DATA  RESOURCES
FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>BIT:   Binary Digit (0,1; Y,N; On,Off) </li></ul><ul><li>BYTE:   Combination of BITS which repre...
FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>FILE:   A Collection of similar RECORDS </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASE:   An Organization’s Electron...
FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>ENTITY:   Person, place, thing, event about which data must be kept </li></ul><ul><li>ATTRIBUTE:...
KEY FIELD <ul><li>Field in Each Record </li></ul><ul><li>Uniquely Identifies  THIS  Record </li></ul><ul><li>For  RETRIEVA...
<ul><li>DATA REDUNDANCY </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM / DATA DEPENDENCY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><l...
SEQUENTIAL VS. DIRECT FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>SEQUENTIAL:   Tape oriented; one file follows another; follows physical se...
FILING METHODS <ul><li>INDEXED SEQUENTIAL ACCESS METHOD   (ISAM) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EACH RECORD IDENTIFIED BY KEY </l...
DIRECT FILE ACCESS METHOD <ul><li>EACH RECORD HAS KEY FIELD </li></ul><ul><li>KEY FIELD FED INTO TRANSFORM ALGORITHM </li>...
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) <ul><li>SOFTWARE TO CREATE & MAINTAIN    DATA </li></ul><ul><li>ENABLES BUSINESS APPLICA...
COMPONENTS OF DBMS: <ul><li>DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines data elements in database </li></ul></...
STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE (SQL) <ul><li>EMERGING STANDARD  </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>...
ELEMENTS OF SQL <ul><li>SELECT:  List of columns from tables desired </li></ul><ul><li>FROM:  Identifies tables from which...
TWO VIEWS OF DATA <ul><li>PHYSICAL VIEW:   Where is data physically? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DRIVE, DISK, SURFACE, TRACK, SE...
TYPES OR RELATIONS ONE-TO-ONE:   STUDENT ID  ONE-TO-MANY: CLASS STUDENT A STUDENT B STUDENT C MANY-TO-MANY: STUDENT A STUD...
HIERARCHICAL DATA MODEL ROOT FIRST CHILD 2nd CHILD Ratings Salary Compensation Job Assignments Pension Insurance Health Be...
NETWORK DATA MODEL <ul><li>VARIATION OF HIERARCHICAL MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>USEFUL FOR MANY-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIPS </li></...
OTHER SYSTEMS <ul><li>LEGACY SYSTEM:  older system </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT - ORIENTED DBMS:  stores data & procedures as ...
CREATING A DATABASE <ul><li>CONCEPTUAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
CREATING A DATABASE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: <ul><li>ABSTRACT MODEL, BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HOW WILL DATA BE GRO...
<ul><li>DETAILED MODEL BY DATABASE SPECIALISTS  </li></ul><ul><li>ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>NORMALIZAT...
ELEMENTS OF DATABASE ENVIRONMENT DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DATA ADMINISTRATION DATABASE TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT USERS DAT...
ENTITY- RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM 1 1 M 1 ORDER CAN HAVE PART SUPPLIER CAN HAVE ORDER: #, DATE, PART #, QUANTITY PART: #, DESCR...
NORMALIZATION <ul><li>PROCESS OF CREATING SMALL DATA STRUCTURES FROM COMPLEX GROUPS OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </...
DISTRIBUTED   DATABASES <ul><li>PARTITIONED:   remote CPUs (connected to host) have files unique to that site, e.g., recor...
DATABASE ADMINISTRATION <ul><li>DEFINES & ORGANIZES DATABASE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPS SECURITY PRO...
DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>MULTIDIMENSIONAL DATA ANALYSIS:   3D (or higher) groupings to  store complex data </li></ul><ul><l...
DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DATA WAREHOUSE:   Organization’s electronic library stores consolidated current & historic data fo...
COMPONENTS OF DATA WAREHOUSE
DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DATA MART:   Small data warehouse for special function, e.g.,  Focused marketing based  on custome...
DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>LINKING DATABASES TO THE WEB: </li></ul><ul><li>WEB USER CONNECTS TO VENDOR DATABASE </li></ul><ul...
“ What, exactly, is the internet? Basically it is a global network exchanging digitized  data  in such a way that any comp...
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Data resources

  1. 1. DATA RESOURCES
  2. 2. FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>BIT: Binary Digit (0,1; Y,N; On,Off) </li></ul><ul><li>BYTE: Combination of BITS which represent a CHARACTER </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD: Collection of BYTES which represent a DATUM or Fact </li></ul><ul><li>RECORD: Collection of FIELDS which reflect a TRANSACTION </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  3. 3. FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>FILE: A Collection of similar RECORDS </li></ul><ul><li>DATABASE: An Organization’s Electronic Library of FILES organized to serve business applications </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  4. 4. FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>ENTITY: Person, place, thing, event about which data must be kept </li></ul><ul><li>ATTRIBUTE: Description of a particular ENTITY </li></ul><ul><li>KEY FIELD: Field used to retrieve, update, sort RECORD </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  5. 5. KEY FIELD <ul><li>Field in Each Record </li></ul><ul><li>Uniquely Identifies THIS Record </li></ul><ul><li>For RETRIEVAL </li></ul><ul><li> UPDATING </li></ul><ul><li>SORTING </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>DATA REDUNDANCY </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM / DATA DEPENDENCY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF FLEXIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>POOR SECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF DATA SHARING & AVAILABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>PROBLEMS WITH TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT Flat File
  7. 7. SEQUENTIAL VS. DIRECT FILE ORGANIZATION <ul><li>SEQUENTIAL: Tape oriented; one file follows another; follows physical sequence </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT: Disk oriented; can be accessed without regard to physical sequence </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  8. 8. FILING METHODS <ul><li>INDEXED SEQUENTIAL ACCESS METHOD (ISAM) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EACH RECORD IDENTIFIED BY KEY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GROUPED IN BLOCKS AND CYLINDERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KEYS IN INDEX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VIRTUAL STORAGE ACCESS METHOD (VSAM) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MEMORY DIVIDED INTO AREAS & INTERVALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DYNAMIC FILE SPACE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VSAM WIDELY USED FOR RELATIONAL DATABASES </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT FILE ACCESS METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  9. 9. DIRECT FILE ACCESS METHOD <ul><li>EACH RECORD HAS KEY FIELD </li></ul><ul><li>KEY FIELD FED INTO TRANSFORM ALGORITHM </li></ul><ul><li>ALGORITHM GENERATES PHYSICAL STORAGE LOCATION OF RECORD (RECORD ADDRESS) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  10. 10. DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) <ul><li>SOFTWARE TO CREATE & MAINTAIN DATA </li></ul><ul><li>ENABLES BUSINESS APPLICATIONS TO EXTRACT DATA </li></ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT OF SPECIFIC COMPUTER PROGRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>DBMS
  11. 11. COMPONENTS OF DBMS: <ul><li>DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines data elements in database </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulates data for applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA DICTIONARY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal definitions of all variables in database, controls variety of database contents, data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>DBMS
  12. 12. STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE (SQL) <ul><li>EMERGING STANDARD </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>FOR RELATIONAL DATABASES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>DBMS
  13. 13. ELEMENTS OF SQL <ul><li>SELECT: List of columns from tables desired </li></ul><ul><li>FROM: Identifies tables from which columns will be selected </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE: Includes conditions for selecting specific rows, conditions for joining multiple tables </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>DBMS
