ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCEPRESENTED BY :-SOURABH SHARMA
CONTENTS• INTRODUCTION• HISTORY OF A.I• GOALS• CATEGORIES OF AI• FIELDS OF A.I• APPLICATION• FUTURE SCOPE• CONCLUSION• BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTIONARTIFICIAL:-The simple definition of artificial is thatobjects that are made or produced by human beings ratherthan occurring naturally.INTELLIGENCE:-The simple definition of intelligence is aprocess of entail a set of skills of problem solving,enabling to resolve genuine problems.
INTRODUCTION OF A.I(CONT’D)Artificial intelligence is a branch of science which deals withhelping machines find solution to complex problems in a morehuman like fashion.Artificial intelligence is generally associated with computerscience, but it has many important links with other fields suchas maths, psychology, cognition , biology and philosophy ,among many others .
HISTORY (CONT’D)1950s : -The Beginnings of Artificial Intelligence (AI)Research:-The person who finally coined the term artificialintelligence and is regarded as the father of the of AL is JohnMcCarthy. In 1956 he organized a conference “theDarthmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence"to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machineintelligence of a month of brainstorming.
HISTORY (CONT’D)1960:-By the 1960’s, America and its federal government startingpushing more for the development of AI.AIs founders were profoundly optimistic about the future of thenew field: Herbert Simon predicted that "machines will becapable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do".The rise of expert systems also became popular due to thecreation of Edward Feigenbaum and Robert K. Lindsay’sDENDRAL. DENDRAL had the ability to map the complexstructures of organic chemicals.
HISTORY(CONT’D)1980:-In the early 1980s, AI research was revived by the commercialsuccess of expert systems, a form of AI program that simulatedthe knowledge and analytical skills of one or more humanexperts. By 1985 the market for AI had reached over a billiondollars.In the 1990s and early 21st century, AI achieved its greatestsuccesses, albeit somewhat behind the scenes. Artificialintelligence is used for logistics, data mining, medicaldiagnosis and many other areas throughout the technologyindustry
HISTORY (CONT’D)1990 :-From 1990s until the turn of the century, AI has reached someincredible landmarks with the creation of intelligent agents.Intelligent agents basically use their surrounding environment tosolve problems in the most efficient and effective manner. In1997, the first computer (named Deep Blue) beat a worldchess champion.In 1995, the VaMP car drove an entire 158 km racing trackwithout any help from human intelligence.In 1999, humanoid robots began to gain popularity as well as theability to walk around freely.
HISTORY (CONT’D)After 1990’s AI has been playing a big role in certaincommercial markets and throughout the World WideWeb.The more advanced AI projects, like fully adaptingcommonsense knowledge, have taken a back-burner tomore lucrative industries.
GOALSThe general problem of simulating (orcreating) intelligence has been brokendown into a number of specific sub-problems.These consist of particular traits orcapabilities that researchers would like anintelligent system to display.The different types of obtaining goals arelisted below are as follows.
GOALS(CONT’D)Deduction, reasoning, problem solving:-For difficult problems, most ofthese algorithms can require enormous computational resourcesmost experience a "combinatorial explosion": the amount ofmemory or computer time required becomes astronomical whenthe problem goes beyond a certain size.Knowledge representation:-Knowledge representation andknowledge engineering are central to AI research. Many of theproblems machines are expected to solve will require extensiveknowledge about the world.
GOALS(CONT’D)Planning:-Intelligent agents must be able to set goalsand achieve them. They need a way to visualize the future and beable to make choices that maximize the utility (or "value") of theavailable choices.Natural language processing:-Natural language processing givesmachines the ability to read and understand the languages thathumans speak.
GOALS(CONT’D)Motion and manipulation:-The field of robotics is closely related toAI. Intelligence is required for robots to be able to handle suchtasks as object manipulation and navigation.Perception:-Machine perceptions the ability to useinput from sensors (such as cameras, microphones, sonar andothers more exotic) to deduce aspects of the world. Computervision is the ability to analyze visual input.
GOALS(CONT’D)Social intelligence:-Affective computing is the study anddevelopment of systems and devices that canrecognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects.General intelligence:-Most researchers think that their work willeventually be incorporated into a machine with generalintelligence (known as strong AI), combining all the skills aboveand exceeding human abilities at most or all of them. A fewbelieve that anthropomorphic features like artificialconsciousness or an artificial brain may be required for such aproject.
CATEGORIES OF A.I1. Conventional AI.2. Computational Intelligence (CI).1. Conventional AI :-Conventional AI mostly involves methodsnow classified as machine learning, characterized by formalismand statistical analysis. This is also known as symbolic AI, logicalAI, neat AI and Good Old Fashioned Artificial Intelligence(GOFAI).
CATEGORIES OF A.IMethods include:• Expert systems• Case based reasoning• Bayesian networks• Behavior based AI
CATEGORIES OF A.I2. Computational Intelligence (CI) :-Computational Intelligence involvesiterative development or learning (e.g. parameter tuning e.g. inconnectionist systems). Learning is based on empirical data andis associated with non-symbolic AI, scruffy AI and softcomputing.
