SOUNDARYA .V I BDS 2009-2010
<ul><li>Is  defined as the capacity of the  body to resist the pathogenic agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability of the  body t...
 
<ul><li>Precursors in the bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>During fetal development. </li></ul><ul><li>Released into circula...
<ul><li>Produced in the thymus . </li></ul><ul><li>Formation  during period between birth and few months after birth . </l...
 
<ul><li>75%  of T-cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a series of a protein mediators called  L YMPHOKINES. </li></ul><ul><li>St...
 
<ul><li>Kill and attack the micro-organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Are activated by the helper T –cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Hav...
<ul><li>Suppresses  the  functions of both the cytotoxic and helper cells . </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent excessive immune rea...
<ul><li>20-25 %. </li></ul><ul><li>Short life span. </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma cell & Memory ...
 
<ul><li>10-15% </li></ul><ul><li>Third type – non T , non-B cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolytic enzymes - lysis </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Substances that induce specific immune reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Antigenicity- more molecular weight, more anti...
<ul><li>Produced due to antigenic stimulus and react specifically with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly known as gamma globu...
<ul><li>STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Y-shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>Light chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy chains. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Direct action: </li></ul><ul><li>Agglutination,  </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation, </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralization...
<ul><li>Complement system: </li></ul><ul><li>Classical pathway- </li></ul><ul><li>C1 binds with antibodies </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. </li></ul><ul><li>Myasthenia Gravis . </li></ul><ul><li>Grave’s Disease. </li...
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Immunity

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Immunity

  1. 1. SOUNDARYA .V I BDS 2009-2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Is defined as the capacity of the body to resist the pathogenic agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability of the body to resist the entry of different foreign substances like bacteria, virus , toxic substances. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Precursors in the bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>During fetal development. </li></ul><ul><li>Released into circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>T - Lymphocytes and B- Lymphocytes. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Produced in the thymus . </li></ul><ul><li>Formation during period between birth and few months after birth . </li></ul><ul><li>Thymosin – hormone. </li></ul><ul><li>60-80% of the circulating lymphocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell-mediated immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors are present on the surface. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>75% of T-cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a series of a protein mediators called L YMPHOKINES. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation & growth of killer cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback stimulation of other helper cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of macrophages system. </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Kill and attack the micro-organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Are activated by the helper T –cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Have receptors present on the membrane which bind to the antigens. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells release a lysosomal enzyme which punctures holes on the antigens. </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Suppresses the functions of both the cytotoxic and helper cells . </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent excessive immune reactions that may harm the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory cells identify the organism for the second time and activate the other T –cells. </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>20-25 %. </li></ul><ul><li>Short life span. </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma cell & Memory cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Humoral immunity. </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>10-15% </li></ul><ul><li>Third type – non T , non-B cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolytic enzymes - lysis </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONS : </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy malignant cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Attack viruses. </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Substances that induce specific immune reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Antigenicity- more molecular weight, more antigenic. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins / Polysaccharides, complex lipids. </li></ul><ul><li>ANTIGENS: </li></ul><ul><li>Auto antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign antigens </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Produced due to antigenic stimulus and react specifically with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly known as gamma globulins. </li></ul><ul><li>All antibodies are Immunoglobulin and all immunoglobulin are not antibodies </li></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><li>Y-shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>Light chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Linked by di -Sulphide bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable & Constant region. </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>Direct action: </li></ul><ul><li>Agglutination, </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation, </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralization & </li></ul><ul><li>Lysis </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Complement system: </li></ul><ul><li>Classical pathway- </li></ul><ul><li>C1 binds with antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate pathway- </li></ul><ul><li>Due to protein in circulation called </li></ul><ul><li>FACTOR 1. </li></ul><ul><li>Activates C3 and C5 . </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. </li></ul><ul><li>Myasthenia Gravis . </li></ul><ul><li>Grave’s Disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid Arthritis. </li></ul>
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