Wireless sensor networks routing protocols


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Wireless sensor networks routing protocols

  1. 1. ENERGY AWARE ROUTING PROTOCOLS GUIDE Dr. Aloknath De Ashish Joshi Vipin Kumar Garg
  2. 2. Routing protocol classification: Data Centric : helps in removing the redundant transmissions Hierarchical : clustering of nodes Location Based: use location based information to relay the date to a node rather than the whole network Network flow & QoS awareness
  3. 3. Classical approaches: Flooding & Gossiping Flooding:  A node simply sends the copy of data to all its neighbors ,except from the one it has just received the data. Gossiping:  Forward data to one randomly selected node to conserve energy.  Distribute information slowly  Dissipate energy at a slower rate.
  4. 4. Deficiencies of classical routing: 1. Implosion2.Overlap3.Resource Blindness
  5. 5. SPIN(Sensor Protocol Information via Negotiation )Key innovations: Negotiations : metadata Resource adaptationMetadata: Completely describes collected data Application specificSPIN Messages: ADV : meta-data REQ: meta-data DATA: Actual data + meta-data
  7. 7. Directed DiffusionDirected Diffusion is defined by four elements Interest : it is a query which specifies what user wants. Data Message : It is collected or processed information of a physical phenomena. Gradient : It is direction state in each node that receive an interest Reinforcement :This defines the one or small no. of paths from multiple gradient paths from source to originator of interest.
  8. 8. NamingPattern of a interest Type = wheeled vehicle Interval = 20ms Duration = 10s Rect = [-100,100,200,400]Pattern of a data message Type = wheeled vehicle Location = [125,250] Intensity = 0.6 Timestamp = 01:20:40
  9. 9. Directed diffusionSource BS BS Source (a) Propagate interest (b) Set up gradients BS Source (c) Send data and path reinforcemennt
  10. 10. Interest and Gradient An interest is usually injected into the network at some node(sink) in the network.Interest propagation : Every node maintain an interest cache, each item in cache corresponds to a distinct interest. When a node receives an interest it checks it in the cache.Gradient Establishment: Every pair of neighboring nodes establish a gradient towards each other. A gradient specifies both data rate and direction in which to send events.
  11. 11. Data Propagation When a sensor node detects a target searches its cache for matching interest entry. It computes the highest requested event rate among all its outgoing gradient. When a node receive a data message, it also search in cache to find matching interest entry. If no entry matched or has it has sent it to others already than data message silently dropped.
  12. 12. ReinforcementPath establishment using positive reinforcement : to reinforce the neighbor, the sink resend original interest message with higher data rate.Local repair for failed paths : A intermediate node also can apply reinforcement rules.Path truncation using negative reinforcement : it is possible that more than one path reinforced, if one path is consistently better, we have a mechanism to negative reinforce the second path.
  13. 13. Wirelesssensornetworksimulatorv1.1
  14. 14. REFRENCES Akaya K. ,Younis M. , “A Survey on Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks” , Elsevier Ad Hoc Network Journal, Vol. 3 (2005) Kulik, Heinzelman , Balakrishnan,MIT “Negotiation based protocols for disseminating information in wireless sensor networks” Chalermek Intanagonwiwat, Ramesh Govindan, “Directed Diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking”, IEEE transaction on networking,Vol.11,No.1,Feb.2003
  15. 15. Thank you