The Great Acceleration
Population

US Bureau of the Census (2000) International database
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Stef...
Total real GDP

Nordhaus (1997) The economics of new goods. University of Chicago Press
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and ...
Foreign direct investment

World Bank (2002) data and statistics
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steff...
Damming of rivers

World Commission on Dams (2000)
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
Water use

Shiklomanov (1990) Global Water Resources
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 200...
Fertiliser consumption

International Fertilizer Industry Association (2002)
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth S...
Urban population

The State of the World’s Cities (2001)
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al...
Paper consumption

Pulp and paper international (1993)
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2...
Motor vehicles

Global environmental outlook (2000)
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
Telephones

Canning (2001) A database of world infrastructure stocks, 1950-95 World Bank
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and...
International tourism

World Tourism Organization (2001) Tourism industry trends
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Ear...
Shrimp farm production

IAnnual shrimp production as a proxy for coastal zone alteration. Sources: WRI
(2003) A guide to w...
Domesticated land

Amount of land converted to pasture and cropland. Source: Klein Goldewijk and Battjes (1997)
National I...
Planetary response
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

Etheridge et al. Geophys Res 101: 4115-4128
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and th...
Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration

Machida et al Geophys Res Lett 22:2921-2925
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the...
Atmospheric methane concentration

Blunier et al J Geophy Res 20: 2219-2222
IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth Sy...
Northern hemisphere average surface
temperature

Mann et al Geophys Res Lett 26(6): 759-762
IGBP synthesis: Global Change ...
Ozone depletion

percentage total column ozone loss over Antarctica, using the average annual total
column ozone, 330, as ...
Tropical rainforest and woodland loss

Loss of tropical rainforest and woodland, as estimated for tropical Africa, Latin A...
Natural climatic disasters

Decadal frequency of great floods (one-in-100-year events) after 1860 for basins larger than 2...
Fisheries exploitation

Percentage of global fisheries either fully exploited, overfished or collapsed. Source:
FAOSTAT (2...
Coastal zone nitrogen flux

Model-calculated partitioning of the human-induced nitrogen perturbation fluxes in the global ...
Biodiversity loss

Mathematically calculated rate of extinction. Source: Wilson (1992) The diversity of life, the Penguin ...
Great acceleration

IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
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  • This great acceleration really started in the 50s
  • the Great acceleration de International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

    1. 1. The Great Acceleration
    2. 2. Population US Bureau of the Census (2000) International database IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    3. 3. Total real GDP Nordhaus (1997) The economics of new goods. University of Chicago Press IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    4. 4. Foreign direct investment World Bank (2002) data and statistics IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    5. 5. Damming of rivers World Commission on Dams (2000) IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    6. 6. Water use Shiklomanov (1990) Global Water Resources IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    7. 7. Fertiliser consumption International Fertilizer Industry Association (2002) IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    8. 8. Urban population The State of the World’s Cities (2001) IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    9. 9. Paper consumption Pulp and paper international (1993) IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    10. 10. Motor vehicles Global environmental outlook (2000) IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    11. 11. Telephones Canning (2001) A database of world infrastructure stocks, 1950-95 World Bank IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    12. 12. International tourism World Tourism Organization (2001) Tourism industry trends IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    13. 13. Shrimp farm production IAnnual shrimp production as a proxy for coastal zone alteration. Sources: WRI (2003) A guide to world resources, 2002-2004 IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    14. 14. Domesticated land Amount of land converted to pasture and cropland. Source: Klein Goldewijk and Battjes (1997) National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). Bilthoven, Netherlands IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    15. 15. Planetary response
    16. 16. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration Etheridge et al. Geophys Res 101: 4115-4128 IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    17. 17. Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration Machida et al Geophys Res Lett 22:2921-2925 IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    18. 18. Atmospheric methane concentration Blunier et al J Geophy Res 20: 2219-2222 IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    19. 19. Northern hemisphere average surface temperature Mann et al Geophys Res Lett 26(6): 759-762 IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    20. 20. Ozone depletion percentage total column ozone loss over Antarctica, using the average annual total column ozone, 330, as a base. Image: J.D. Shanklin, British Antarctic Survey IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    21. 21. Tropical rainforest and woodland loss Loss of tropical rainforest and woodland, as estimated for tropical Africa, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. Sources: Richards (1990) In: The Earth as transformed by human action, Cambridge University Press IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    22. 22. Natural climatic disasters Decadal frequency of great floods (one-in-100-year events) after 1860 for basins larger than 200 000 km2 with observations that span at least 30 years. Source: Milly et al. (2002) Nature 415:514-517 IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    23. 23. Fisheries exploitation Percentage of global fisheries either fully exploited, overfished or collapsed. Source: FAOSTAT (2002) Statistical databases IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    24. 24. Coastal zone nitrogen flux Model-calculated partitioning of the human-induced nitrogen perturbation fluxes in the global coastal margin for the period since 1850. Source: Mackenzie et al. (2002) Chem. Geology 190:13-32 IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    25. 25. Biodiversity loss Mathematically calculated rate of extinction. Source: Wilson (1992) The diversity of life, the Penguin Press. IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
    26. 26. Great acceleration IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
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