GIS For Smart Grid
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  • 1. GIS for Smart Grid Sougata Mitra 2010 Sougata Mitra 2010/ACPPM/08754 iamsougata@gmail.com 98363 47212
  • 2. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart GridTABLE OF CONTENTSExecutive Summary.......................................................................................................................................3Note:Interview Extract.................................................................................................................................. 3Note:R-APDRP and GIS.................................................................................................................................. 4Technology: Global Positioning System ........................................................................................................ 5Technology: Diffrential Global Positioning System.......................................................................................6Technology: Geographical Information System............................................................................................ 7GIS for Distribution Business......................................................................................................................... 7 Components of GIS: .........................................................................................................................8 Software.............................................................................................................................. 8 GIS Data .............................................................................................................................. 8 GIS Infrastructure................................................................................................................ 8Nucleas of GIS Data: Consumer Indexing...................................................................................................... 9The Future: Smart Grid ...............................................................................................................................10The Critical Role of Enterprise GIS in Smart Grid Technology .................................................................... 12Challenges on Implementation of GIS in Power Industry...........................................................................14 Page | 2
  • 3. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart GridEXECUTIVE SUMMARY NOTE:INTERVIEW EXTRACTMoP/GoI has taken numerous strategicinitiatives aiming at providing reliable quality Extracts from the Interview of Mr Devenderpower supply to consumers at affordable rates Singh, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Power with GISDevelopment.netand towards improvement of powerdistribution which is the real interface betweenpower utilities and millions of consumers. The Union Ministry of Power (MoP) hasInadequate data of distribution assets facilities incorporated the use of GIS as a policy initiative incoupled with lack of information of customer National Electricity Policy 2005 and Integrated Energy Policy (IEP). What has been the drivingbase are the main concerns of distribution force for this?companies. Many DISCOMs have started usingGIS for developing accurate database, improveinternal efficiency levels pertaining to power Geospatial technologies are very relevant insupply monitoring, commercial and customer distribution and other areas of power sector. Inservices. This valuable tool, GIS, is also being the Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme (RAPDRP),employed for important functions like network a major initiative of the Government of India,analysis, FM, energy audit, trouble call reduction of aggregate technical and commercialmanagement, load management, theft losses in the distribution sector is a priority. One ofdetection etc., Power is the most critical the important components we are targeting at isinfrastructure for the progress of any country. the proper energy auditing and accounting andThe facilitating policy framework, the the extensive use of information technology forregulatory mechanism for investment in this purpose. As part of this, it is important to begeneration, transmission, distribution and able to do consumer indexing. If you can map rightother associated activities have already been up to the transformer and down to the lastput in place by the government. The need of consumer, you can find out exactly how many customers are connected to each transformer andthe hour is for efficient management and if there are any pilferages and power theftoptimum utilization of installed capacity to .Similarly, mapping can be done for all the assets inmeet the demand. the distribution network. Regular maintenance of these systems would be possible if you deploySub- Transmission and Distribution systems geospatial technologies. In generation sector,constitute the link between electricity utilities geospatial data could be used for locating idealand consumers, for extending supply and sites for hydro power generation. Hydro power hasrevenue realization segment. Therefore for tremendous potential in the country - to a tune ofconsumers, these systems represent the face 1,50,000 MW and with 60% PLF, we can harvestof the utility. Efficient functioning of this close to 90,000 MW. If mapping of assets is done,segment of the utility is essential to sustain the whether it is transmission or distribution, it is easy to locate a fault, to attend to a fault or to operategrowth of power sector and the economy. the lines. This can also be used to plan the location and direction of new lines based on the newThe planning and the design of the electrical generation projects that are being built.supply system are everyday tasks for engineersin the DISCOMs. The goal of power distributionsystem planning is to satisfy the growing and changing system load demand during the planning periodwithin operational constraints and with minimal costs. The planning process comprises several phases, Page | 3
  • 4. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart Gridand one of the most important is the optimization of theelectric distribution network. The network optimization isconsidered a hard combinatorial optimization problem dueto a number of limitations (network voltage level, networkstructure, quantums and locations of loads, routes and types NOTE: R-APDRP AND GISof feeders, voltage drops, etc.). An additional complexity isimposed by the geographically referenced data. In this Nearly every state is implementingprocess it is important to have on time accurate relevant the program R-APDRP which is(related) data and information on the electric distribution giving a new lease of life for thesystem and its assets, and possibly to have data from other utilities to uplift their IT Backbone.utilities. GIS forms the crux of the solutionsWith the radical changes that the electric utility industry is to be implemented. The time boundfacing, customer choice has become the buzzword for the ambitious project requires urbanentire country. Computerization and development of various mapping of 1:2000 & even highergeographic information systems have opened new horizons scale maps. There has been nofor all decision-making processes as well as for manipulation Government body in India who hasand dissemination of information taken such high scale mapping before this project. The success ofUse of GIS will facilitate easily updatable and accessible the whole program depends on thedatabase to cater to the needs of monitoring and success of GIS Database.maintaining reliable quality power supply, efficient MBC(metering, billing and collections), comprehensive energy Due to such level of investmentsaudit, theft detection and reduction of T&D losses. All these mainstream IT majors like TCS, HCLmeasures will ultimately improve the overall internal & Infosys have ramped up their GISefficiency of the DISCOMs and help accelerate achieving Practice to address the projectcommercial viability execution. For further information please visitA new period of higher significance has arrived for the www.rapdrp.gov.inGPS/GIS function at electric utilities. To a degree neverequaled before, utility managers are looking to their GISprograms, filled with increasingly accurate data collected byGPS technology, before making decisions. With this capabilitycomes an expectation for GIS/GPS professionals to provide higher levels of planning and management oftheir data collection process Page | 4
  • 5. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart GridTECHNOLOGY: GLOBAL POSITIONING S SYSTEMGPS is a space-based radio navigation system that provides reliable based positioning, navigation, and timing services to civilian users on acontinuous worldwide basis -- freely available to all. For anyone with a GPSreceiver, the system will provide location and time. GPS provides accuratelocation and time information for an unlimited number of people in allweather, day and night, anywhere in the world.The GPS is made up of three parts: satellites orbiting the Earth; control and monitoring stations onEarth; and the GPS receivers owned by users.  The space segment consists of a nominal constellation of 24 operating satellites that transmit one-way signals that give the current GPS satellite position and time. way  The control segment consists of worldwide monitor and control stations that maintain the monitor satellites in their proper orbits through occasional command maneuvers, and adjust the satellite clocks. It tracks the GPS satellites, uploads updated navigational data, and maintains health and status of the satellite constellation. ite  The user segment consists of the GPS receiver equipment, which receives the signals from the GPS satellites and uses the transmitted information to calculate the user’s three three-dimensional position and timeUsing the near pinpoint accuracy provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) with ground yaugmentations, highly accurate surveying and mapping results can be rapidly obtained, therebysignificantly reducing the amount of equipment and labor hours that are normally required of otherconventional surveying and mapping techniques. Today it is possible for a single surveyor to accomplish onventionalin one day what used to take weeks with an entire team. GPS is unaffected by rain, wind, or reducedsunlight, and is rapidly being adopted by professional surveyors and mapping personnel throughout the professionalworld. GPS position information for these features serves as a prime input to geographic informationsystems (GIS), that