Immunity
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  • 1. SOUNDARYA .V I BDS 2009-2010
  • 2.
    • Is defined as the capacity of the body to resist the pathogenic agents.
    • Ability of the body to resist the entry of different foreign substances like bacteria, virus , toxic substances.
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Precursors in the bone marrow.
    • During fetal development.
    • Released into circulation.
    • T - Lymphocytes and B- Lymphocytes.
  • 5.
    • Produced in the thymus .
    • Formation during period between birth and few months after birth .
    • Thymosin – hormone.
    • 60-80% of the circulating lymphocytes.
    • Cell-mediated immunity.
    • Receptors are present on the surface.
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • 75% of T-cells.
    • Form a series of a protein mediators called L YMPHOKINES.
    • Stimulation & growth of killer cells.
    • Feedback stimulation of other helper cells.
    • Activation of macrophages system.
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • Kill and attack the micro-organisms.
    • Are activated by the helper T –cells.
    • Have receptors present on the membrane which bind to the antigens.
    • Cells release a lysosomal enzyme which punctures holes on the antigens.
  • 10.
    • Suppresses the functions of both the cytotoxic and helper cells .
    • Prevent excessive immune reactions that may harm the body.
    • Memory cells identify the organism for the second time and activate the other T –cells.
  • 11.
    • 20-25 %.
    • Short life span.
    • Bone marrow.
    • Plasma cell & Memory cells.
    • Humoral immunity.
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • 10-15%
    • Third type – non T , non-B cells.
    • Hydrolytic enzymes - lysis
    • FUNCTIONS :
    • Destroy malignant cells.
    • Attack viruses.
  • 14.
    • Substances that induce specific immune reactions.
    • Antigenicity- more molecular weight, more antigenic.
    • Proteins / Polysaccharides, complex lipids.
    • ANTIGENS:
    • Auto antigens
    • Foreign antigens
  • 15.
    • Produced due to antigenic stimulus and react specifically with it.
    • Formerly known as gamma globulins.
    • All antibodies are Immunoglobulin and all immunoglobulin are not antibodies
  • 16.
    • STRUCTURE:
    • Y-shaped.
    • Light chains.
    • Heavy chains.
    • Linked by di -Sulphide bonds.
    • Variable & Constant region.
  • 17.
    • Direct action:
    • Agglutination,
    • Precipitation,
    • Neutralization &
    • Lysis
  • 18.
    • Complement system:
    • Classical pathway-
    • C1 binds with antibodies
    • Alternate pathway-
    • Due to protein in circulation called
    • FACTOR 1.
    • Activates C3 and C5 .
  • 19.
    • Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
    • Myasthenia Gravis .
    • Grave’s Disease.
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis.