ENERGY AWARE ROUTING PROTOCOLS GUIDE Dr. Aloknath De Ashish Joshi Vipin Kumar Garg
Routing protocol classification: Data Centric : helps in removing the redundant transmissions Hierarchical : clustering of nodes Location Based: use location based information to relay the date to a node rather than the whole network Network flow & QoS awareness
Classical approaches: Flooding & Gossiping Flooding: A node simply sends the copy of data to all its neighbors ,except from the one it has just received the data. Gossiping: Forward data to one randomly selected node to conserve energy. Distribute information slowly Dissipate energy at a slower rate.
Deficiencies of classical routing: 1. Implosion2.Overlap3.Resource Blindness
SPIN(Sensor Protocol Information via Negotiation )Key innovations: Negotiations : metadata Resource adaptationMetadata: Completely describes collected data Application specificSPIN Messages: ADV : meta-data REQ: meta-data DATA: Actual data + meta-data
Directed DiffusionDirected Diffusion is defined by four elements Interest : it is a query which specifies what user wants. Data Message : It is collected or processed information of a physical phenomena. Gradient : It is direction state in each node that receive an interest Reinforcement :This defines the one or small no. of paths from multiple gradient paths from source to originator of interest.
NamingPattern of a interest Type = wheeled vehicle Interval = 20ms Duration = 10s Rect = [-100,100,200,400]Pattern of a data message Type = wheeled vehicle Location = [125,250] Intensity = 0.6 Timestamp = 01:20:40
Directed diffusionSource BS BS Source (a) Propagate interest (b) Set up gradients BS Source (c) Send data and path reinforcemennt
Interest and Gradient An interest is usually injected into the network at some node(sink) in the network.Interest propagation : Every node maintain an interest cache, each item in cache corresponds to a distinct interest. When a node receives an interest it checks it in the cache.Gradient Establishment: Every pair of neighboring nodes establish a gradient towards each other. A gradient specifies both data rate and direction in which to send events.
Data Propagation When a sensor node detects a target searches its cache for matching interest entry. It computes the highest requested event rate among all its outgoing gradient. When a node receive a data message, it also search in cache to find matching interest entry. If no entry matched or has it has sent it to others already than data message silently dropped.
ReinforcementPath establishment using positive reinforcement : to reinforce the neighbor, the sink resend original interest message with higher data rate.Local repair for failed paths : A intermediate node also can apply reinforcement rules.Path truncation using negative reinforcement : it is possible that more than one path reinforced, if one path is consistently better, we have a mechanism to negative reinforce the second path.
REFRENCES Akaya K. ,Younis M. , “A Survey on Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks” , Elsevier Ad Hoc Network Journal, Vol. 3 (2005) Kulik, Heinzelman , Balakrishnan,MIT “Negotiation based protocols for disseminating information in wireless sensor networks” Chalermek Intanagonwiwat, Ramesh Govindan, “Directed Diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking”, IEEE transaction on networking,Vol.11,No.1,Feb.2003