IFPRI -CSISA - Innovations in Production and Production Technology- R K Malik

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IFPRI- CSISA organized a one day high level policy roundtable on Sustainable Intensification in India’s Risk-Prone Ecologies: Investment strategies for productivity growth, resource conservation, and …

IFPRI- CSISA organized a one day high level policy roundtable on Sustainable Intensification in India’s Risk-Prone Ecologies: Investment strategies for productivity growth, resource conservation, and climate risk management” on May 19, 2014 in New Delhi.

This roundtable, brings together a high-level small group of individuals from the corporate, government, and research sectors to address one of India’s most urgent challenges to food security and economic growth—how to encourage private sector investment in accelerating productivity growth in India’s risk-prone ecologies while simultaneously conserving the environment.

There are solutions already in farmers’ fields and rural markets that respond to these challenges, and this Roundtable will highlight recent advances, for example: innovative financial products and information services for small-scale farmers; diagnostic tools for managing water and soil nutrient scarcity; custom-hired resource-conserving machinery for small farms; crop diversification and high-value marketing strategies; and stress-resistant wheat and rice varieties. But the search for solutions is far from complete. This Roundtable is meant to engage participants in a rapid-fire discussion of recent technical solutions in Indian agriculture, the prospects for policy change, and corporate outlooks for the next five years. The purpose is to help public and private sector players to identify common investment strategies, forge partnerships, and chalk out collaborative efforts to effect technological, market, and policy improvements in India’s risk prone ecologies.

