1. 5.15 TYPICAL AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS www.part66.blogspot.com
2. THE EFIS• The electronic flight instruments have the following advantage: – Versatile – pilot can select the information – Display as required, less clutter – Reduce pilot’s workload.
4. THE EADI DISPLAY CAPABILITY• Pitch and Roll information• Slip/ skid inclinometer.• Speed and speed error• Flight Director information• Glide slope and localizer• Warning and Status Message
5. DISPLAYED AS REQUIREDSome of the display are not available all the time. It is displayed when in use. These are: – Radio altimeter – Decision Height – Marker Beacon – Rising Runway – Glide slope – Vertical Nav
6. EHSI• Originate from magnetic compass• The gyro was added to provide stability during turn.• The name was changed to HSI with the added function of navigation and flight information.• With glass cockpit, the name was changed to EHSI
7. EHSI – DISPLAYED INFORMATION• Magnetic Heading• Radio Steering Command• Way Point, Nav Aids• Distant to Go• ILS steering command
11. Engine Indication and Crew Alert• Boeing – EICAS • Airbus – ECAM – Two Displays – Two Displays • Top – Engine Parameters • Top – Engine Parameters • Bottom – Blank • Pictorial Diagram – Fault Situation – Fault Situation • Top - Fault message • Check list is provided • Bottom – Fault • System limitation is given parameters.
13. Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM)• The upper ECAM screen displays engine, flaps setting, fuel quantity and alert information.• The lower ECAM displays the various systems parameters.
14. 3. Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM)• ECAM also known as MFD (Multifunction Display)• ECAM monitors the overall aircraft systems, including its fuel, electrical and engine systems.• Give the pilots warning when there is a malfunction.• For example, if an engine begins to lose oil pressure, the ECAM might sound an alert, switch the display to the page with the oil system information and outline the low oil pressure data with a red box.
15. ECAM A320
16. ACARSARINC COMMUNICATION, ADDRESSING & REPORTING SYSTEM A/C SYSTEMS ACARS VHF 3 AIRLINE TRANSMISSION COMPUTER NETWORK SYSTEM MAINTENANCE FLIGHT PASSENGER OPERATIONS OPERATIONS SERVICES VHF TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER
17. PURPOSE• The ACARS is a digital data link for either ground-air or air-ground connections. The system reduces the flight crew’s workload because it transmits routine reports automatically and simplifies other reporting
18. Components• Management Units (MU)• Multipurpose Interactive Display Units (MPIDU)• Thermal Printer
19. MANAGEMENT UNIT (MU) • Management VHF3 Collins VHF 3 Communication ANTENNA • Respond to the request IN DFDAU FAIL SEND NUMERIC ENTRY 13 : 02 : 58 FLT : 0123D 0008A 1 2 3TA 4 5 6L 7 8 9IN 0 from ground andK CLR RET DEL MULTIPURPOSE INTERACTIVE DISPLAY UNIT MANAGEMENT UNIT VHF 3 TX/RX acquire data from FLIGHT DATA FDAU. ACQUISTION UNIT THERMAL PRINTER AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
20. ECAMELECTRONIC CENTRALIZED AIRCRAFT MONITORINGWARN WARNCAUT CAUT ECAM CONTROL PANEL DMC 1 DMC 3 DMC 2 FWC 1 SDAC 1 SDAC 1 FWC 2 A/C SYSTEM SENSORS A/C SYSTEM SENSORS RED WARNINGS AMBER WARNINGS NAV & AFS SENSORS SYSTEM PAGES SYSTEM PAGES FLIGHT PHASE
21. FLIGHT WARNING COMPUTER (FWC)• 2 FWCs acquire all data to generation the alert messages. – form the aircraft sensors (mostly Red) – Through the SDACs for cautions from the aircraft systems (amber)• Generate codes for ECAM display units. – Procedures associated to failures. – Status functions (aircraft and procedures). – Memo function (reminder of functions/systems, which are temporarily used or items of normal checklist).
