IGIDR-IFPRI - Adaptation Strategies and Policies for Climate Smart Agriculture N P Singh, NIASM
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IGIDR-IFPRI - Adaptation Strategies and Policies for Climate Smart Agriculture N P Singh, NIASM

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Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Studies(IGIDR), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) on ...

Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Studies(IGIDR), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) on
‘Harnessing Opportunities to Improve Agri-Food Systems’ on July 24-25 , 2014 in New Delhi.
The two day conference aims to discuss the agricultural priority of the government and develop a road map to realise these priorities for improved agri food systems.

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IGIDR-IFPRI - Adaptation Strategies and Policies for Climate Smart Agriculture N P Singh, NIASM IGIDR-IFPRI - Adaptation Strategies and Policies for Climate Smart Agriculture N P Singh, NIASM Presentation Transcript

  • Challenges and Opportunities of GM crops IGIDR-IFPRI Conference 24-7-2014 Nagendra Singh ICAR
  • Challenges and Opportunity of GM Crops Outline 1. What are GM crops 2. Why Do We Need GM crops 3. Present Status of GM Crops 4. Major Programs under NARS 5. Products under Evaluation 6. The Road Ahead-Challenges
  • What is GM Crop Technology Traditional Plant Breeding Selection of superior types from variation available within that species Limited Scope Genes can be transferred across the species barrier Limitless potential Transgenic (GM) Technology X
  • What is GM Crop Technology Transgenic Technology Precise Desired gene Commercial variety New variety Transformation = (only desired gene is transferred) Traditional Breeding Linkage drag Donor variety Commercial variety New variety Desired Gene X = (many genes are transferred) Crossing
  • Rate of Gain in Ag. Productivity is Declining Developing countries World Developed countries 0 1 2 3 Percentageincreaseperyear 1967–1982 1982–1994 1995–2020 Why Do We Need GM?
  • Why Do We Need GM?
  • Why Do We Need GM Crops? • Productivity enhancement • Nutritional and processing quality • Safer food-from chemical to genetic • Designer foods • Fiber crops • Timber • Bio-energy • Bio-fertilizer • Bio-pesticide
  • Global Adoption of GM Crops India is now 2nd in global cotton production
  • • First GM crop released in 2002 by Mahyco • 11 million ha in 2011-12 • Several hundred hybrids • 100% Yield gain • 50% reduction in pesticide use • >200% increase in profit Status of Bt-Cotton in India India is now 2nd global cotton producer
  • Phases in Transgenic Development & Commercialization Gene Discovery Genetic Transformation Transgenic Development Evaluation of Transgenics Molecular Breeding Comme- rcialization • Genes • Promoters • Constructs • Nuclear • Plastid • Events • Genotypes • Biosafety • Agronomy • Field trials • MAS • Variety development • Farmers • Consumers Gene Discovery Genetic Transformation Transgenic Development Evaluation of Transgenics Molecular Breeding Comme- rcialization Gene Discovery Genetic Transformation Transgenic Development Evaluation of Transgenics Molecular Breeding Comme- rcialization • Genes • Promoters • Constructs • Nuclear • Plastid • Events • Genotypes • Biosafety • Agronomy • Field trials • MAS • Variety development • Farmers • Consumers GM Crops Time line From Gene to GM Seeds at Farmer’s field0 10 year
  • Transgenics  Rice  Sorghum  Maize • Pod Borer  Pigeon pea  Chick pea • Boll worm  Cotton • Fruit borer  Tomato  Brinjal • Aphid  Brassica . Capsule borer Castor . Insect/pests Groundnut Drought and salinity stress Brassica Tomato Rice Sorghum Chickpea Groundnut Potato Delayed ripening Tomato Fungal resistance Rice Banana Virus resistance Cotton Soybean Tomato Potato Banana Papaya Cassava Insect/pests Major Programs under NARS ICAR- NPTC Project
  • RCGM contained open field trial (2006-07, 2007-08) Bt-cotton variety Anjali carrying Bt cry 1Ac, cry 1 Aa3 genes (LRK– 516 in 2006-07)
  • RCGM Contained Open Field Trial (2006-07, 2007-08) Desi cotton (G. arboreum), Cultivar RG-8-Bt carrying Bt cry 1Ac, cry 1Aa3 genes
  • RCGM Contained Open Field Trial of Transgenic Mustard (2005-06) Wild Type Transgenic Wild Type Transgenic Osmotin gene under stress inducible promoter
  • Tomato variety ‘Kashi Vishesh’, incorporating DREB1A gene (right side) show enhanced drought tolerance as compared to non-GM control plants (left side). (Courtesy Dr. Major Singh, IIVR Varanasi) Drought tolerant tomato