assemble, store, manipulate, and display geographically referenced information.Throughout the world, government agencies, scientific organizations, and commercial operations are houtusing the surveys and maps deriving from GPS and GIS for timely decision making and wiser use of decision-makingresources. Any organization or agency that requires accurate location information can benefit from the locationefficiency and productivity provided by the positioning capability of GPS.Unlike traditional techniques, GPS surveying is not bound by constraints such as line line-of-sight visibilitybetween reference stations. The increased flexibility of GPS also permits survey stations to be increasedestablished at easily accessible sites rather than being confined to hilltops as previously required.Remote GPS systems may be carried by one person in a backpack, mounted on the roof of anautomobile, or fastened atop an all terrain vehicle to permit rapid and accurate field data collection. obile, all-terrainWith a GPS radio communication link, real real-time, continuous centimeter-level accuracy makes possible a levelproductivity level that is virtually unattainable using optical survey instruments. Page | 5
  • 6. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart GridTECHNOLOGY: DIFFRENTIAL GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMDGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) is an enhancement to Global Positioning System that uses a network of fixed,ground-based reference stations to broadcast thedifference between the positions indicated by thesatellite systems and the known fixed positions.Differential GPS works through two receivers one ofwhich is stationary and the other moving aroundmaking position measurements.Here is the underlying principle. GPS receiverscalculate distances by using the time signals take totravel from satellites. This work needs signals from atleast four satellites. Each of these signals has someerrors due to different factors like disturbances in theatmosphere. These errors can have a cumulativeeffect in the final result the GPS gets. However thesatellites are so far away in space, the distances wetravel on earth are pretty insignificant in comparison.This way the signals two receivers within a distance ofa few hundred kilometers receive have the sameamount of errors, as they have traveled the same amount of distance in atmosphere. This is theprinciple put to use in DGPS. The stationary (reference) receiver is placed at a point that has been veryaccurately marked and surveyed. This station is considered to receive the same GPS signals with thesame amount of error as the moving receiver. The stationary receiver then works backwards on theequation. This means that instead of using timing signals to work out its position, it uses its alreadymeasured position to calculate timing. It then compares how long the signals should take to travel withthe actual time they took to reach the station. The difference in the two readings gives the errorcomponent which is common to it and the moving receiver. The stationary receiver repeats this processfor all the visible satellites encodes the information into a standard format and then relays theinformation to the moving receiver. The moving receiver is thus able to make appropriate corrections.Error Transmissions- the nitty-gritty DGPS receivers cannot transmit the corrections on their own, butuse attached radio transmitters for the corrections. The moving receiver gets a complete list of errors,meaning errors with reference to each satellite, and applies whichever data is applicable to them. LimitsDifferential GPS can eliminate only those errors that are common to both the stationary and movingreceivers. This does not include multi-path errors (these are errors that happen due to the signalsreflecting off objects like mountains, tall buildings and dense foliage), as these are happening veryclose to the receiver. Further, DGPS cannot account for any internal errors within an individual receiver. Page | 6
  • 7. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart GridTECHNOLOGY: GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATIONSYSTEMA geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware,software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, anddisplaying all forms of geographically referencedinformation.Significance of GIS:While Computer technology increases the decision maker’saccess to relevant data, the GIS provides tools to interpret that data i.e., it allows one to seerelationships, patterns, or trends intuitively that are not possible to see with traditional charts, graphsand spreadsheets.GIS FOR DISTRIBUTION BUSINESSGIS (Geographic Information Systems) is a system of mapping of complete electrical network including low voltage system and customer supply points with latitude and longitudesoverload on satellite imaging and/or survey of India maps. Layers of information are contained in thesemap representations. The first layer corresponds to the distribution network coverage. The second layercorresponds to the land background containing roads, landmarks, buildings, rivers, railway crossings etc.The next layer could contain information on the equipment viz poles, conductors transformers etc. Mostof the electrical network/equipment has a geographical