Hydropower project

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Introduction
What’s Hydroelectricity?
How Hydropower Works?
Essential Element of a Hydropower Plant
Classification of Hydropower Electric Plant
Show a Dynamic model of Hydel Power
Procedure of the Making Model
Equipment
Some View of the Project
Advantage
Disadvantage
Effect
Methods to alleviate the negative impact
Continent Wide distribution
Conclusion





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Hydropower project

  1. 1. A Project on Hydropower ¤ PRESENTED BY: Piyali Goswami
  2. 2. Table of contents: • Introduction • What’s Hydroelectricity? • How Hydropower Works? • Essential Element of a Hydropower Plant • Classification of Hydropower Electric Plant • Show a Dynamic model of Hydel Power • Procedure of the Making Model • Equipment • Some View of the Project • Advantage • Disadvantage • Effect • Methods to alleviate the negative impact • Continent Wide distribution • Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction: • Like most other renewable, water powers indirect solar power. Unlike most of the others, it is already a major contributor to world energy supplies. Hydro- electricity power is a well-established technology, which has been producing firm power at competitive prices for about a century.
  4. 4. What is Hydroelectricity? • When we use the energy in flowing water to produce electricity, we call it Hydroelectricity. • The name comes from the Greek word for water, ‘hydro’. Hydroelectricity makes a major contribution to the world’s energy supplies –more than any other kind of renewable energy resource.
  5. 5. How Hydropower Works:  Water from the reservoir flows due to gravity to drive the turbine.  Turbine is connected to a generator.  Power generated is transmitted over power lines.
  6. 6. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT:-
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS:- According to the availability of head 1.High head power plants 2. Medium head power plants 3.Low head power plants  According to the nature of load 1. Base load plants 2.Peak load plants  According to quantity of water available 1. Run of river plant without poundage 2. Run of river plant with poundage 3. Hydroelectric plants with storage reservoirs 4. Pump storage plants 5. Mini and micro Hydel plants
  8. 8. A dynamic model of Hydel POWER:
  9. 9. PROCEDURE OF MAKING THE MODEL (FLOW CHAT):- PLANE THE BOTH SIDES OF THE WOODEN BAR BY USING FILE CREATE A HOLE IN BOTH BARS WHICH DIMENSION IS SIMILAR TO THE BEARING SMALL WOODEN BAR IS USED TO SUPPORT THOSE BAR & MAKE IT AS A STAND INDIVIDUALLY BY USING PINS & HAMMER THE SHAFT IS PUSHED THROUGH THE HOLE OF THE RUNNER THE SPOONS WHICH WILL ACT AS BLADES ARE ATTACHED TO THE RUNNER THE SHAFT & TWO STANDS ARE ATTACHED WITH PROPER ACCURACY THE LARGER PULLEY IS ATTACHED WITH THE ONE END OF SHAFT THE MOTOR IS ATTACHED WITH THE WOODEN STAND BY THE HELP OF CLAMP & SCREW ANOTHER SMALLER PULLEY IS ATTACHED WITH THE MOTOR BOTH THE PULLEY ARE CONNECTED BY THE BELT PULLEY DRIVE ONE RESERVOIR IS ATTACHED OVER THE TABLE & ANOTHER IS UNDER THE STAND ATLAST THE PUMP IS SUBMERGED BELOW WATER LEVEL & A PIPE GO TO THE UPPER RESERVAR FROM THE PUMP
  10. 10. Equipment:-  TWO RESERVOIRS (MADE OF PLASTIC)  TWO WOODEN BARS (SAME IN SIZE)  ONE HOLLOW SHAFT (MADE OF AL & DIA 1.2 M.M.)  TWO PLASTIC PULLEYS  ONE PUMP  ONE TURBINE (RUNNER)  FIVE SPOONS (BLADE OF TURBINE)  ONE MOTOR (500 R.P.M.)  SOME PINS (TEN 1 inch & TEN 2 inch)  SOME SMALL WOODEN BARS  SHEET METAL  ONE SMALL BELT DRIVE  TWO BEARING
  11. 11. TOP VIEW OF STAND FRONT VIEW OF STAND TURBINE & SHAFT OVER AL VIEW OF STAND,PULLEYS,TURBINE &MOTOR……….. BLADES OF THE TURBINE PULLEYS
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES: Environmental Benefits of Hydro • No operational greenhouse gas emissions • Savings (kg of CO2 per MHz of electricity): – Coal 1000 kg – Oil 800 kg – Gas 400 kg • No SO2 or NOX Non-environmental benefits – Flood control, irrigation, transportation, fisheries and – Tourism.
  13. 13. Disadvantages:- • The loss of land under the reservoir. • Interference with the transport of sediment by the dam. • Problems associated with the reservoir. – Climatic and seismic effects. – Impact on aquatic ecosystems, flora and fauna.
  14. 14. Effects:- • Capture of sediment decreases the fertility downstream as a long term effect. • It also leads to deprivation of sand to beaches in coastal areas. • If the water is diverted out of the basin, there might be salt water intrusion into the inland from the ocean, as the previous balance between this salt water and upstream fresh water in altered. • It may lead to changes in the ecology of the estuary area and lead to decrease in agricultural productivity. Climatic and Seismic effects:- • It is believed that large reservoirs induce have the potential to induce earthquakes. • In tropics, existence of man-made lakes decreases the convective activity and reduces cloud cover. In temperate regions, fog forms over the lake and along the shores when the temperature falls to zero and thus increases humidity in the nearby area.
  15. 15. Methods to alleviate the negative impact: • Creation of ecological reserves. • Limiting dam construction to allow substantial free flowing water. • Building sluice gates and passes that help prevent fishes getting trapped.
  16. 16. The Indian Scenario: • The potential is about 84000 MW at 60% load factor spread across six major basins in the country. • Pumped storage sites have been found recently which leads to a further addition of a maximum of 94000 MW. • Annual yield is assessed to be about 420 billion units per year though with seasonal energy the value crosses600 billion mark. • The possible installed capacity is around 150000 MW (Based on the report submitted by CEA to the Ministry of Power)
  17. 17. Continent Wide distribution
  18. 18. CONCLUSION: • BASICALLY WE CAME ACROSS THE MAKING OF““A dynamic model of hydel power” • I ALSO FOUND OPPURTUNITY TO GO THROUGH THE VARIOUS TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS, MACHINES USED BY THE COLLEGE FOR MAKING THE PRODUCT. • THIS PROJECT GAVE ME A FARE CHANCE TO REFRESH OUR SKILLS IN DIFFERENT SUBJECTS. IT WAS A WORTHFUL EXPERIENCE WHICH HELPED ME TO CORRELATE MY THEORETICAL CONCEPTIONS WITH PRACTICAL ONES.
  19. 19. Reference: • BOOKS:- • “Power Plant Engineering” by P.K. Nag. • “Power Plant Engineering by” R.K. Rajput. • “Power Plant Engineering” by Arora & Domkundwar. • “Power Plant Engineering by” Black & Vitch. • “Power Plant Engineering” by Manoj Kumar Gupta. • “Hydroelectric Power Station” by David Barker. • “Hydroelectric Power” by Josepha Sherman. • Webs: • www.ept.ntnu.no/vk/publikasjoner/pdf/ArneKjolle/chapter7 • Vomit Siemens Hydropower generation • http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_turbine_types • http://hydropower.inel.gov/turbines/pdfs/doeid-13741.pdf • http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_history.html • http://lsa.colorado.edu/summarystreet/texts/hydropower.htm • http://www.groept.be/dam/HYDROpower.htm • http://www.wvic.com/hydro-works.htm • http://www.nju.edu.cn/njuc/dikexi/earthscience/chp6/dqkx3-1.htm • http://ncert.nic.in/sites/learning%20basket/energy10class/hydropower.htm • http://www.agro-labs.ac.cn/21c/jpg/2-1-5.jpg • http://www3.nstm.gov.tw/review/exhibit/0822_1/04/04-1.htm • http://vancouver.indymedia.org/?q=node/2544 • http://www.powerfoo.com/slzy.html • www.answers.com

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