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Project presentation Project presentation Presentation Transcript

  • “MY HEART IS TRUE AS STEEL”- WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
  • “INDUSTRIAL INVESTIGATION OF STEEL USED IN MANUFACTURING OF LIGHT WEIGHT AUTOMOBILES”
  • BIRD’S EYE VIEW
    • An insight into the steel being used in the automotive industry.
    • Evaluation of modern steel making and advanced manufacturing processes.
    • Descriptive comparison of steel with aluminium and carbon fiber reinforced polymer.
    • Theoretical analysis of advanced steel refining processes.
    • Case studies of automotive companies reacting to steel.
  • HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF STEEL
    • Iron is the sixth most abundant element found in the universe.
    • Pure iron has a hardness of about 80 BHN as compared to 140 BHN of steel.
    • Iron with a carbon content ranging between 0.20 – 2.15% by weight is termed as steel.
    • Manganese, Chromium, Vanadium & Tungsten are added to improve the properties.
    • Steel is slag free, while wrought iron has 1–3% of slag present in it.
  • IRON-CARBON EQUILLIBRIUM DIAGRAM
    • Representation of the metastable equilibrium between iron and iron carbide.
    • Austenite – 2% by weight at 11470C, carbon is most soluble in iron.
    • Curie point – 7690C, pure iron changes from Ferro to paramagnetic state.
    • During slow cooling, cementite, pearlite and ferrite is formed.
    • During rapid cooling, martensite and bainite is formed.
  • EARLY STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
    BLAST FURNACE
    • Smelting of iron from iron ore.
    • Iron ore contains Hematite and Magnetite with 50-70% of iron.
    • Reduction of the oxides from the iron ore, pellets and sinter mixture forming pig iron.
    BESSEMERS PROCESS
    • First steel making process of mass production.
    • Conversion of all impurities to their oxides.
    • Spiegeleisen- An alloy of carbon-iron-manganese used as an additive to give the molten metal the necessary characteristics.
  • BASIC OXYGEN STEEL MAKING PROCESS
    • Blowing of oxygen instead of air unlike the Bessemer’s process.
    • Pretreatment process to remove sulphur, phosphorous and silicon.
    • Heat needed for the process is generated by the process itself.
    • Composition of molten steel produced contains 0.4% carbon, 0.075% manganese, 0.03% silicon, and negligible traces of sulphur, phosphorous.
    • Alloying takes place to provide steel with the required properties.
  • HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS
    • To alter the mechanical and physical properties without changing the actual product shape.
    • The softening process includes: Annealing, Spheroidizing, Normalising, Tempering, Austempering and Martempering.
    • The hardening process includes: Surface hardening methods, Induction hardening and Flame hardening.
    • Material modification processes includes: Cryogenics and Stress relieving.
  • COMPARISON OF STEEL WITH OTHERAUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS
    STEEL
    • Diffuse Necking – strength retained during necking gives additional safety.
    • High Modulus Elasticity – easy to form shapes as less spring back.
    • Uniform Strain deformation.
    • Have high Fatigue strength.
    • Easy for welding processes.
    • After the Bake-hardening process greater strain hardening is achieved.
    • Lower tooling costs.
    • Steel gives better resistivity to surface damage in material handling.
    ALUMINIUM
    • Localized Necking – fracture occurs after uniform elongation.
    • Low Modulus Elasticity – greater amount of elastic strain leads to difficulty in forming.
    • Non-uniform strain deformation resulting in strain concentration.
    • Have low Fatigue strength.
    • Unable to withstand high dynamic loads – difficulty in welding.
    • The rate of increase in strain hardening is less than steel.
    • Higher tooling costs.
    • Less resistivity due to lower hardness and Yield strength.
  • COMPARISON OF STEEL WITH OTHER AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS
    STEEL
    • Easier in mass production with proper manufacturing and refining techniques.
    • Easier formability thereby can be formed into various shapes.
    • Steel is less expensive, increases cost-effectiveness of the company.
    • Steel is 100% recyclable.
    • Steel has got higher endurance limit.
    • No erosion problem.
    C.F.R.P
    • Difficulty in mass production as no mass manufacturing process has been identified.
    • Not easy to form into shapes because of unidirectional property.
    • CFRP is expensive.
    • CFRP is partially recyclable.
    • Lower endurance limit.
    • CFRP has got an erosion problem on the outer surface by abrasive particles in stream of air.
  • ADVANCED STEEL REFINING PROCESSES
    • ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE- SECONDARY STEEL MAKING
    • LADLE FURNACE REFINING- DESULPHURIZATION AND REMOVAL OF OTHER IMPURITIES.