location and the full benefit of any networkimprovement can be had only if the work is carried out in the geographical context. Business processessuch as network planning, repair operations and maintenance connection and reconnection has also tobe based around the network model. Even while doing something as relatively simple as adding a newservice connection; it is vital to know that users of the system are not affected by this addition. GIS inconjunction with system analysis tools helps to do just this.For efficient and reliable operation of a distribution system, a reliable and well knit communicationnetwork is required to facilitate project coordination of the maintenance and fault activities of thedistribution system. GIS when integrated with real time SCADA can help in sending the right signals tothe communication network. Some examples: • When integrated with customer information systems with geodata or geodata related information, fast identification of locations and related information for maintenance and emergency cases is made possible as The system enables to identify each consumer, type of consumer, location, pole from supply is given, Distribution Transformer & Feeder from where supply is fed • Reliable data of network when accurately integrated with land base map aids in design, planning, and analyzing of network thereby enabling technical loss calculation Page | 7
  • 8. COMPONENTS OF GIS:SOFTWAREGIS software ranges from simple businessmapping tools to high-end technology used tomanage complex systems. GIS can be divided intofour categories:  Desktop GIS helps to analyze, map, manage, share, and publish geographic information on desktop computers.  Server GIS, which allows GIS functionality, helps the data to be deployed from a central environment.  Embedded GIS, technology that lets the GIS functionality and data to be embedded inside other applications.  Mobile or field GIS, technologies that run on mobile devices such as PDAs, laptops, and Tablet PCs.GIS DATAThe backbone of GIS is good data. Inaccurate data can result in inaccurate models and maps, skewingthe results of the analysis and ultimately resulting in poor decisions. The past 10 years has seen anexplosion in the amount of data available, much of it free, with the advent of the Internet andproliferation of commercial sources of data. Internet mapping and Web services technology has made itpossible for anyone anywhere to share or access data from around the globe. This wide availabilitymakes it critical to understand what GIS data is, how it is used, and how to select the right data for one’sneeds.GIS INFRASTRUCTUREHardware is really a simplistic term used to describe the technology infrastructure needed to supportyour GIS implementation. The infrastructure developed depends on the system requirementsdetermined as needed during that phase of implementation planning. Using Web services for GIS needsminimal investment for infrastructure, while an enterprise GIS implementation requires careful planningand a fairly significant investment for computerization, networking, database connectivity etc.,
  • 9. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart GridNUCLEAS OF GIS DATA: CONSUMER INDEXINGCustomer indexing (CI) is a method for enumerating the total A customer with thenumber of consumers in a utility and tagging them to their CIN as 030412900618respective poles, transformers and feeders. would mean the following:The purpose of CI is to identify revenue leakages by way ofconsumers who are not billed or billed under improper category  The customer isand to generate a master list of consumers. Distribution utilities drawing powerin the country, today, suffer from lack of Management from the StationInformation System (MIS) based on validated and correct data of no.03,entities and consumers. Owing to the wide geographical spreadof utilities and dynamic nature of huge data of consumers, it is  The Feeder numberalways a challenge to obtain data from field on real time basis to 04 is running fromgenerate MIS for quick and timely decision making. Data created the station to themanually in registers/ledgers by line men and meter readers distributiontravels to the top management without adequate checks and transformer,balances en-route. This results in defective work estimates andconsequent delays. Customer indexing and asset codification  The Distributionsystem provides a platform to enable the utilities to generate Transformer (DTR)verifiable and validated data of consumers and entities of the number is 129,utilities.  The Pole number 006 is used to dropThrough door-to-door survey and with the help of the DGPS wire to customerinstrument, it is possible to carry out consumer identification and premises, andcollect data about customers such as their paying capacity,connected load, consumer category, meter details and linkage to  The Customerlast pole or service pillar from the service connection taken out Number is 18.for consumer. Customer indexing has to be carried out in a way,which makes it possible to relate the customer’s geographical andelectrical address with his/her revenue address. Each customer,indexed on the basis of the initial record available with the ownerand later verified by field survey, should have an exclusive six toeight digit numeric/alphanumeric code. Consumer code number should be used for metering, billing andall other service functions. For generating consumer indexing, each consumer is indexed based on theElectrical System Codification and the source of supply to the particular customer which should enablethe feeder/DT wise energy accounting. Each customer is assigned a unique Customer IdentificationNumber or CIN based on the source/pole/DT/Customer Number. Page | 9
