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Cloud computing Cloud computing Document Transcript

  • 1 CLOUD COMPUTING 1. IntroductionDue to advances in networking and virtualization technology, new paradigms of providing ITinfrastructure, computing and software have emerged – among them the so-called Cloud Computing. TheNational Institute of Standards and Technology defines Cloud Computing as ―a model for enablingconvenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of computing resources (e.g., networks, servers,storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimalmanagement effort or service provider interaction.‖ Inherent to this model are privacy problems. By usingservices in the Cloud, clients lose control over their data. Current security mechanisms focus onprotecting the data transfer to and from the service provider. But the threat of insider attacks keeps manypotential customers from using Cloud Computing in critical or sensitive scenarios (e.g., scenarioscomprising business secrets or customer data). For a pure storage service, providing protection againstinsider attacks can be easily achieved by encrypting all data on the client side. As this prevents the serverfrom performing any meaningful operation on the data, more complex services require advancedtechniques. There are cryptographic methods like secure multiparty computation or private informationretrieval that in principle can solve all privacy problems, especially since a fully homomorphicencryption method was discovered in 2009 which allows calculations on encrypted data. However, due tohigh communication and computation costs, these methods are infeasible and their costs out weight allbenefits of outsourcing. Nevertheless, we need privacy and security guarantees for Cloud Computing inorder to use it in sensitive scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new security notion that can be applied tooutsourced databases as well as an architecture for services. We suggest partitioning a service on the basisof its duties and deploying the parts on different servers. For two examples we show that it is possible toprovably provide a certain level of privacy using Separation of Duties, assuming the adversary has accessto only one server. In contrast to secret sharing, this approach respects algorithms and data structures andthus preserves the efficiency of the services.2. Attributes/CapabilitiesUbiquitous, Accessibility, Reliability, Scalability, Autonomic, Dynamic, Discovery, Computability.i)Gaining InteroperabilityInteroperability can be reached when two systems use the same interface and so can exchangeinformation, defined by that standard‘s data model. A common interface for both previously described Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 2frameworks would be an API which supports the deployment, management and monitoring of virtualworkloads like virtual machines.ii)The Open Cloud Computing InterfaceThe Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) is a working group organized within the Open Grid Forum[16]. Motivation for founding this group was the lack of a standard for Infrastructure as a Service modelbased clouds. The open standardization process is driven by the following topics:• Interoperability describes the ability to let different systems integrate with each other. Most known usecase for this is the creation of Inter clouds.• Portability defines the need for easy code reuse in end-user application like cloud clients or portals.• Integration is the idea of wiring up Cloud computing services with legacy re- sourcesiii)Cloud Storage • Several large Web companies are now exploiting the fact that they have data storage capacity that can be hired out to others. – Allows data stored remotely to be temporarily cached on desktop computers, mobile phones or other Internet-linked devices. – Amazon‘s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Simple Storage Solution (S3) are well known examples – Mechanical Turkiv)Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) • Unlimited Storage. • Pay for what you use: – $0.20 per GByte of data transferred, – $0.15 per GByte-Month for storage used, – Second Life Update: • 1TBytes, 40,000 downloads in 24 hours - $200 Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 3 3.Abstracti)What is Cloud Computing?The National Institute of Standards and Technology defines Cloud Computing as ―A model for enabling convenient,on-demand network access to a shared pool of computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications,and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service providerinteraction.‖ii)Everyone is talking about “the cloud.” But what does it mean?Business applications are moving to the cloud. It‘s not just a fad—the shift from traditional software models to theInternet has steadily gained momentum over the last 10 years. Looking ahead, the next decade of cloud computingpromises new ways to collaborate everywhere, through mobile devices.iii)Life Before Cloud Computing:Traditional business applications have always been very complicated and expensive. The amount and variety ofhardware and software required to run them are daunting. You need a whole team of experts to install, configure,test, run, secure, and update them.When you multiply this effort across dozens or hundreds of apps, it‘s easy to see why the biggest companies withthe best IT departments aren‘t getting the apps they need. Small and mid-sized businesses don‘t stand a chance.iv)Cloud Computing : A Better Way:With cloud computing, you eliminate those headaches because you‘re not managing hardware and software—that‘sthe responsibility of an experienced vendor like The shared infrastructure means it works like autility: You only pay for what you need, upgrades are automatic, and scaling up or down is easy. Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 4Cloud-based apps can be up and running in days or weeks, and they cost less. With a cloud app, you just open abrowser, log in, customize the app, and start using it.Businesses are running all kinds of apps in the cloud, like customer relationship management (CRM), HR,accounting, and much more. Some of the world‘s largest companies moved their applications to the cloud after rigorously testing the security and reliability of our infrastructure.As cloud computing grows in popularity, thousands of companies are simply rebranding their non-cloud productsand services as ―cloud computing.‖ Always dig deeper when evaluating cloud offerings and keep in mind that if youhave to buy and manage hardware and software, what you‘re looking at isn‘t really cloud computing but a falsecloud. 4.Descriptive Summaryi)Cloud Computing: What‘s this entire buzz about?Well, the cloud is something that you have been using for a long time now in the form of the Internet. Then, what isit that is creating this buzz about cloud computing. So here are the cloud computing features that make it the latestsensation promising to shape the entire future of modern computing. The cloud has a trajectory that is hard to plotand a scope that reaches into so many aspects of our daily life that innovation can occur across a broad range. Thecloud computing benefits are so immense that it is looked upon as a utility model of computing, with which anapplication can start small and grow to be enormous overnight.ii)Cloud Computing Basics: Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 5The use of the word ―cloud‖ tries to describe the two essential concepts, namely.A) Abstraction : The absolute details of system implementation are hidden from users and developers, theapplications are run on physical systems that aren‘t specified, and administration of such systems is outsourced toothers, data is stored in locations that are unknown, and access by users is ubiquitous.B) Virtualization : systems are virtualized by pooling and sharing of resources. Storage can be provided as neededfrom a centralized infrastructure, costs are assessed and levied with a pay-as-you-use model, multiple tenants areallowed, and resources are scalable Cloud Computing FeaturesThe following are an ideal cloud computing model’s features, which will helpyou to assess the value proposition of a cloud.C) Elasticity : You have the ability to right-size resources as required by your application. This feature not onlyallows you to optimize your system but also capture all the possibilities that come your way.D) Scalability : You have access to unlimited computer resources as needed, because the cloud provides infiniteresource pool. This feature eliminates the need for careful planning and intelligent provisioning, while enablingbatch processing, which greatly speeds up high-processing applications.E) Utility model : A pay-as-you-use model matches resources to your need on a continuous basis, which eliminatesthe wastage of funds and has the most powerful added advantage of shifting risk from the client to the serviceprovider.F) Low barrier to entry : Gaining access to systems is cheaper than ever,and only requires for a small investment.This feature offers the cloud users to access globally distributed resources and helps the small ventures by providingthe ability to experiment and succeed with minimal risk. Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 6Cloud Service Providers and Platform All The Devices Are Connected To Cloud Through Internet Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 75) i) Cloud Framewo Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 85. ii)Commercial Cloud Offerings5. iii)Cloud Architecture Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 95. iv)Different Cloud Computing Layers6. Advantages of Cloud Computing • Lower computer costs: Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 10 – You do not need a high-powered and high-priced computer .To run cloud computing web-based applications. – Since applications run in the cloud, not on the desktop PC, your desktop PC does not need the processing power or hard disk space demanded by traditional desktop software. – When you are using web-based applications, your PC can be less expensive, with a smaller hard disk, less memory, more efficient processor... – In fact, your PC in this scenario does not even need a CD or DVD drive, as no software programs have to be loaded and no document files need to be saved. • Improved performance: – With few large programs hogging your computers memory, you will see better performance from your PC. – Computers in a cloud computing system boot and run faster because they have fewer programs and processes loaded into memory… • Reduced software costs: – Instead of purchasing expensive software applications, you can get most of what you need for free. • Most cloud computing applications today, such as the Google Docs suite. – better than paying for similar commercial software • Which alone may be justification for switching to cloud applications. • Instant software updates: – Another advantage to cloud computing is that you are no longer faced with choosing between obsolete software and high upgrade costs. – When the application is web-based, updates happen automatically • Available the next time you log into the cloud. – When you access a web-based application, you get the latest version • Without needing to pay for or download an upgrade. • Improved document format compatibility. – You do not have to worry about the documents you create on your machine being compatible with other users applications or OSes There are potentially no format incompatibilities when everyone is sharing documents and applications in the cloud • Universal document access: – That is not a problem with cloud computing, because you do not take your documents with you. – Instead, they stay in the cloud, and you can access them whenever you have a computer and an Internet connection – Documents are instantly available from wherever you are • Latest version availability: – When you edit a document at home, that edited version is what you see when you access the document at work. – The cloud always hosts the latest version of your documents • as long as you are connected, you are not in danger of having an outdated version • Easier group collaboration: – Sharing documents leads directly to better collaboration. – Many users do this as it is an important advantages of cloud computing • multiple users can collaborate easily on documents and projects • Device independence. – You are no longer tethered to a single computer or network. – Changes to computers, applications and documents follow you through the cloud. – Move to a portable device, and your applications and documents are still available.7. Disadvantages of Cloud Computing • Requires a constant Internet connection: – Cloud computing is impossible if you cannot connect to the Internet. Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 11 – Since you use the Internet to connect to both your applications and documents, if you do not have an Internet connection you cannot access anything, even your own documents. – A dead Internet connection means no work and in areas where Internet connections are few or inherently unreliable, this could be a deal-breaker. • Does not work well with low-speed connections: – Similarly, a low-speed Internet connection, such as that found with dial-up services, makes cloud computing painful at best and often impossible. – Web-based applications require a lot of bandwidth to download, as do large documents. • Features might be limited: – This situation is bound to change, but today many web-based applications simply are not as full- featured as their desktop-based applications. • For example, you can do a lot more with Microsoft PowerPoint than with Google Presentations web-based offering • Stored data can be lost: – Theoretically, data stored in the cloud is safe, replicated across multiple machines. – But on the off chance that your data goes missing, you have no physical or local backup. • Put simply, relying on the cloud puts you at risk if the cloud lets you down.8. Global Cloud Exchanges and MarketsEnterprises currently employ Cloud services in order to improve the scalability of their services and to deal withbursts in resource demands. However, at present, service providers have inflexible pricing, generally limited to flatrates or tariffs based on usage thresholds, and consumers are restricted to offerings from a single provider at a time.Also, many providers have proprietary interfaces to their services thus restricting the ability of consumers to swapone provider for another. For Cloud computing to mature, it is required that the services follow standard interfaces.This would enable services to be commoditized and thus, would pave the way for the creation of a marketinfrastructure for trading in services. An example of such a market system, modeled on real-world exchanges. Themarket directory allows participants to locate providers or consumersWith the right offers. Auctioneers periodically clear bids and asks received from market participants. The bankingsystem ensures that financial transactions pertaining to agreements between participants are carried out.Brokers perform the same function in such a market as they do in real-world markets: they mediate betweenconsumers and providers by buying capacity from the provider and sub-leasing these to the consumers. A broker canaccept requests from many users who have a choice of submitting their requirements to different brokers.Consumers, brokers and providers are bound to their requirements and related compensations through SLAs. AnSLA specifies the details of the service to be provided in terms of metrics agreed upon by all parties, and penaltiesfor meeting and violating the expectations, respectively.Table:Comparison of Some Representative Cloud Platforms. Amazon Google Microsoft Sun GRIDS LabSystem Elastic Compute App Engine Azure Aneka Cloud (EC2) (Sun Grid)Property Software Focus Infrastructure Platform Platform Infrastructure platform for enterprise Clouds Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 12 Compute, Web Web and non Compute Compute Service Type Storage application web (Amazon S3) application OS level Application OS level Job Resource Virtualization running container through Fabric management manager and on a Xen Controller system (Sun scheduler hypervisor Grid Engine) APIs Programming Customizable supporting Framework Linux-based Solaris OS, different Amazon Machine Python Microsoft .NET Java, C, C++, programming Image (AMI) FORTRAN models in C# and other .Net supported Amazon EC2 Web-based Microsoft Job submission Workbench, web User Access Command-line Administration Windows scripts, Sun based Interface Tools Console Azure portal Grid web portal portal Value-added Service Yes No Yes Yes No Providers9. Threats and opportunities of the CloudCloud computing offers the enterprise enormous opportunities: 56% of European decision-makers estimate that theCloud is a priority between 2013 and 2014 . Even better: the Cloud budget should reach 30% of the overall ITbudget. But several deterrents to the Cloud remain: reliability, availability of services and data, security, complexity,costs, regulations and legal issues, performance, migration, reversion, the lack of standards, limited customization,etc. The Cloud also offers several benefits, however: infrastructure flexibility, faster deployment of applications anddata, cost control, adaptation of Cloud resources to real needs, improved productivity, etc. Todays Cloud market isdominated by software and services in SaaS mode and IaaS (infrastructure), especially the private Cloud. PaaS andthe public Cloud are further back.10. Conclusion and Future Thoughts Cloud computing is a new and promising paradigm delivering IT services as computing utilities. As Clouds aredesigned to provide services to external users, providers need to be compensated for sharing their resources andcapabilities. In this paper, we have proposed architecture for market-oriented allocation of resources within Clouds.We have also presented a vision for the creation of global Cloud exchange for trading services. Moreover, we havediscussed some representative platforms for Cloud computing covering the state-of-the-art. In particular, we havepresented various Cloud efforts in practice from the market-oriented perspective to reveal its emerging potential forthe creation of third-party services to enable the successful adoption of Cloud computing, such as meta-negotiationinfrastructure for global Cloud exchanges and provide high performance content delivery via ‗Storage Clouds‘. The state-of-the-art Cloud technologies have limited support for market-oriented resource management and theyneed to be extended to support: negotiation of QoS between users and providers to establish SLAs; mechanisms andalgorithms for allocation of VM resources to meet SLAs; and manage risks associated with the violation of SLAs.Furthermore, interaction protocols needs to be extended to support interoperability between different Cloud service Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 13providers. In addition, we need programming environments and tools that allow rapid creation of Cloudapplications. Data Centers are known to be expensive to operate and they consume huge amounts of electric power. Forexample, the Google data center consumes power as much as a city such as San Francisco. As Clouds are emergingas next-generation data centers and aim to support ubiquitous service-oriented applications, it is important that theyare designed to be energy efficient to reduce both their power bill and carbon footprint on the environment. Toachieve this at software systems level, we need to investigate new techniques for allocation of resources toapplications depending on quality of service expectations of users and service contracts established betweenconsumers and providers . As Cloud platforms become ubiquitous, we expect the need for internetworking them to create market-orientedglobal Cloud exchanges for trading services. Several challenges need to be addressed to realize this vision. Theyinclude: market-maker for bringing service providers and consumers; market registry for publishing and discoveringCloud service providers and their services; clearing houses and brokers for mapping service requests to providerswho can meet QoS expectations; and payment management and accounting infrastructure for trading services.Finally, we need to address regulatory and legal issues, which go beyond technical issues. Some of these issues areexplored in related paradigms such as Grids and service-oriented computing systems. Hence, rather than competing,these past developments need to be leveraged for advancing Cloud computing. Also, Cloud computing and otherrelated paradigms need to converge so as to produce unified and interoperable platforms for delivering IT services asthe 5th utility to individuals, organizations, and corporations.11. TABLE OF CONTENTS:-1. Introduction2. Attributes/Capabilities i) Gaining Interoperability ii) The Open Cloud Computing Interface iii) Cloud Storage iv) Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3)3. Abstract i) What is Cloud Computing? ii) Everyone is talking about ―the cloud.‖ But what does it mean? iii) Life Before Cloud Computing: iv) Cloud Computing : A better way:4. Descriptive Summary i) Cloud Computing: What‘s this entire buzz about? ii) Cloud Computing Basics: A) Abstraction B) Virtualization Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 14 C) Elasticity D) Scalability E) Utility model F) Low barrier to entry5) i) Cloud Frameworks ii) Commercial Cloud Offerings ii) Cloud Architecture iv) Different Cloud Computing Layers6. Advantages of Cloud Computing7. Disadvantages of Cloud Computing8. Global Cloud Exchanges and Markets9. Threats and opportunities of the Cloud10. Conclusion and Future Thoughts11. Table of Content.12.List of Figures and List Of Tables.List Of Figures and List Of Tables:Figures: 1) What Is The Cloud ? 