  14. 14. TWO VIEWS OF DATA <ul><li>PHYSICAL VIEW: Where is data physically? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DRIVE, DISK, SURFACE, TRACK, SECTOR (BLOCK), RECORD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TAPE, BLOCK, RECORD NUMBER (KEY) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LOGICAL VIEW: What data is needed by application? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUCCESSION OF FACTS NEEDED BY APPLICATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAME, TYPE, LENGTH OF FIELD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>BIT BYTE FIELD RECORD FILE DATABASE DBMS
  15. 15. TYPES OR RELATIONS ONE-TO-ONE: STUDENT ID ONE-TO-MANY: CLASS STUDENT A STUDENT B STUDENT C MANY-TO-MANY: STUDENT A STUDENT B STUDENT C CLASS 1 CLASS 2
  16. 16. HIERARCHICAL DATA MODEL ROOT FIRST CHILD 2nd CHILD Ratings Salary Compensation Job Assignments Pension Insurance Health Benefits Employer
  17. 17. NETWORK DATA MODEL <ul><li>VARIATION OF HIERARCHICAL MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>USEFUL FOR MANY-TO-MANY RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>NETWORK A NETWORK B NETWORK C NETWORK 1 NETWORK 2
  18. 18. OTHER SYSTEMS <ul><li>LEGACY SYSTEM: older system </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT - ORIENTED DBMS: stores data & procedures as objects </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT - RELATIONAL DBMS: hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  19. 19. CREATING A DATABASE <ul><li>CONCEPTUAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  20. 20. CREATING A DATABASE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: <ul><li>ABSTRACT MODEL, BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>HOW WILL DATA BE GROUPED? </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISH END-USER NEEDS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>DETAILED MODEL BY DATABASE SPECIALISTS </li></ul><ul><li>ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>NORMALIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>HARDWARE / SOFTWARE SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>CREATING A DATABASE PHYSICAL DESIGN:
  22. 22. ELEMENTS OF DATABASE ENVIRONMENT DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DATA ADMINISTRATION DATABASE TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT USERS DATA PLANNING & MODELING METHODOLOGY
  23. 23. ENTITY- RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM 1 1 M 1 ORDER CAN HAVE PART SUPPLIER CAN HAVE ORDER: #, DATE, PART #, QUANTITY PART: #, DESCRIPTION, UNIT PRICE, SUPPLIER # SUPPLIER: #, NAME, ADDRESS
  24. 24. NORMALIZATION <ul><li>PROCESS OF CREATING SMALL DATA STRUCTURES FROM COMPLEX GROUPS OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONNEL RECORDS </li></ul><ul><li>PAYROLL </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  25. 25. DISTRIBUTED DATABASES <ul><li>PARTITIONED: remote CPUs (connected to host) have files unique to that site, e.g., records on local customers </li></ul><ul><li>DUPLICATE: each remote CPU has copies of common files, e.g., layouts for standard reports and forms </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  26. 26. DATABASE ADMINISTRATION <ul><li>DEFINES & ORGANIZES DATABASE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPS SECURITY PROCEDURES </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPS DATABASE DOCUMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTAINS DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  27. 27. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>MULTIDIMENSIONAL DATA ANALYSIS: 3D (or higher) groupings to store complex data </li></ul><ul><li>HYPERMEDIA: Nodes contain text, graphics, sound, video, programs. organizes data as nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  28. 28. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DATA WAREHOUSE: Organization’s electronic library stores consolidated current & historic data for management reporting & analysis </li></ul><ul><li>ON-LINE ANALYTICAL PROCESSING (OLAP): Tools for multi- dimensional data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  29. 29. COMPONENTS OF DATA WAREHOUSE
  30. 30. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>DATA MART: Small data warehouse for special function, e.g., Focused marketing based on customer info </li></ul><ul><li>DATAMINING: Tools for finding hidden patterns, relation- ships, for predicting trends </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  31. 31. DATABASE TRENDS <ul><li>LINKING DATABASES TO THE WEB: </li></ul><ul><li>WEB USER CONNECTS TO VENDOR DATABASE </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIAL SOFTWARE CONVERTS HTML TO SQL </li></ul><ul><li>SQL FINDS DATA, SERVER CONVERTS RESULT TO HTML </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  32. 32. “ What, exactly, is the internet? Basically it is a global network exchanging digitized  data  in such a way that any computer, anywhere, that is equipped with a device called a 'modem', can make a noise like a duck choking on a kazoo ” T H A N K Y O U ! ! !
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