  • 10. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart GridTHE FUTURE: SMART GRIDs mart grid is not a piece of hardware or a computer system but, rather, a concept. As its name implies, the smart grid is about an intelligent electric delivery system that responds to the needs ofand directly communicates with consumers. While there are many facets to the concept, the smart gridis really about three things: managing loads more effectively, providing significantly more automationduring restoration after an outage event, and enabling more interaction between energy providersand consumers.A smart grid gives utilities more time to increase capacity, improve energy efficiency, and help lowergreenhouse gas production. By managing loads, utilities can better leverage their lower-cost and better-performing generating plants to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gases and gain higherutilization of existing equipment. Electric companies will know the consumption of individual consumersat any given time because smart grid technology helps markets interact with consumers. Utilities willgive consumers price signals and information about the implications of their energy usage. For example,customers could discover the price (or cost) of turning on their air conditioners. A smart grid coulddetect areas of theft of current and take measures to cut off supply.The electric system will adapt to new conditions without human intervention once a smart grid is inplace. If a circuit were nearing its load limit, the smart grid could take action to automaticallyreconfigure the network in an attempt to relieve the overloading condition. The grid can be "self-healing" by switching around problem areas to minimize outages. Since electricity demands tend to Page | 10
  • 11. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart Gridspike during the hottest part of the day and year, electric companies have to maintain large reserves ofcapacity. A smart grid makes best use of resources. By allowing the grid to smooth out the demands,utilities can better utilize existing facilities. With thousands of sensors and operators equipped with abetter understanding of the way the system is running, a smart grid is predictive rather than reactive toprevent emergencies. A smart grid will supply operators with the tools to predict a failure before ithappens. Appropriate action may be automatic. Even with todays sophisticated SCADA anddistribution management systems, operators do most of the switching based on individualinterpretation of the situation.The key to the smart grid is the complete installation of smart meters that providea link between consumer behavior and electric energy consumption. A smartmeter is an electric meter that measures consumption for a very smallinterval of time (seconds or less), saves that data to memory, andcommunicates directly with the utility. The smart meter can alsocommunicate energy use to the consumer. Some smart meters canautomatically disconnect the load and block power from flowing. For a smartmeter to work, there must be a link from the meter to devices within theconsumers home or facility as well as communication between the smart meterand the utility. Many electrical appliances are equipped with internal devices thatconnect to smart meters. Smart meters will be able to communicate and even control devices within theconsumers home or business. When there is a power failure, the smart meter alerts the utility ofoutages. During a peak power emergency, the utility tells the smart meter to shut off selected loads asallowed by tariffs. Since smart meters are not limited to measuring electricity, we may see smart metersused by gas and water utilities as well.A smart grid will require energy storage systems to level the peak and enable utilities to access the mostefficient and environmentally sound power generation options. Energy storage systems could beenhanced batteries, flywheels, or compressed air systems. Most outage management systems (OMS)use sophisticated prediction engines based on customer phone calls and network models to determineoutage locations. An OMS linked to a smart grid will rely on a sensor network for faster, more accurateresponse. In a smart grid, the OMS will converge with the distribution management system (DMS) toform an automated analytic engine. The DMS provides the means to reconfigure and analyze the electricnetwork. A DMS integrated with an OMS will enable utilities to make decisions based on informationfrom the sensor network and smart meters about loading, predictive equipment failures, outages, andrestoration.In most electric utility systems today, the utility is virtually blind to problems in the field. The smart gridwill have sensors to detect fault, voltage, and current along the distribution network and communicatewith the central smart grid processors. Most electric systems around the world are able to communicatevery little about the state of the system other than the main supply substations. The crux of the smartgrid is the ability to communicate the state of the system from the sensor network to both the utilityand the customers. The electric distribution system will grow from a single network to an integrateddual network system. One network will represent the power system, and the other will represent anadvanced communication network. Utilities need a means of collecting data from the sensors and smart Page | 11
