Communication has been deemed as a process. The term process refers to identifiable flow of information through interrelated stages of analysis directed toward the achievement of an objective. In the case of social action, the concept of process is dynamic rather than static in which events and relationships are seen as dynamic , continuous, and flexible;
There are four elements in the process- action, a continuous change in time, advancement or progress over time, and a goal or result. The communication being a social process is a dynamic one, thus , cannot be studied in sort of stop action.
Communication, being a process, must have some elements to complete the process-
Sender - Sender of the message is the person who contacts other other person with the objective of passing the message . In organizational context , the sender may be a superior, a subordinate, a peer, or any other person .The organizational position of the sender determines the direction of communication in the organizational .
2. Message – Message is the subject matter of the communication which is intended to be passed to the receiver from the sender. Message may be in the from of ideas, opinions, feelings, views, orders, suggestion, etc.
3. Encoding – Since the ideas opinions, feelings, views, orders, suggestion, etc. which are the subject matter of communication are abstract and intangible, their transmission requires the certain symbols such as words, pictures, gestures and other body language.
4. Channel – Message converted in to symbols in transmitted by sender through a channel like written word in the form of latter or electronic mail, spoken word through personal contact or telephone depending on the situation of the parties – sender and receiver.
5. Receiver – Receiver is the person to whom message is sent. Like the sender, the receiver may be a soupier, a subordinate a, peer , or any other person in the organizational context.
6. Decoding - Decoding is just the reveres of encoding , the receiver converts the communication symbols transmitted by the sender in to message . Like encoding , decoding should also be meaningful so that receiver understands the message in the sense which is intended by the sender.
7. Feedback – Feedback in communication is required to ensure that the receiver has received the message and understand it in the same sense as the receiver intended. Feedback is a common feature of all system whether man- made or natural. Feedback is a system that helps in understanding whether the system is working properly.