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    Project presentation Project presentation Presentation Transcript

    • “MY HEART IS TRUE AS STEEL”- WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
    • “INDUSTRIAL INVESTIGATION OF STEEL USED IN MANUFACTURING OF LIGHT WEIGHT AUTOMOBILES”
    • BIRD’S EYE VIEW
      • An insight into the steel being used in the automotive industry.
      • Evaluation of modern steel making and advanced manufacturing processes.
      • Descriptive comparison of steel with aluminium and carbon fiber reinforced polymer.
      • Theoretical analysis of advanced steel refining processes.
      • Case studies of automotive companies reacting to steel.
    • HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF STEEL
      • Iron is the sixth most abundant element found in the universe.
      • Pure iron has a hardness of about 80 BHN as compared to 140 BHN of steel.
      • Iron with a carbon content ranging between 0.20 – 2.15% by weight is termed as steel.
      • Manganese, Chromium, Vanadium & Tungsten are added to improve the properties.
      • Steel is slag free, while wrought iron has 1–3% of slag present in it.
    • IRON-CARBON EQUILLIBRIUM DIAGRAM
      • Representation of the metastable equilibrium between iron and iron carbide.
      • Austenite – 2% by weight at 11470C, carbon is most soluble in iron.
      • Curie point – 7690C, pure iron changes from Ferro to paramagnetic state.
      • During slow cooling, cementite, pearlite and ferrite is formed.
      • During rapid cooling, martensite and bainite is formed.
    • EARLY STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
      BLAST FURNACE
      • Smelting of iron from iron ore.
      • Iron ore contains Hematite and Magnetite with 50-70% of iron.
      • Reduction of the oxides from the iron ore, pellets and sinter mixture forming pig iron.
      BESSEMERS PROCESS
      • First steel making process of mass production.
      • Conversion of all impurities to their oxides.
      • Spiegeleisen- An alloy of carbon-iron-manganese used as an additive to give the molten metal the necessary characteristics.
    • BASIC OXYGEN STEEL MAKING PROCESS
      • Blowing of oxygen instead of air unlike the Bessemer’s process.
      • Pretreatment process to remove sulphur, phosphorous and silicon.
      • Heat needed for the process is generated by the process itself.
      • Composition of molten steel produced contains 0.4% carbon, 0.075% manganese, 0.03% silicon, and negligible traces of sulphur, phosphorous.
      • Alloying takes place to provide steel with the required properties.
    • HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS
      • To alter the mechanical and physical properties without changing the actual product shape.
      • The softening process includes: Annealing, Spheroidizing, Normalising, Tempering, Austempering and Martempering.
      • The hardening process includes: Surface hardening methods, Induction hardening and Flame hardening.
      • Material modification processes includes: Cryogenics and Stress relieving.
    • COMPARISON OF STEEL WITH OTHERAUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS
      STEEL
      • Diffuse Necking – strength retained during necking gives additional safety.
      • High Modulus Elasticity – easy to form shapes as less spring back.
      • Uniform Strain deformation.
      • Have high Fatigue strength.
      • Easy for welding processes.
      • After the Bake-hardening process greater strain hardening is achieved.
      • Lower tooling costs.
      • Steel gives better resistivity to surface damage in material handling.
      ALUMINIUM
      • Localized Necking – fracture occurs after uniform elongation.
      • Low Modulus Elasticity – greater amount of elastic strain leads to difficulty in forming.
      • Non-uniform strain deformation resulting in strain concentration.
      • Have low Fatigue strength.
      • Unable to withstand high dynamic loads – difficulty in welding.
      • The rate of increase in strain hardening is less than steel.
      • Higher tooling costs.
      • Less resistivity due to lower hardness and Yield strength.
    • COMPARISON OF STEEL WITH OTHER AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS
      STEEL
      • Easier in mass production with proper manufacturing and refining techniques.
      • Easier formability thereby can be formed into various shapes.
      • Steel is less expensive, increases cost-effectiveness of the company.
      • Steel is 100% recyclable.
      • Steel has got higher endurance limit.
      • No erosion problem.
      C.F.R.P
      • Difficulty in mass production as no mass manufacturing process has been identified.
      • Not easy to form into shapes because of unidirectional property.
      • CFRP is expensive.
      • CFRP is partially recyclable.
      • Lower endurance limit.
      • CFRP has got an erosion problem on the outer surface by abrasive particles in stream of air.
    • ADVANCED STEEL REFINING PROCESSES
      • ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE- SECONDARY STEEL MAKING
      • LADLE FURNACE REFINING- DESULPHURIZATION AND REMOVAL OF OTHER IMPURITIES.