    • VACUUM DEGASSING- REDUCTION OF GASES LIKE HYDROGEN FROM THE METAL.
    • CONTINUOUS CASTING- SOLIDIFICATION OF THE MOLTEN METAL.
  • ADVANTAGES OF E.L.V.A.C
  • TAILOR WELDED BLANKS
  • ADVANTAGES OF T.W.B
    • Lesser parts are needed.
    • Lesser dies are required.
    • TWB helps to reduce the use of spot welding.
    • TWB reduces the production time for a vehicle.
    • Due to the use of steel in optimum places, it reduces the manufacturing cost of a vehicle.
    • Owing to this process, steel can be better utilized and also less material is required.
    • It reduces the overall vehicle weight and also improves the vehicle safety structure.
    • Due to this process, precision can be achieved while improving the structural rigidity.
    • Less scrap is generated during this process and not much steel is lost.
  • HYDROFORMING
  • BENEFITS OF HYDROFORMING
    • CONTINUOUS CLOSED JOINT SECTIONS CAN BE MADE.
    • NO FLANGE JOINTS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE CLOSED SECTIONS.
    • LESSER PART COUNTS.
    • MASS REDUCTION DUE TO THE USE OF MATERIAL WITH LOWER THICKNESS.
    • DECREASED PRODUCTION TIME RESULTING IN COST SAVINGS.
    HYDROFORMING AT
    TATA-CORUS
  • DIFFERENT FORMS OF STEEL
    COMPARISON WITH MILD STEEL:
    • UHSS PROVIDES BETTER CRASH AND IMPACT RESISTANCE RESULTING IN 24% OF MASS REDUCTION.
    • WHEN UHSS & AHSS BOTH ARE USED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF VEHICLE BODY, RESULTS IN 15% OF MASS REDUCTION.
    • LESS THICK STEEL SHEETS CAN BE USED CONSIDERING UHSS & AHSS.
    • BETTER DUCTILITY CUM STRENGTH RATIO.
  • CASE STUDIES
    A 2008 GENERAL MOTORS (GM) “BODY-IN-WHITE”.
  • CASE STUDIES
    • JAGUAR XF: 25 DIFFERENT GRADES OF MILD STEEL, UHSS & AHSS.
    • MERCEDES BENZ C-CLASS: 70% OF ALL TYPES OF STEEL, OUT OF 20% IS UHSS, 13% IMPROVED TORSION RESISTANCE.
    • NISSAN ALTIMA : 23% OF UHSSN 22 Kg REDUCTION IN WEIGHT, 60% INCREASE IN LATERAL RESISTANCE.
    • MERCEDES SMART FORTWO: TRIDENT SAFETY CELL CONSISTS 50% OF UHSS OUT OF TOTAL STEEL USED, 350 Kg LIGHTER THAN BMW MINI COOPER.
    • HONDA RDX & CRV : SAVED 36, 247, 680 GALLONS OF FUEL IN A LIFETIME.
  • CASE STUDIES
    • ALFA ROMEO 159: 5 STAR IN EURO NCAP SAFETY TEST, WHOLE BODY IS MADE UP OF 100% UHSS.
    • MAZDA 6 : UHSS CAR BODY, LOST 35 Kgs THAN PREVIOUS MODEL.
    • BMW 3 SERIES COUPE: UHSS USED, 25% IMPROVED STRUCTURAL RIGIDITY AND WEIGHS 11 Kg LESS THAN PREVIOUS VERSION HAVING MORE ELECTRONIC ITEMS THAN PREVIOUS ONE.
    • FIAT GRAND PUNTO: BEST IN ITS CLASS EURO NCAP TESTING, UHSS OF 1000 MPa.
    • AUDI A4 AVANT: UHSS OF 1000 MPa USED, CONSTITUTING 12% OF THE NET BODY WEIGHT, AHSS 23%, 30% HSLA STEEL AND 39% CONVENTIONAL STEEL USED.
  • CONCLUSION
    • BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE I-C EQUILIBRIUM DUE TO WORLD WIDE RESEARCH. IRON HAS GOT ABUNDANT AVAILABILITY.
    • BOS PROCESS PROVIDES SLAG FREE STEEL FOLLOWED BY NEW HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES TO INDUCE DESIRED PROPERTIES IN STEEL.
    • COST EFFECTIVENESS OF STEEL AS COMPARED TO ALUMINIUM AND CFRP.
    • NEW ADVANCED REFINING PROCESSES BEING INTRODUCED FACILITATING THE ULSAB PROJECT.
    • RECOMMENDED METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE BEING SUITABLE FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE BUT YET TO PROVE ITS CREDIBILITY.
  • “THANK YOU”