2) Cloud Computing : Everything At The Kitchen Sink 3) Cloud Service Provider and Platforms 4) All The Devices Are Connected To Cloud Through Internet 5) Cloud Frameworks 6) Commercial Cloud Offerings 7) Cloud Architecture 8) Cloud Components Framework ArchitectureTables: 1) Different Cloud Computing Layers 2) Comparison of Some Representative Cloud Platforms. Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 15 APPENDIXA: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2): It is a web service that provides resizable compute capacityin the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers.Amazon EC2‘s simple web service interface allows you to obtain and configure capacity with minimal friction. Itprovides you with complete control of your computing resources and lets you run on Amazon‘s proven computingenvironment. Amazon EC2 reduces the time required to obtain and boot new server instances to minutes, allowingyou to quickly scale capacity, both up and down, as your computing requirements change. Amazon EC2 changes theeconomics of computing by allowing you to pay only for capacity that you actually use. Amazon EC2 providesdevelopers the tools to build failure resilient applications and isolate themselves from common failure scenarios .Abstraction: The absolute details of system implementation are hidden from users and developers, the applicationsare run on physical systems that aren‘t specified, and administration of such systems is outsourced to others, data isstored in locations that are unknown, and access by users is ubiquitous.B: Bandwidth: In computer networking and computer science, the words bandwidth, network bandwidth, databandwidth, or digital bandwidth are terms used to refer to various bit-rate measures, representing the available orconsumed data communication resources expressed in bits per second or multiples of it (bit/s, kbit/s, Mbit/s, Gbit/s,etc.). Broker: It is an individual or party (brokerage firm) that arranges transactions between a buyer and a seller, andgets a commission when the deal is executed. A broker who also acts as a seller or as a buyer becomesa principal party to the deal. Distinguish agent: one who acts on behalf of a principal.C:Customer relationship management (CRM) : It is a model for managing a company‘s interactions withcurrent and future customers. It involves using technology to organize, automate, andsynchronize sales, marketing, customer service, and technical support.Communications protocol: It is a system of digital message formats and rules for exchanging those messagesin or between computing systems and in telecommunications. A protocol may have a formal description. Protocolsmay include signaling, authentication and error detection and correction capabilities.A protocol definition defines the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication; the specified behavior istypically independent of how it is to be implemented. A protocol can therefore be implemented as hardware or Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 16software or both. Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. [1] To reach agreement aprotocol may be developed into a technical standard.Cryptography: It is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties(called adversaries).More generally, it is about constructing and analyzing protocols that overcome the influence ofadversaries and which are related to various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, dataintegrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplinesof mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATMcards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.Cache (computing): It ‗s a collection of data duplicating original values stored elsewhere on a computer.Cloud components:D:Data center: Data Center or computer centre (also datacenter) is a facility used to house computer systems andassociated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backuppower supplies, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning, firesuppression) and security devices.Data structure: Data Structure is a particular way of storing and organizing data in a computer so that it can beused efficiently.[1][2]Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized tospecific tasks. For example, B-trees are particularly well-suited for implementation of databases,while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers.Data structures provide a means to manage large amounts of data efficiently, such as large databases and internetindexing services. Usually, efficient data structures are a key to designing efficient algorithms. Some formal design Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 17methods and programming languages emphasize data structures, rather than algorithms, as the key organizing factorin software design. Storing and retrieving can be carried out on data stored in both main memory and in secondarymemory.E:Elasticity: You have the ability to right-size resources as required by your application. This feature not only allowsyou to optimize your system but also capture all the possibilities that come your way.G:Google Docs: It is a free web-based office suite