal NRCPB RBLB . I pBinBt9LB . cry1Fa1 35S Pro Fruit damage Control: 45%; Bt: 2% BRL II 2014-15 Bt-Brinjal (IARI/ICAR)
  21. 21. Parent Null Transgenic BS 6H (Bt) AAU, Jorhat & NRCPB (Cry2Aa; NRCPB Patent) Plant Science, 2010 Bt-CHICKPEA Resistance to Gram Pod Borer BRL I; 2014-15
  22. 22. BROWN PLANT HOPPER RESISTANT RICE Osmania University Nagadhara et al., Theor. Appl. Gen., 2004;109: 1399-1405 Snowdrop Lectin Field Trial at Maruteru ANGRAU Glass house Tests
  23. 23. DISEASE RESISTANCE GM Papaya - Resistant to Ring Spot Virus Late Blight Resistant Potato (Hawaii and China) CPRI-Shimla
  24. 24. HERBICIDE RESISTANCE Resistant to eco-friendly herbicides. Soybean, Corn, Cotton, Canola & Alfalfa CONSERVATION TILLAGE AND BETTER WEED CONTROL Roundup Ready Flex Bt cotton – Field tests CONTROL E-2 E-3 E- 6 Glyphosate tolerant Rice - IR 64 NRCPB
  25. 25. NURITIONAL QUALITY
  26. 26. NUTRITIONAL QUALITY “GOLDEN RICE” - β-carotene - Provitamin A Dr Gerard Barry, IRRI
  27. 27. IARI, New Delhi DRR, Hyderabad TNAU, Coimbatore INDIAN GOLDEN RICE NETWORK CENTRES Swarna Jaya ADT43 ASD16 BPT5204 MTU1010 Dr A K Singh, IARI
  28. 28. Qu et al., Planta 2005; 222: 225-233 IRON AVAILABILITY FERRITIN IN RICE ENDOSPERM
  29. 29. Improved Protein Quality Introduction of an Amaranthus gene coding for a protein with balanced amino acid content (WHO standards) in potato Ama1 - GM Potato Biosafety and Field Tests - NIPGR Chakraborty et al., PNAS 2000; 97: 7 3724-3729
  30. 30. OIL QUALITY • High oleic acid canola and soybean. (Unsaturated Fatty Acids-Healthy) • High Laurate Canola (Industrial) (Commercialized in USA, Calgene)
  31. 31. HYBRID PRODUCTION • Creation of male sterile and restorer lines • Use of bacterial genes Barnase & Barstar (E.g. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) • Production of high yielding hybrids • Hybrids of Canola Commercialized (Canada, Australia, USA) MUSTARD HYBRDS - BRL II FIELD TESTS - UDSC
  32. 32. DROUGHT TOLERANCE Transgenic maize which expresses an RNA chaperone gene is tolerant to salt and water stress - USA-2013 AFRICA CIMMYT-MONSANTO Melinda & Bill Gates Foundation
  33. 33. THE ROAD AHEAD 1. Several speed breakers. 2. Enormous cost of biosafey tests 3. Excessive GM regulation-Impediment to PRS efforts. 4. Losing time - Ecological disasters 5. Thousands of Deaths due to pesticide poisoning, malnutrition, anemia etc., 6. Strident anti-GM campaign 7. Many states declared their opposition to GM 8. “No Objection Certificate” – Rules 1989 9. Public awareness – Need of the hour 10. BRAI bill ?? Science based policy, Dialogue and Complementarity
  34. 34. THANK YOU

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