Network Interface Card

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definition of nic,description and implementation of nic and many more........

definition of nic,description and implementation of nic and many more........

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    • A network interface card, more commonly referred to as a NIC, is a device that allows computers to be joined together in a LAN, or local area network .
    • The network interface card acts as the liaison for the machine to both send and receive data on the LAN .
    • In computer networking, a NIC provides the hardware interface between a computer and a network.
  • 3.
    • Network interface card
    Network cards are typically available in 10/100/1000 Mbit/s varieties. This means they can support a notional maximum transfer rate of 10, 100 or 1000 Megabits per second.
  • 4. This old ‘combo’ NIC accepts both BNC (coaxial) and RJ45 (UTP) connectors.
  • 5. Need Of NICs
    • Most computer networks transfer data across a medium at a fixed rate, often faster than the speed at which computers can process individual bits.
    • To accommodate the mismatch in speed, each computer attached to a network contain special purpose hardware known as a network interface card (NIC).
    • The NIC functions like an I/O device: it is built for a specific network technology.
    • It handles the details of frame transmission or reception without requiring the CPU to process each bit.
    • Some NIC cards work with wired connections while others are wireless.
    • Most NICs support either wired Ethernet or WiFi wireless standards.
    • Ethernet NICs plug into the system bus of the PC and include jacks for network cables.
    • while WiFi NICs contain built-in transmitters / receivers (transceivers).
  • 7. Installation of NICs
    • The most common language or protocol for LANs is Ethernet, sometimes referred to as IEEE 802.3.
    • A lesser-used protocol is Token Ring.
    • When building a LAN, a network interface card must be installed in each computer on the network and all NICs in the network must be of the same architecture.
    • For example, all must either be Ethernet cards, Token Ring cards, or an alternate technology.
  • 8. Cont..
    • An Ethernet network interface card is installed in an available slot inside the computer.
    • Most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard.
    • A separate network card is not required unless multiple interfaces are needed or some other type of network is used.
    • Newer motherboards may even have dual network (Ethernet) interfaces built-in.
  • 9. WORKING
    • A computer or device on a network can be reached by its MAC ( media access control) address through the NIC card.
    • Every Ethernet network card has a unique 48-bit serial number called a MAC address, which is stored in ROM carried on the card.
    • The MACs on the network are used to direct traffic between the computers.
  • 10. Cont..
    • An example of a MAC address: A1B2C3D4E5F6
    • The first 6 hex digits in the MAC address is the OUI (organizationally unique identifier), assigned by the IEEE to each manufacturer (e.g. Cisco, Intel etc).
    • The rest of the MAC address can be assigned in any way by the manufacturer to the individual networking devices that it manufactures
  • 11.
    • The back plate of the network interface card features a port that looks similar to a phone jack, but is slightly larger.
    • A network card typically has a twisted pair, BNC, or AUI socket where the network cable is connected, and a few LEDs to inform the user of whether the network is active, and whether or not there is data being transmitted on it.
    Port In NICs
  • 12.
    • That port accommodates an Ethernet cable, which resembles a thicker version of a standard telephone line.
    UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) e.g. CAT6 (‘Category 6’)
  • 13.
    • Network Interface Card for connection of a computer to an Ethernet Network
  • 14. Wireless Ethernet cards
    • Wireless Ethernet cards are installed like their wired counterparts, but rather than a port for an Ethernet cable, the card features a small antenna.
    • The card communicates with the central wireless switch or hub via radio waves.
    • Wireless LANs may have some restrictions depending on the material the building is made from.
    • For example, lead in walls can block signals between the network interface card and hub or switch.
  • 15. NICs on network
    • The card implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a specific physical layer and data link layer standard such as Ethernet or token ring.
    • This provides a base for a full network protocol stack, allowing communication among small groups of computers on the same LAN and large-scale network communications through routable protocols, such as IP.
  • 16.
    • Sourabh Singh Rajput