  • 12. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart Gridmeters to make decisions about self-healing the grid, load shifting, and billing. Self-healing means thatthe electric distribution system will configure itself to limit the extent of customer outages withouthuman intervention. A sophisticated data management system will store historic and current real-timedata about the system from meters and sensors. Traditional SCADA systems are early smart gridtechnologies. However, the reach of SCADA is usually limited to substations and a few major distributionautomation devices like remote-controlled disconnect switches. The data managed by SCADA plays animportant part in any smart grid implementation. A smart grid will need real-time analytic engines ableto analyze the network, determine the current state and condition of the system, predict what mayhappen, and develop a plan. These engines will need data from the utility and outside parties such asweather services. The combination of smart meters, data management, communication network, andapplications specific to metering is advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI plays a key role insmart grid technology, and many utilities begin smart grid implementation with AMI.THE CRITICAL ROLE OF ENTERPRISE GIS IN SMART GRID TECHNOLOGYGIS is widely recognized for its strong role in managing traditional electric power transmission anddistribution and telecommunicationsnetworks. GIS will likewise play astrong role in managing the smart grid.For utilities, GIS already provides themost comprehensive inventory of theelectrical distribution networkcomponents and their spatial locations.With the smart grids sophisticatedcommunication network superimposedon the electric network, datamanagement with GIS becomes utterlycritical. Enterprise GIS is a frameworkor platform that underpins an electricutility information technology system.Other platforms that make up theutility IT system include SCADA,customer billing/financial systems, anddocument management systems.Enterprise GIS authors, or creates, spatial information about utility assets (poles, wires, transformers,duct banks, customers) and serves that information to the enterprise. The core business applicationsthen mash up, or combine, the data served from the GIS, SCADA, and customer systems along withother information from outside the utility such as traffic, weather systems, or satellite imagery. Utilitiesuse this combined information for business applications, from visualizing a common operating picture toinspection and maintenance to network analysis and planning. Page | 12
  • 13. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart Grid GIS will help manage data about the condition of utility assets. After parts of the system go into service, utilities must manage the system through the collection and maintenance of asset condition data. Some condition data can come from automated systems, and other data can come from inspection systems. Utilities are rapidly adopting GIS-based mobile devices for inspection and maintenance. Enterprise GIS, with its desktop, server, and mobile components, allows utilities to gather condition data. The power of GIS helps utilities understand the relationship of its assets to each other. Since the smart grid is composed of two networks—electric and communications—utilities must understand physical and spatial relationships among all network components. These relationships will form the basis for some of the advanced decision making the smart grid makes. A smart grid must have a solid understanding of the connectivity of both networks. GIS provides the tools and workflows for network modeling and advanced tracing. GIS also helps utilities understand the relationship of networks with surroundings. GIS can help identify relationships between systems and the environment. From a smart grid perspective, GIS allows utilities to visualize the electric and communications systems and the relationship that exists between them. In the United States, utilities do not monitor the vast majority of distributionIt goes well beyond the traditional "stare and transformers. If the load on any of thesecompare" method commonly used by transformers rises beyond capability, theyutilities to a notion of seeing relationships. fail. With monitoring, the smart grid wouldGIS provides a means to monitor and express be able to determine whether thethe health of the system in an obvious way transformer has experienced past stresseswith commands such as, "Show me all the and therefore lost longevity. As thesensors that have failed to report results in transformer approaches a dangerous limit,the last hour." GIS can show the real-time the smart grid could take preventiveview of the grid and note where things are measures