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Project presentation

  1. 1. “MY HEART IS TRUE AS STEEL” - WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
  2. 2. “INDUSTRIAL INVESTIGATION OF STEEL USED IN MANUFACTURING OF LIGHT WEIGHT AUTOMOBILES”
  3. 3. BIRD’S EYE VIEW An insight into the steel being used in the automotive industry. Evaluation of modern steel making and advanced manufacturing processes. Descriptive comparison of steel with aluminium and carbon fiber reinforced polymer.  Theoretical analysis of advanced steel refining processes. Case studies of automotive companies reacting to steel.
  4. 4. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF STEEL  Iron is the sixth most abundant element found in the universe.  Pure iron has a hardness of about 80 BHN as compared to 140 BHN of steel.  Iron with a carbon content ranging between 0.20 – 2.15% by weight is termed as steel.  Manganese, Chromium, Vanadium & Tungsten are added to improve the properties.  Steel is slag free, while wrought iron has 1–3% of slag present in it.
  5. 5. IRON-CARBON EQUILLIBRIUM DIAGRAM  Representation of the metastable equilibrium between iron and iron carbide.  Austenite – 2% by weight at 11470C, carbon is most soluble in iron.  Curie point – 7690C, pure iron changes from Ferro to paramagnetic state.  During slow cooling, cementite, pearlite and ferrite is formed.  During rapid cooling, martensite and bainite is formed.
  6. 6. EARLY STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES BLAST FURNACE  Smelting of iron from iron ore.  Iron ore contains Hematite and Magnetite with 50-70% of iron.  Reduction of the oxides from the iron ore, pellets and sinter mixture forming pig iron. BESSEMERS PROCESS  First steel making process of mass production.  Conversion of all impurities to their oxides.  Spiegeleisen- An alloy of carbon-iron-manganese used as an additive to give the molten metal the necessary characteristics.
  7. 7. BASIC OXYGEN STEEL MAKING PROCESS  Blowing of oxygen instead of air unlike the Bessemer’s process.  Pretreatment process to remove sulphur, phosphorous and silicon.  Heat needed for the process is generated by the process itself.  Composition of molten steel produced contains 0.4% carbon, 0.075% manganese, 0.03% silicon, and negligible traces of sulphur, phosphorous.  Alloying takes place to provide steel with the required properties.
  8. 8. HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS To alter the mechanical and physical properties without changing the actual product shape. The softening process includes: Annealing, Spheroidizing, Normalising, Tempering, Austempering and Martempering.  The hardening process includes: Surface hardening methods, Induction hardening and Flame hardening. Material modification processes includes: Cryogenics and Stress relieving.
  9. 9. COMPARISON OF STEEL WITH OTHER AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS STEEL  Diffuse Necking – strength retained during necking gives additional safety.  High Modulus Elasticity – easy to form shapes as less spring back.  Uniform Strain deformation.  Have high Fatigue strength.  Easy for welding processes.  After the Bake-hardening process greater strain hardening is achieved.  Lower tooling costs.  Steel gives better resistivity to surface damage in material handling. ALUMINIUM  Localized Necking – fracture occurs after uniform elongation.  Low Modulus Elasticity – greater amount of elastic strain leads to difficulty in forming.  Non-uniform strain deformation resulting in strain concentration.  Have low Fatigue strength.  Unable to withstand high dynamic loads – difficulty in welding.  The rate of increase in strain hardening is less than steel.  Higher tooling costs.  Less resistivity due to lower hardness and Yield strength.
  10. 10. COMPARISON OF STEEL WITH OTHER AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS STEEL  Easier in mass production with proper manufacturing and refining techniques.  Easier formability thereby can be formed into various shapes.  Steel is less expensive, increases cost-effectiveness of the company.  Steel is 100% recyclable.  Steel has got higher endurance limit.  No erosion problem. C.F.R.P  Difficulty in mass production as no mass manufacturing process has been identified.  Not easy to form into shapes because of unidirectional property.  CFRP is expensive.  CFRP is partially recyclable.  Lower endurance limit.  CFRP has got an erosion problem on the outer surface by abrasive particles in stream of air.
  11. 11. ADVANCED STEEL REFINING PROCESSES E.L.V.A.C ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE MELTING VACUUM DEGASSING CONTINUOUS CASTING LADLE ARC FURNACE  ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE- SECONDARY STEEL MAKING  LADLE FURNACE REFINING- DESULPHURIZATION AND REMOVAL OF OTHER IMPURITIES.  VACUUM DEGASSING- REDUCTION OF GASES LIKE HYDROGEN FROM THE METAL.  CONTINUOUS CASTING- SOLIDIFICATION OF THE MOLTEN METAL.