offered by Google within its Google Drive service. It also was astorage service but has since been replaced by Google Drive . It allows users to create and edit documents onlinewhile collaborating in real-time with other users. Google Docs combines the features of Writely and Spreadsheetswith a presentation incorporating technology designed by Tonic Systems.H:Homomorphic encryption: It is a form of encryption which allows specific types of computations to be carried outon ciphertext and obtain an encrypted result which decrypted match the result of operations performed onthe plaintext. For instance, one person could add two encrypted numbers and then another person could decrypt theresult, without either of them being able to find the value of the individual numbers. Homomorphic encryptionschemes are malleable by design. The homomorphic property of various cryptosystems can be used to create securevoting systems, collision-resistant hash functions, private information retrieval schemes and enable widespread useof cloud computing by ensuring the confidentiality of processed data.I:Interoperability: It is the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate). The term isoften used in a technical systems engineering sense, or alternatively in a broad sense, taking into account social,political, and organizational factors that impact system to system performance.Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): It involves outsourcing the equipment used to support operations, includingstorage, hardware, servers and networking components.N:Networking: The act of linking computers so that users can exchange information or share access to a central storeof information. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): — known between 1901 and 1988 as the NationalBureau of Standards (NBS) — is a measurement standards laboratory, otherwise known as a National MetrologicalInstitute (NMI), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. The institutesofficial mission is to: Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 18Promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards,and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality.P:Protocol: It is a system of digital message formats and rules for exchanging those messages in orbetween computing systems and in telecommunications. A protocol may have a formal description. Protocols mayinclude signaling, authentication and error detection and correction capabilities. A protocol definition definesthe syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication; the specified behavior is typically independent ofhow it is to be implemented. A protocol can therefore be implemented as hardware or software or both.Communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. [1] To reach agreement a protocol may bedeveloped into a technical standard.Platform as a service (PaaS): It is a category of cloud computing services that provide a computing platform anda solution stack as a service. Along with software as a service (SaaS) and infrastructure as a service (IaaS), it is aservice model of cloud computing. In this model, the consumer creates the software using tools and/or libraries fromthe provider. The consumer also controls software deployment and configuration settings. The provider provides thenetworks, servers, storage and other services.[1]PaaS offerings facilitate the deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing theunderlying hardware and software and provisioning hosting capabilities. [2]There are various types of PaaS vendor; however, all offer application hosting and a deployment environment, alongwith various integrated services. Services offer varying levels of scalability and maintenance. [3][4]PaaS offerings may also include facilities for application design, application development, testing and deploymentas well as services such as team collaboration, web service integration and marshalling, database integration,security, scalability, storage, persistence, state management, application versioning, application instrumentation anddeveloper community facilitation.Q:The quality of service (QoS): It refers to several related aspects of telephony and computer networks that allow thetransport of traffic with special requirements. In particular, much technology has been developed to allow computernetworks to become as useful as telephone networks for audio conversations, as well as supporting new applicationswith even stricter service demands.S:SLA: (service-level agreement) is a part of a service contract where a service is formally defined. In practice, the term SLA is sometimes used to refer to the contracted delivery time (of the service or performance). As an example, internet will commonly include service level agreements within the terms of their contracts with customers to define the level(s) of service being sold in plain language terms. In this case the SLA will typically have a technical definition in terms of mean time between failures (MTBF), mean time to repair or mean time to recovery (MTTR); various data rates; throughput; jitter; or similar measurable details A document explaining expected quality of service and legal guarantees. Contains at least the following data fields: Close Delay: the minimum latency, expressed in a common time unit, for a cloud provider to respond to a users request to close an account. Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 19 User: A person or computer that accesses a cloud system over a network. A user may be authenticated but can also be anonymous. A user does not have administrative privileges on a cloud system.Simple Storage Solutions: Simple storage solutions provide secure self storage for both home and business.At Simple Storage we provide individual fully alarmed storage units,You simply provide a padlock for the door so you are the only one with access to your goods.Standard interface: It is a standard that describes one or more functional characteristics (such as codeconversion, line assignments, or protocol compliance) or physical characteristics (such as electrical, mechanical, oroptical characteristics) necessary to allow the exchange of information between two or more (usually different)systems or pieces of equipment. Communications protocols are an example.An interface standard may include operational characteristics and acceptable levels of performance .Software as a service: (SaaS, pronounced sæs or sɑs), sometimes referred to as "on-demand software" suppliedby ISVs or "Application-Service-Providers" (ASPs), is a software delivery model in which software and associateddata are centrally hosted on the cloud. SaaS is typically accessed by users using a thin client via a web browser.SaaS has become a common delivery model for many business applications, including Office & Messagingsoftware, DBMS software, Management software, CAD software, Development software, Virtualization ,, collaboration, customer relationship management (CRM), management information systems (MIS), enterpriseresource planning(ERP), invoicing, human resource management (HRM), content management (CM) and servicedesk management. SaaS has been incorporated into the strategy of all leading enterprise software companies. One ofthe biggest selling points for these companies is the potential to reduce IT support costs by outsourcing hardwareand software maintenance and support to the SaaS provider.U:Upgrading: It is the process of replacing a product with a newer version of the same product.In computing and consumer electronics an upgrade is generally a replacementof hardware, software or firmware with a newer or better version, in order to bring the system up to date or toimprove its characteristics.Utility computing: It is the packaging of computing resources, such as computation, storage and services, as ametered service. This model has the advantage of a low or no initial cost to acquire computer resources; instead,computational are essentially rented.This repackaging of computing services became the foundation of the shift to "on demand" computing, software as aservice and cloud computing models that further propagated the idea of computing, application and network as aservice.Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) : It is a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction in whichinformation processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities.V: Virtualization: compute describes a technique of moving data between storage areas or media to create theimpression that a computer has a storage capacity greater than it actually has.Virtual machine (VM): It is a software implemented abstraction of the underlying hardware, which is presented tothe application layer of the system. Virtual machines may be based on specifications of a hypothetical computer oremulate the computer architecture and functions of a real world computer. Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 20W:Web application: It is an application that is accessed by users over a network such as the Internet oran intranet. The term may also mean a computer software application that is coded in a browser-supported programming language (such as JavaScript, combined with a browser-rendered markuplanguage like HTML) and reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable. Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 21 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to express our gratitude and appreciation to all those who gave us the possibility to complete this report. A special thanks to our project coordinator, Mrs. Amrita Das Bhaumik, whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped us to coordinate our project especially in writing this report. We would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of the staff of Computer Laboratory, who gave the permission to use required computers and the necessary material to complete the data collection task. A special thanks goes to all our team mates,whose effort have made possible to assemble the parts and gave suggestion about the topic cloud Technology. Last but not least, many thanks go to the websites Google, Wikipedia whose guidance was important for the team in achieving the goal as well as the accurate information to maintain our progress in track. We would to appreciate the guidance given by other supervisor as well as the panels especially in our project presentation that has improved our presentation skills by their comment and tips. Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee
  • 22 ReferencesWebsite: Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms Publisher: Wiley Press, New York, USA Introduction to Cloud Computing By Timothy Chou Taking the First Steps Towards Cloud Computing By J Bruce Daley & Alan RudolphOTHERS: Wikipedia Encyclopedia Cloud Computing By Soumitra, Sonali, Ankita, Gourab, Maitrayee