to avoid the catastrophic failurechanging. In effect, GIS (as compared with a of the transformer. Within GIS, operatorsSCADA system) shows the complete state of would then perform a spatial analysis tothe grid, represented by a realistic model in determine the risk of failure and customera way that people understand. As the heart impact. The smart grid algorithms, inof the distribution system, GIS can actually concert with the GIS, could determinecontrol parts of the grid. The technology can whether to reduce the load at customerrecommend ways to get the grid back to sites, reconfigure the network to relievenormal after an abnormal event. Or it can the load, or perform preemptiveautomatically have the grid do something switching.different. A smart grid driven by a GIS wouldadapt to changes based on information fromthe thousands of sensors to help preventoutages and equipment failure. Page | 13
  • 14. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart GridCHALLENGES ON IMPLEMENTATION OF GIS IN POWER INDUSTRYIt is hard to imagine implementing a smart grid without a detailed and comprehensive network modelcontained within the GIS. Utilities face a number of challenges to ensure the effectiveness of a smartgrid program. The data quality that exists in the GIS must be outstanding. It is one thing to have a few errors on a planning or asset management map. While not desirable, it is even somewhat tolerable to have some inaccuracies in the GIS data that feeds outage management systems. However, it is not acceptable to have incorrect data in a system that automatically controls the electric distribution system. Errors could result in increased outages or, worse, accidents. There are a number of excellent standards for processing critical infrastructure data. Those standards and processes should be tested and strictly adhered to. Historically, utilities maintained a large backlog of documentation about completed work in the field (as-built sketches and accumulated work orders) to be posted to the GIS. Utilities must measure the time spanning from when a change occurs in the field to when the change is reflected in the GIS. Utilities are now able to build a GIS on an accurate land base. Since GIS has been used by utilities for more than 20 years, it predates GPS. Utilities that continue to base facility location on antiquated grid systems will not be able to successfully use GIS until they make the land base and facility information spatially correct. There are advanced tools to assist in the corrective process, but it is still highly labor intensive and time consuming. For utilities that have not yet built a comprehensive GIS for infrastructure, the goal should be an accurate, GPS-compliant land base. Lack of a digital model of the electrical system—whether urban, overhead, underground, networked, radial, or some combination therein—will limit the overall effectiveness of the smart grid. Some utilities have built a GIS piecemeal, with some parts of the service territory converted to digital form and others still in CAD or even paper form. Many have only converted primary data and not secondary networks. Others have converted rural overhead areas but have not converted urban networked areas. The piecemeal approach is not effective if GIS is to be the heart of a smart grid. Installing smart meters in areas where the utility has not modeled the electric network will inhibit much of the usefulness of the equipment. In this case, the use of the smart meter would probably be limited to billing. A large problem for utilities is the lack of good customer addressing information. Even in countries where virtually all premises have a physical address, utilities struggle to keep data Page | 14
  • 15. Sougata Mitra GIS for Smart Grid current. Some utilities dont have tight processes to make sure new customer data is linked directly to the GIS. If GIS does not have an exact correlation of the customer premises and the electric system, any hope of automation and self-healing will be lost. In regions where customer addresses dont exist, utilities will need to create some kind of coding system that uniquely identifies a customer location to a point in space and to the electric distribution system. Otherwise, it will be impossible to build a smart grid. Once the system is in place, it is critical that utilities have a foolproof quality assurance process that guarantees that as they add new customers to the system, those customers are reflected as connections to the electrical network.Since the idea behind the smart grid is to add more monitoring capability and control to the electricsystem, enterprise GIS is fundamental to its success. It is imperative to have a solid model of all electricassets including their condition and relationships to each other, to customers, and to thetelecommunications systems that will drive the smart grid. Utilities must have processes and proceduresin place to ensure accurate and timely GIS data so that the smart grid will be able to make automateddecisions based on correct information. Today, utility dispatchers make the vast majority of switchingdecisions based on human interpretation. Without human intervention, the smart grid must rely on anear-perfect GIS model of the electric system. Page | 15
  • 16. Sougata MitraGIS for Smart Grid Page | 16