Network Interface Card


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definition of nic,description and implementation of nic and many more........

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Network Interface Card

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>A network interface card, more commonly referred to as a NIC, is a device that allows computers to be joined together in a LAN, or local area network . </li></ul><ul><li>The network interface card acts as the liaison for the machine to both send and receive data on the LAN . </li></ul><ul><li>In computer networking, a NIC provides the hardware interface between a computer and a network. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Network interface card </li></ul>Network cards are typically available in 10/100/1000 Mbit/s varieties. This means they can support a notional maximum transfer rate of 10, 100 or 1000 Megabits per second.
  4. 4. This old ‘combo’ NIC accepts both BNC (coaxial) and RJ45 (UTP) connectors.
  5. 5. Need Of NICs <ul><li>Most computer networks transfer data across a medium at a fixed rate, often faster than the speed at which computers can process individual bits. </li></ul><ul><li>To accommodate the mismatch in speed, each computer attached to a network contain special purpose hardware known as a network interface card (NIC). </li></ul><ul><li>The NIC functions like an I/O device: it is built for a specific network technology. </li></ul><ul><li>It handles the details of frame transmission or reception without requiring the CPU to process each bit. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ETHERNET AND WIFI NICs <ul><li>Some NIC cards work with wired connections while others are wireless. </li></ul><ul><li>Most NICs support either wired Ethernet or WiFi wireless standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet NICs plug into the system bus of the PC and include jacks for network cables. </li></ul><ul><li>while WiFi NICs contain built-in transmitters / receivers (transceivers). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Installation of NICs <ul><li>The most common language or protocol for LANs is Ethernet, sometimes referred to as IEEE 802.3. </li></ul><ul><li>A lesser-used protocol is Token Ring. </li></ul><ul><li>When building a LAN, a network interface card must be installed in each computer on the network and all NICs in the network must be of the same architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, all must either be Ethernet cards, Token Ring cards, or an alternate technology. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cont.. <ul><li>An Ethernet network interface card is installed in an available slot inside the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard. </li></ul><ul><li>A separate network card is not required unless multiple interfaces are needed or some other type of network is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Newer motherboards may even have dual network (Ethernet) interfaces built-in. </li></ul>
  9. 9. WORKING <ul><li>A computer or device on a network can be reached by its MAC ( media access control) address through the NIC card. </li></ul><ul><li>Every Ethernet network card has a unique 48-bit serial number called a MAC address, which is stored in ROM carried on the card. </li></ul><ul><li>The MACs on the network are used to direct traffic between the computers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cont.. <ul><li>An example of a MAC address: A1B2C3D4E5F6 </li></ul><ul><li>The first 6 hex digits in the MAC address is the OUI (organizationally unique identifier), assigned by the IEEE to each manufacturer (e.g. Cisco, Intel etc). </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the MAC address can be assigned in any way by the manufacturer to the individual networking devices that it manufactures </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The back plate of the network interface card features a port that looks similar to a phone jack, but is slightly larger. </li></ul><ul><li>A network card typically has a twisted pair, BNC, or AUI socket where the network cable is connected, and a few LEDs to inform the user of whether the network is active, and whether or not there is data being transmitted on it. </li></ul>Port In NICs
  12. 12. <ul><li>That port accommodates an Ethernet cable, which resembles a thicker version of a standard telephone line. </li></ul>UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) e.g. CAT6 (‘Category 6’)
  13. 13. <ul><li>Network Interface Card for connection of a computer to an Ethernet Network </li></ul>
  14. 14. Wireless Ethernet cards <ul><li>Wireless Ethernet cards are installed like their wired counterparts, but rather than a port for an Ethernet cable, the card features a small antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>The card communicates with the central wireless switch or hub via radio waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless LANs may have some restrictions depending on the material the building is made from. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, lead in walls can block signals between the network interface card and hub or switch. </li></ul>
  15. 15. NICs on network <ul><li>The card implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a specific physical layer and data link layer standard such as Ethernet or token ring. </li></ul><ul><li>This provides a base for a full network protocol stack, allowing communication among small groups of computers on the same LAN and large-scale network communications through routable protocols, such as IP. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Sourabh Singh Rajput </li></ul><ul><li>SVITS INDORE </li></ul>THANKS