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  • 1. Chapter 9 High-Speed Digital Access: DSL, Cable Modem, and SONET
  • 2. 9.1 DSL Technology ADSL Other DSL Technologies
  • 3. ADSL is an asymmetric communication technology designed for residential users; it is not suitable for businesses. Note :
  • 4. The existing local loops can handle bandwidths up to 1.1 MHz. Note :
  • 5. ADSL is an adaptive technology. The system uses a data rate based on the condition of the local loop line. Note :
  • 6. Figure 9.1 DMT
  • 7. Figure 9.2 Bandwidth division
  • 8. Figure 9.3 ADSL modem
  • 9. Figure 9.4 DSLAM
  • 10. 9.2 Cable Modem Traditional Cable Networks HFC Network Sharing CM and CMTS DOCSIS
  • 11. Figure 9.5 Traditional cable TV network
  • 12. Communication in the traditional cable TV network is unidirectional. Note :
  • 13. Figure 9.6 HFC network
  • 14. Communication in an HFC cable TV network can be bidirectional. Note :
  • 15. Figure 9.7 Coaxial cable bands
  • 16. Downstream data are modulated using the 64-QAM modulation technique. Note :
  • 17. The theoretical downstream data rate is 30 Mbps . Note :
  • 18. Upstream data are modulated using the QPSK modulation technique. Note :
  • 19. The theoretical upstream data rate is 12 Mbps. Note :
  • 20. Figure 9.8 Cable modem
  • 21. Figure 9.9 CMTS
  • 22. 9.3 SONET SONET Devices SONET Frame Frame Transmission Synchronous Transport Signals STS-1 Virtual Tributaries Higher-Rate Service
  • 23. SONET is a synchronous TDM system controlled by a master clock. Note :
  • 24. Figure 9.10 A SONET
  • 25. Figure 9.11 Frame format
  • 26. Table 9.1 SONET rates 2377.728 2405.376 2488.32 OC-48 STS-48 9510.912 9621.604 9953.28 OC-192 STS-192 OC-36 OC-24 OC-18 OC-12 OC-9 OC-3 OC-1 OC 1783.296 1804.032 1866.23 STS-36 1188.864 1202.688 1244.16 STS-24 891.648 902.016 933.12 STS-18 594.432 601.344 622.08 STS-12 445.824 451.008 466.56 STS-9 148.608 150.336 155.52 STS-3 49.536 50.12 51.84 STS-1 User (Mbps) SPE (Mbps) Rate (Mbps) STS
  • 27. Figure 9.12 Data rate
  • 28. Figure 9.13 VT types
  • 29. Figure 9.14 STS multiplexing