22. ECAM COMPONENTS SYSTEM DATA ACQUISITION DISPLAY MANAGEMENT CONCENTRATORS (SDAC) COMPUTER (DMC)• Acquire cautions inputs and • Inputs input to FWCs. – SDAC• Alert DMCs for display on – Nav and AFS Sensors ECAM – FWCs • Process inputs for display – Graphic – Generate code
23. DISPLAY UNIT
24. 4 MODES OF DISPLAY• Automatic – 1. Flight Modes – 2. Advisory – 3. Failure Mode• 4. Manual – Selection from 12 systems
25. AUTOMATIC – FLIGHT PHASES• The flight phases are: – Preflight – Take off – Climb – Cruize – Descent – Approach – Post Landing
26. EXAMPLE OF AUTOMATIC ECAM DISPLAYPre Take Off Cruize
27. ECAM CONTROL PANEL
28. EFIS• With the introduction of fully integrated, computer-based navigation system, most electro/mechanical instrumentation has been replaced with TV type colour displays. The EFIS system provides the crew with two displays:•• Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator (EADI).•• Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI).•• The EADI is often referred to as the Primary Flight Display (PFD) and the EHSI as the Navigation Display (ND). The EADI and EHSI are arranged either side by side, with the EADI positioned on the left, or vertically, with the EADI on the top.•
29. • SYSTEM LAYOUT•• As is the case with conventional flight director systems, a complete EFIS installation consists of two systems. The Captain’s EFIS on the left and the First Officer’s on the right.•• The EFIS comprises the following units:•• Symbol Generator (SG).•• Display units X 2 (EADI & EHSI).•• Control Panel.•• Remote Light Sensor
30. EFIS Honeywell ATT 2 GS AOA 20 20 F 10 10 G FULL GS SC WX ET REV ARC TTG MAP CP 10 10 S DIM DH BOT TOP CMD 20 20 CRS HDG M .99 I TEST 200DH DH 140RA RASTER DIM AIR EFIS SG No 1 DATA COMP NAV VLF FMS INS 1 INS 2 HDG ATT Honeywell ADF 2 VOR 2 VOR 1 CRS NAV 1INERTIAL ADF 1 AUTO OFF ADF 2 ADF 1 OFF 345 +0 H 2.1NM REF BRG BRG W SYSTEM VOR 1 ADF 1 HDG GSPDNAV AID 013 130 KTSILS/VOR EFIS SG No 3RAD ALT Honeywell ATT 2 GSWEATHER AOA 20 20 F RADAR 10 10 G 10 10 S DME CMD M .99 20 20 FULL ARC WX GS TTG ET MAP SC CP REV 200DH DH 140RA CRS DIM DH BOT TOP HDG FMS TEST RASTER DIM AFCS EFIS SG No 2 Honeywell NAV VLF FMS INS 1 INS 2 HDG ATT CRS NAV 1 GPWS 345 +0 H 2.1NM ADF 2 VOR 2 VOR 1 ADF 1 ADF 2 AUTO ADF 1 W OFF OFF VOR 1 BRG BRG ADF 1 HDG GSPD 013 130 KTS
31. FULL GS SC WX ET MAP REVARC TTG CP DIM DH BOT TOP CRS HDG TEST
32. EFIS DISPLAY UNITS• Each display unit consists of the following modules: – Cathode Ray Tube. – Video Monitor Card. – Power Supply Unit. – Digital Line Receivers. – Analog Line Receivers. – Convergence Card.
33. EADI - • Display the traditional ADI • Pitch and Roll attitude information • Altitudes and speed information. • Early EFIS - (CRT) • Later instrument (LCD)
34. EADI• In normal use, the EADI is coupled directly to the autopilot and the display is used by the pilot to monitor flight progress.• Alternatively, steering and attitude (pitch and roll) demand bars help the pilot to fly manually.• The EADI provide steering information to follow, for example:• a manually input heading;• a route input on the Flight Management System (FMS);• a navigation beacon (VOR, ADF, etc.);• an IRS (Inertial Reference System) track; or,• an ILS localiser.• and to:• climb or descend to a level and maintain that level on reaching;• follow an ILS glidepath; or,• follow a Go-around procedure;
35. EHSI (Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator)• Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI)• The Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) replaces a number of different instruments found on a conventional aircraft, and may be used to depict some or all of the following information:• heading flown;• heading or track selected;• bearing to or from a navigation beacon (VOR, DME);• lateral deviation from a selected track;• ground speed, distance and time to go;• aeronautical map;• weather information;• plus much more information according to design
36. EHSI• Display – According to the selected mode
38. FBW-Fly by Wire• Video to Introduce – Keep Your Eye For.Fly By Wire. • The Instruments • Control Stick • Flying characteristics
39. FBW Definition HYDRAULIC PROCESSED PRESSURE COMMAND COMMAND SIGNAL SIGNAL SIGNAL CONTROL MODULE SPOILER PANEL FEEDBACK SIGNAL POWER POSITION CONTROL TRANSDUCER ACTUATOR COMMAND SIGNAL SPEEDBRAKE LEVER POSITION TRANSDUCER ELECTRICAL HYDRO-MECHANICAL• The command from the • The electrical signals are pilot to move the control generated, transmitted surfaces transmitted by through computer to electrical wires. operate a servo.
40. FBW Example HYDRAULIC PROCESSED PRESSURE COMMAND COMMAND SIGNAL SIGNAL SIGNAL CONTROL MODULE SPOILER PANEL FEEDBACK SIGNAL POWER POSITION CONTROL TRANSDUCER ACTUATOR COMMAND SIGNAL SPEEDBRAKE LEVER POSITION TRANSDUCER ELECTRICAL HYDRO-MECHANICAL• For B767 FBW is used to • Which actuated the control spoiler. solenoid valve, operate• The lateral signal given by the actuator and provide the position transducer is position feedback to the processed by signal control module. control module.
41. A320 SIDESTICK CONTROLLER • The sidestick