  • b c e d control Transgenic trs8 trs18trs19 trs 14 trs6trs15 a Symptoms caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense race 1 after challenging of transformed banana plants and untransformed plants. (a) External symptoms of transformed banana plants b. vascular discoloration of transgenic plants along with control treated with Fusarium spores. b) Control plant treated with Fusarium spores. c- e) Transgenic banana showing resistance to Fusarium wilt (Plant c to e represent -19,14 and 6) Banana Fusarium Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum cubense) -Sukhada Mohandas, IIHR Bangalore
  • Bt-BRINJAL VARIETIES with Cry 1Ac gene IIVR, UAS-D, TNAU Transgenics Developed outside the NPTC Project BRL II Trial Public-private Partnership With Mahyco ABSP II
  • Transgenic Golden Rice for Amelioration of Vitamin A Deficiency in Rice Eaters 30% of the Indian population is malnourished >50 % are anemic , mostly women and children
  • Golden Rice Stability shown in GH at IRRI and field tests in the USA Provitamin A levels 5X the original materials Backcrossing/selection into indica rice varieties in progress Expected release in India (2011-13) Freedom to release needs attention Cocordrie GR (Syngenta) Golden Rice indica background
  • ferritin 35S g7barGluB-1nos Sst I Bam HI Hind III ferritin Glo-Pnos Sst I Bam HI Kpn I ferritin Pro-Pnos Sst I Bam HI Kpn I Krishnan et al. Current Science, 2003 de-Vasconcelos et al. Plant Science 2003 High Iron and Zinc Rice Control Transgenic
  • Quality Protein Potato Seed Albumin from Amaranthus hypochondriachus (Balanced amino acid composition) Have added a high quality protein in Potato
  • RNAi for blast tolerance in rice – some of the selected putative tolerant entries (T4) in the blast screening nursery Transgenic product development by Indian private sector
  • 75 days after transplanting Observation for white earheads due to YSB Bt Rice
  • Herbicide tolerant cotton - Phenotypic observations at 14 days after spray Non-Spray Manual Weeding 1.4% Glyphosate Spray Non transgenic line Transgenic Events Herbicide Tolerant Events Herbicide Susceptible Event No weeding
  • 1. Food and Feed safety 2. Development of Super weeds 3. Loss of Soli fertility 4. Loss of genetic diversity 5. Dominance of MNCs 6. Unnatural (Moral and ethics) Opposition to GM
  • Opposition to GM: Moral and Ethical Issues Are we playing God? Natural Stable Population: Death Rate = Birth Rate The Population Explosion: Death Rate << Birth Rate Choice: Aging population vs Growing population? Role of Technology: Crucial to sustaining a growing population before it starts aging
  • Interspecific gene transfer: How unique are they?
  • Graphical representation of homology of predicted rice genes with expressed genes in 20 other species
  • Action Plan 1. Bio-safety Evaluation and Regulatory Mechanism BRAI, Role of ICAR; Bio-safety testing labs, Institute for Biosafety Bio- security, Enforce regulation, Efficient regulation, Research on resistance management; Central and state regulations, Cis-genics and INtragenics 2. Pre- and Post-release Monitoring and Evaluation of GM Crops Mechanism for M&E in BRAI/GEAC, Accountability and violation, Impact of Bt-cotton in India 3. Accessibility of Approved GM Seeds to the Farmers NSC, SSC, MRP, Subsidy, Seed Bill with farmer’s rights 4. Research and Development including PPP Mission mode GM development in public sector and PPP, Professional Bio-safety evaluation, IPR issues, Cis-genics, Orphan crops 5. Education and Public Awareness Remove ignorance apprehension, Scientist -public integration, Mass media electronic and print, KVK, FLD
  • The Road Ahead 1. The NARS public institutions and Indian private sector have shown the capability of developing useful transgenic events but need enhanced capacity to be globally competitive 2. Global IPR regime makes it imperative to have our own genes and transgenic events to make transgenic seeds affordable to the farmers 3. R & D in frontier areas of gene discovery and transgenic development through state-of-the-art National Institutions required (Genome decoding of Indian Species and Functional Genomics) 4. Human capital need to be developed in the frontier scientific areas including Genomics, Bioinformatics and Nanobiotechnology 5. Policy issues including, efficient regulation and technology competitiveness need attention to facilitate commercialization
  • Thank You