      • VACUUM DEGASSING- REDUCTION OF GASES LIKE HYDROGEN FROM THE METAL.
      • CONTINUOUS CASTING- SOLIDIFICATION OF THE MOLTEN METAL.
    • ADVANTAGES OF E.L.V.A.C
    • TAILOR WELDED BLANKS
    • ADVANTAGES OF T.W.B
      • Lesser parts are needed.
      • Lesser dies are required.
      • TWB helps to reduce the use of spot welding.
      • TWB reduces the production time for a vehicle.
      • Due to the use of steel in optimum places, it reduces the manufacturing cost of a vehicle.
      • Owing to this process, steel can be better utilized and also less material is required.
      • It reduces the overall vehicle weight and also improves the vehicle safety structure.
      • Due to this process, precision can be achieved while improving the structural rigidity.
      • Less scrap is generated during this process and not much steel is lost.
    • HYDROFORMING
    • BENEFITS OF HYDROFORMING
      • CONTINUOUS CLOSED JOINT SECTIONS CAN BE MADE.
      • NO FLANGE JOINTS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE CLOSED SECTIONS.
      • LESSER PART COUNTS.
      • MASS REDUCTION DUE TO THE USE OF MATERIAL WITH LOWER THICKNESS.
      • DECREASED PRODUCTION TIME RESULTING IN COST SAVINGS.
      HYDROFORMING AT
      TATA-CORUS
    • DIFFERENT FORMS OF STEEL
      COMPARISON WITH MILD STEEL:
      • UHSS PROVIDES BETTER CRASH AND IMPACT RESISTANCE RESULTING IN 24% OF MASS REDUCTION.
      • WHEN UHSS & AHSS BOTH ARE USED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF VEHICLE BODY, RESULTS IN 15% OF MASS REDUCTION.
      • LESS THICK STEEL SHEETS CAN BE USED CONSIDERING UHSS & AHSS.
      • BETTER DUCTILITY CUM STRENGTH RATIO.
    • CASE STUDIES
      A 2008 GENERAL MOTORS (GM) “BODY-IN-WHITE”.
    • CASE STUDIES
      • JAGUAR XF: 25 DIFFERENT GRADES OF MILD STEEL, UHSS & AHSS.
      • MERCEDES BENZ C-CLASS: 70% OF ALL TYPES OF STEEL, OUT OF 20% IS UHSS, 13% IMPROVED TORSION RESISTANCE.
      • NISSAN ALTIMA : 23% OF UHSSN 22 Kg REDUCTION IN WEIGHT, 60% INCREASE IN LATERAL RESISTANCE.
      • MERCEDES SMART FORTWO: TRIDENT SAFETY CELL CONSISTS 50% OF UHSS OUT OF TOTAL STEEL USED, 350 Kg LIGHTER THAN BMW MINI COOPER.
      • HONDA RDX & CRV : SAVED 36, 247, 680 GALLONS OF FUEL IN A LIFETIME.
    • CASE STUDIES
      • ALFA ROMEO 159: 5 STAR IN EURO NCAP SAFETY TEST, WHOLE BODY IS MADE UP OF 100% UHSS.
      • MAZDA 6 : UHSS CAR BODY, LOST 35 Kgs THAN PREVIOUS MODEL.
      • BMW 3 SERIES COUPE: UHSS USED, 25% IMPROVED STRUCTURAL RIGIDITY AND WEIGHS 11 Kg LESS THAN PREVIOUS VERSION HAVING MORE ELECTRONIC ITEMS THAN PREVIOUS ONE.
      • FIAT GRAND PUNTO: BEST IN ITS CLASS EURO NCAP TESTING, UHSS OF 1000 MPa.
      • AUDI A4 AVANT: UHSS OF 1000 MPa USED, CONSTITUTING 12% OF THE NET BODY WEIGHT, AHSS 23%, 30% HSLA STEEL AND 39% CONVENTIONAL STEEL USED.
    • CONCLUSION
      • BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE I-C EQUILIBRIUM DUE TO WORLD WIDE RESEARCH. IRON HAS GOT ABUNDANT AVAILABILITY.
      • BOS PROCESS PROVIDES SLAG FREE STEEL FOLLOWED BY NEW HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES TO INDUCE DESIRED PROPERTIES IN STEEL.
      • COST EFFECTIVENESS OF STEEL AS COMPARED TO ALUMINIUM AND CFRP.
      • NEW ADVANCED REFINING PROCESSES BEING INTRODUCED FACILITATING THE ULSAB PROJECT.
      • RECOMMENDED METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE BEING SUITABLE FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE BUT YET TO PROVE ITS CREDIBILITY.
    • “THANK YOU”