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  • 1. Innovations in production and production technology R. K. Malik & Andrew McDonald CSISA Project, CIMMYT-India
  • 2. Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) Widespread dissemination of production and postharvest technologies to increase cereal production, resource efficiency and incomes
  • 3. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY PRIVATE SECTOR Contributions New products Hybrids New technologies Benefits Increase in sales Access to large no of farmers Backward integration CHAMPION FARMERS Contributions Take-up sustainable intensification Opinion builders Helping innovations Seed production SAUS and ICAR-KVKs Contributions Trained human capital Quality farmers New technologies DOA Field level extension Hubs -Generate value to farmers, target and refine technologies, facilitate custom services, guide private sector about quality products, services of customized products (seeds), development of human capital, dissemination and distribution of information, and access to technologies in IARS.
  • 4. MNREGA: Labor scarcity and wages
  • 5. Solution: Mechanization for Sustainable Intensification Original Widely Used Zero Till drill Paddy trans-planter (S Korean) Zero Till Seeder for High Residues Levels Paddy Trnas-planter (Chinese)
  • 6. 2002...................... Peter Jennings, FLAR, 2005 Yield Variety revolution (semi-dwarfs – 2 t / ha) 350 new varieties released Agronomic Revolution (management gain 2 t / ha, ) Creation of FLAR .......................1968 1995 The rice revolution in South America Acceleration of management gains Courtesy of A. Dobermann
  • 7. Green Revolution - Then Dwarfing genes allow product of photosynthesis for reinvestment in grain. Sustained selection for yield by diverting such savings into grain growth. Proportion of crop biomass ended up in grain increase from 30 to 50%. Increase in yield potential is through rise in harvest index.
  • 8. • Majority of area in rabi remain fallow mainly because less residual moisture left for rabi crop • Hybrid rice with shorter to medium duration can maintain or improve rice yield and vacate the field earlier which allows better opportunity to utilize residual moisture for rabi crops  Frequent drought and worst flooding – a cause of concern- Sub 1 and drought tolerant Shahbhagi Dhan  Hybrids in maize and rice  GM crops 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7 Hybrids Varieties Paddyyield(t/ha) Filling the food bowl now
  • 9. Direct Seeded Rice DSR in Odisha • Mostly by broadcasting method – shift to line sowing with ZT machine • Early seeding to facilitate rabi crops • Shorter to medium duration hybrids to facilitate rabi crops Bihar & Eastern UP Hybrids Inbred varieties DSR in Odisha • Mostly by broadcasting method – shift to line sowing with ZT machine • Early seeding to facilitate rabi crops • Shorter to medium duration hybrids to facilitate rabi crops & system intensification Bihar & Eastern UP
  • 10. Machine transplanted rice in non-puddled soil (MTUPR) Odisha • Saves labour (20 man-day/ha), water (10%), energy (tillage costs) and time • Higher productivity: – Facilitate transplanting of younger age (15-20 days) in line & maintain optimum plant population – Allows more tillering due to shallow transplanting. – Maintains more number of effective tillers • Early transplanting/short duration hybrids to facilitate double cropping (rabi crop) Bihar & Eastern UP Hybrids Inbred varieties
  • 11. Direct seeded rice (DSR), Machine transplanted unpuddled rice (MTUPR) and puddled transplanted rice (PTR)
  • 12. Rice establishment methods Pooled analysis (2010 & 2011) Establishment method Paddy Yield (t/ha) No. of Demos Std. Deviation DSR 5.322 563 .8325 MTUPR 6.776 145 1.2101 PTR 5.162 43 .6128 Total 5.594 751 1.0760
  • 13. Achieving SI: systems-based adaptations  Shorter duration rice (e.g. hybrids)  Early rice establishment  PH mechanization for rice  Zero-tillage for wheat  Land drainage The thermal window for wheat in SA is shrinking (wheat breeding +++) R.K. Malik et al.
  • 14. Laser land leveling (Interns report 2010) • Diesel pump based irrigation in EIGP is costly. • It’s less frequency and extent impacts productivity growth
  • 15. Results of rice NOPT trials and development of Rice-wheat Crop Manager (EUP & Bihar 2013) Estimate yield gain from applied N as a function of target yield Estimate yield gain from applied P as a function of target yield (16% yield gain) Target yield (t/ha) P-limited yield (t/ha) P2O5 rates (kg/ha) 4 3.4 16 5 4.2 20 6 5.1 24 7 5.9 28 8 6.7 32 Target yield (t/ha) N-limited yield (t/ha) N rates (kg/ha) 4 2.3 90 5 3.0 110 6 3.8 125 7 4.5 140 8 5.3 150
  • 16. Estimate yield gain from applied K as a function of target yield (14% yield gain) Target yield (t/ha) K-limited yield (t/ha) K20 rates (kg/ha) 4 3.4 23 5 4.3 29 6 5.1 34 7 6.0 40 8 6.8 46 K rate based on K balance approach vs yield gain approach
  • 17. Zinc response There was an estimated 11% increase in rice yield from application of Zn
  • 18. Linking SPs with Public & Private Sectors In Bihar & Eastern UP Farmer Wholesaler : Retailer 1 : 81 Eastern UP 1 : 106 Bihar
  • 19. All Service Providers: Feb. 2014 (1398)
  • 20. Dealer network in EUP & Bihar Source: Dealer survey by NAARM interns
  • 21. Capacity building of dealers and field officers – Hybrids – Seed treatment – Varietal selection – Weed management – Fertilizer management – Pesticide spray equipment and application technology – Pest management – Exposure visits – Mechanization – Training material – Messaging- like weather forecast, insect-pest alerts – Crop insurance and climate change – Crop manager- Nutrient expert
  • 22. Opportunities - many segments • Increase in yield means rising demand for inputs. We must encourage more farmers to use external inputs • We need to mainstream service providers and dealers to repair the extension system. • There is booming market for inputs but farmers need services. • Labour shortage means rising demand for mechanization in agriculture. • Climate change and crop insurance
  • 23. Months Business Activities January Paddy Thresher & Herbicide Spray (Wheat) & Rice Hauler February Paddy Thresher & Multi crop planter (Maize) & Rice Hauler March Zero-tillage (Green Gram) & Multi crop planter (Maize) & Rice Hauler April Wheat Thresher & Laser Land Leveller May Laser Land Leveller, Zero-tillage Machine (DSR), Mat-type Nursery & Sale of Rice Seed June Zero-tillage Machine (DSR), Mat-type Nursery, Laser Land Leveller, Rice Trans-planter, Bed Planting Maize, Sale of Rice Seed & Sale of Herbicide July Rice Trans-planter, Bed Planting Maize & Herbicide Spray (Paddy & Maize) & Sale of Herbicide August Rice Trans-planter, Herbicide Sale & Spray (Paddy & Maize) September Pesticide Sale & Spray (Paddy & Maize) October Zero-tillage (Mustard) & Laser Land Leveller & Sale of Wheat Seed November Zero-tillage (Wheat & Mustard), Multi crop planter-Bed Planting (Maize), Herbicide Sale & Spray (Wheat), Paddy Thresher & Sale of Wheat Seed December Zero-tillage (Wheat), Paddy Thresher, & Herbicide Sale & Spray (Wheat & Maize)
  • 24. THANKS