CATEGORIES OF A.ITypical problems to which AI methods are applied :-• Pattern recognition• Optical character recognition• Handwriting recognition• Speech recognition• Face recognition• Natural language processing, Translation and Chatter bots• Non-linear control and Robotics• Computer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing• Game theory and Strategic planning
FIELDS OF A.I
FIELDS OF A.I1. Automation:-Automation is the use of machines, controlsystems and information technologies to optimize productivity inthe production of goods and delivery of services.
FIELDS (CONT’D)2. Cybernetics:-Cybernetics is that of artificial intelligence, wherethe aim is to show how artificially manufactured systems candemonstrate intelligent behavior.3. Hybrid intelligent system :-Hybridization of different intelligentsystems is an innovative approach to construct computationallyintelligent systems consisting of artificial neural network, fuzzyinference systems, rough set, approximate reasoning andderivative free optimization methods such as evolutionarycomputation, swarm intelligence, bacterial foraging and so on.
FIELDS(CONT’D)4. Intelligent agent:-In artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent (IA) isan autonomous entity which observes through sensors and actsupon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) anddirects its activity towards achieving goals.5. Intelligent control:-Intelligent Control or self- organising/learningcontrol is a new emerging discipline that is designed to deal withproblems. Rather than being model based, it is experiential based.
FIELDS(CONT’D)6. Automated reasoning:-The study of automated reasoning helps producesoftware that allows computers to reason completely, or nearlycompletely, automatically.7. Data mining:-The overall goal of the data mining process is toextract information from a data set and transform it into anunderstandable structure for further use.8. Behavior-based robotics:-Behavior-based robotics is a branch of roboticsthat bridges artificial intelligence (AI), engineering and cognitivescience.
FIELDS(CONT’D)9. Developmental robotics:-Developmental Robotics (DevRob), sometimescalled epigenetic robotics, is a methodology that uses metaphorsfrom neural development and developmental psychology todevelop the mind for autonomous robots.10. Evolutionary robotics:-Evolutionary robotics (ER) is amethodology that uses evolutionary computation to developcontrollers for autonomous robots.
FIELDS(CONT’D)11. Chatbot:-Chatterbot, a chatter robot is a type ofconversational agent, a computer program designed tosimulate an intelligent conversation with one or more humanusers via auditory or textual methods.12. Knowledge Representation:-Knowledge representation (KR) is an area ofartificial intelligence research aimed at representingknowledge in symbols to facilitate inferencing from thoseknowledge elements, creating new elements of knowledge.
American Association for ArtificialIntelligence (AAAI) :-
APPLICATIONS OF A.I1. Hospitals and medicine:-A medical clinic can use artificial intelligencesystems to organize bed schedules, make a staff rotation, andprovide medical information.2. Heavy industry:-Robots have become common in many industries.They are often given jobs that are considered dangerous tohumans.3. Game Playing :-This prospered greatly with the DigitalRevolution, and helped introduce people, especially children, to alife of dealing with various types of Artificial Intelligence
APPLICATIONS OF A.I4. Speech Recognition :-It is possible to instruct some computers usingspeech, most users have gone back to the keyboard and themouse as still more convenient.5. Understanding Natural Language :-The computer has to provide with anunderstanding of the domain the text is about and this is presentlypossible only for very limited domains.
APPLICATIONS OF A.I6. Computer Vision :-The world is composed of three-dimensionalobjects, but the inputs to the human eye and computer’s TVcameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs can worksolely in two dimensions, but full computer vision requires partialthree-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views.7. Expert Systems :-A ``knowledge engineer interviews experts in acertain domain and tries to embody their knowledge in acomputer program for carrying out some task.
APPLICATIONS OF A.I8. Heuristic Classification :-One of the most feasible kinds of expert systemgiven the present knowledge of AI is to put some informationin one of a fixed set of categories using several sources ofinformation.
FUTURE SCOPE OF A.I In the next 10 years technologies in narrow fields such asspeech recognition will continue to improve and will reachhuman levels. In 10 years AI will be able to communicate with humans inunstructured English using text or voice, navigate (notperfectly) in an unprepared environment and will have somerudimentary common sense (and domain-specific intelligence). However the field of artificial consciousness remains in itsinfancy. The early years of the 21st century should see dramatic stridesforward in this area however.
CONCLUSIONWe conclude that if the machine could successfully pretend to behuman to a knowledgeable observer then you certainly shouldconsider it intelligent. AI systems are now in routine use invarious field such as economics, medicine, engineering and themilitary, as well as being built into many common homecomputer software applications, traditional strategy games etc.
BIBLIOGRAPHY• Programs with Common Sense :-John McCarthy, In Mechanization of Thought Processes, Proceedings of theSymposium of the National Physics Laboratory, 1959.• Artificial Intelligence, Logic and Formalizing Common Sense :-Richmond Thomason, editor, Philosophical Logic and Artificial Intelligence.Klüver Academic, 1989.• Logic and artificial intelligence :-• Richmond Thomason.In Edward N. Zalta, editor, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Fall 2003.http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2003/entries/logic-ai/.LINKS:- www.google.com www.wikipedia.com http://www.aaai.org/ http://www-formal.stanford.edu/ http://insight.zdnet.co.uk/hardware/emergingtech/