  12. 12. ADVANTAGES OF E.L.V.A.C REDUCTION OF THE POST-CARBURIZING DISTORTION. INCREASE IN THE FATIGUE AND CONTACT ROLLING FATIGUE LIFE. PREVENTION OF THE FAILURE OF THE HIGH STRENGTH FASTENERS. IMPROVEMENT OF THE COLD FORMABILITY OF STEEL
  13. 13. TAILOR WELDED BLANKS TAILOR WELDED BLANKS LASER BEAM WELDING RESISTANCE MASH SEAM WELDING HIGH- FREQUENCY INDUCTION WELDING ELECTRON BEAM OR NON-VACUUM WELING
  14. 14. ADVANTAGES OF T.W.B  Lesser parts are needed.  Lesser dies are required.  TWB helps to reduce the use of spot welding.  TWB reduces the production time for a vehicle.  Due to the use of steel in optimum places, it reduces the manufacturing cost of a vehicle.  Owing to this process, steel can be better utilized and also less material is required.  It reduces the overall vehicle weight and also improves the vehicle safety structure.  Due to this process, precision can be achieved while improving the structural rigidity.  Less scrap is generated during this process and not much steel is lost.
  15. 15. HYDROFORMING PRE- BENDING PRE-FORMING HYDROFORMING HYDROPIERCINGTRIM & WASH
  16. 16. BENEFITS OF HYDROFORMING  CONTINUOUS CLOSED JOINT SECTIONS CAN BE MADE.  NO FLANGE JOINTS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE CLOSED SECTIONS.  LESSER PART COUNTS.  MASS REDUCTION DUE TO THE USE OF MATERIAL WITH LOWER THICKNESS.  DECREASED PRODUCTION TIME RESULTING IN COST SAVINGS. HYDROFORMING AT TATA-CORUS
  17. 17. DIFFERENT FORMS OF STEEL COMPARISON WITH MILD STEEL:  UHSS PROVIDES BETTER CRASH AND IMPACT RESISTANCE RESULTING IN 24% OF MASS REDUCTION.  WHEN UHSS & AHSS BOTH ARE USED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF VEHICLE BODY, RESULTS IN 15% OF MASS REDUCTION.  LESS THICK STEEL SHEETS CAN BE USED CONSIDERING UHSS & AHSS.  BETTER DUCTILITY CUM STRENGTH RATIO. HIGH STRENGTH STEEL 270-700 MPa ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH STEEL > 700 MPa ADVANCED HIGH STRENGTH STEEL > 400 MPa
  18. 18. CASE STUDIES A 2008 GENERAL MOTORS (GM) “BODY-IN-WHITE”.
  19. 19. CASE STUDIES  JAGUAR XF: 25 DIFFERENT GRADES OF MILD STEEL, UHSS & AHSS.  MERCEDES BENZ C-CLASS: 70% OF ALL TYPES OF STEEL, OUT OF 20% IS UHSS, 13% IMPROVED TORSION RESISTANCE.  NISSAN ALTIMA : 23% OF UHSSN 22 Kg REDUCTION IN WEIGHT, 60% INCREASE IN LATERAL RESISTANCE.  MERCEDES SMART FORTWO: TRIDENT SAFETY CELL CONSISTS 50% OF UHSS OUT OF TOTAL STEEL USED, 350 Kg LIGHTER THAN BMW MINI COOPER.  HONDA RDX & CRV : SAVED 36, 247, 680 GALLONS OF FUEL IN A LIFETIME.
  20. 20. CASE STUDIES  ALFA ROMEO 159: 5 STAR IN EURO NCAP SAFETY TEST, WHOLE BODY IS MADE UP OF 100% UHSS.  MAZDA 6 : UHSS CAR BODY, LOST 35 Kgs THAN PREVIOUS MODEL.  BMW 3 SERIES COUPE: UHSS USED, 25% IMPROVED STRUCTURAL RIGIDITY AND WEIGHS 11 Kg LESS THAN PREVIOUS VERSION HAVING MORE ELECTRONIC ITEMS THAN PREVIOUS ONE.  FIAT GRAND PUNTO: BEST IN ITS CLASS EURO NCAP TESTING, UHSS OF 1000 MPa.  AUDI A4 AVANT: UHSS OF 1000 MPa USED, CONSTITUTING 12% OF THE NET BODY WEIGHT, AHSS 23%, 30% HSLA STEELAND 39% CONVENTIONAL STEEL USED.
  21. 21. CONCLUSION  BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE I-C EQUILIBRIUM DUE TO WORLD WIDE RESEARCH. IRON HAS GOT ABUNDANT AVAILABILITY.  BOS PROCESS PROVIDES SLAG FREE STEEL FOLLOWED BY NEW HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES TO INDUCE DESIRED PROPERTIES IN STEEL.  COST EFFECTIVENESS OF STEELAS COMPARED TO ALUMINIUM AND CFRP.  NEW ADVANCED REFINING PROCESSES BEING INTRODUCED FACILITATING THE ULSAB PROJECT.  RECOMMENDED METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE BEING SUITABLE FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE BUT YET TO PROVE ITS CREDIBILITY.
  22. 22. “THANK YOU”

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