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Riskilaste konverents 2012: Sanna Herkama: Research-based prevention of bullying
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Riskilaste konverents 2012: Sanna Herkama: Research-based prevention of bullying

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  • Bullying can have catastrophic consequences for all involved.If your child reports being bulied, write down her story.These can help you prove that a pattern of bullying is occurring, and it will let school officials know that you take the problem seriously.As a way of helping everyone especially the parents, who find it quite hard to manage time, I found this great Safety Service which featured a safety app which gets me connected to a Safety Network or escalate my call to the nearest 911 when needed, it has other cool features that are helpful for your kids with just a press of a Panic Button. #SafekidZone, Check it here: http://bit.ly/ZjYchC
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  • 1. Research-based prevention of bullying: KiVa Antibullying Program Senior Researcher Sanna Herkama University of Turku, Finland sanna.herkama@utu.fi 1
  • 2. The KiVa program• KiVa team at the University of Turku consists of – Co-leaders: Professor Christina Salmivalli and PhD Elisa Poskiparta – Senior researchers, doctoral students, coordinators, project managers, …• Funded by the Finnish Ministry of Education – development and initial evaluation of KiVa (2006–2009) – diffusion of KiVa to Finnish comprehensive schools (since 2009) 2
  • 3. Bullying• Bullying: repeated aggressive behavior against a person who finds it difficult to defend him/herself against the perpetrator(s) – takes numerous forms  often verbal abuse, public ridicule  physical, relational, cyberbullying..• Different from conflicts / fights between two equal children 3
  • 4. Bullying• Rather than consisting of single attacks, bullying represents a rather stable relationship further embedded in the larger peer setting• Universal phenomenon; more than 10% of children and adolescents worldwide are systematically bullied by their peers 4
  • 5. Need for evidence-based bullyingprevention programs• Numerous negative effects on well-being and psychosocial development – victims suffer  short and long term – perpetrators learn that aggression is a way ahead – bystanders experience anxiety• Safe and supportive learning environment is a precondition for effective education and academic achievement 5
  • 6. Finland and bullying?Situation before KiVa• Finland’s prevalence of bullies and victims slightly below ’average’ (around 10%)• Bullying a big concern in society since 1990’s→ Changes in legislation ’Right for a safe school environment’ (1999) ’Each school should have their own policy...’ (2003)• National trend data: No changes in ten years in the annual prevalence survey (School Health Promotion Study) 6
  • 7. ’Each school should have their ownpolicy...’• Each school develops their own policy...?? self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program self-invented program RESOURCES?? EFFECTS? – Evidence-based prevention of bullying is needed 7
  • 8. Taking Action at the National Level• The Finnish government decided that bullying prevention is a priority – Contracts with the University of Turku:  Development of the KiVa program and initial evaluation of its effects 2006-2009  Beginning the broad implementation across Finnish comprehensive schools 2009-2010  Supporting high-quality implementation and sustainability across the country 2010-2011 8
  • 9. Background of KiVa: The socialarchitecture of bullying• Bullying can be a strategy to gain status and power in the peer group...• …and it is often succesful  bullies are perceived as popular (Caravita, DiBlasio, & Salmivalli, 2008)  bullying helps to maintain status (Juvonen & Galvan, 2008)…  …and to increase status over time (Cillessen & Borch, 2004) 9
  • 10. Background of KiVa: The socialarchitecture of bullying• In order to demonstrate their power and renew their high-status position in the group, bullies need to choose... – targets who are submissive, insecure, physically weak and/or in a low-power position in the group... – optimal time and place for their attacks (peer witnesses present) 10
  • 11. Background of KiVa: The socialarchitecture of bullying• Participant roles in bullying (Salmivalli et al., 1996) 20% reinforcers of the bully 24% 8% bully outsiders 12% victim assistants of the bully 17% defenders of the victim 7% 11
  • 12. In order to reduce bullying...• We do not necessarily need to change the victims, making them ”less vulnerable” 12
  • 13. In order to reduce bullying...• We do not necessarily need to change the victims, making them ”less vulnerable”• Influencing the behavior of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the bullies and consequently, their motivation to bully in the first place UNIVERSAL• However, the victims need to feel that they are heard and helped by the adults at school• The bullies need to be confronted for their unacceptable behavior 13
  • 14. In order to reduce bullying...• We do not necessarily need to change the victims, making them ”less vulnerable”• Influencing the behavior of classmates can reduce the rewards gained by the bullies and consequently, their motivation to bully in the first place INDICATED• However, the victims need to feel that they are heard and helped by the adults at school• The bullies need to be confronted for their unacceptable behavior 14
  • 15. KiVa antibullying program• Special characteristics: – Both universal and indicated actions – An exceptionally large amount of materials & concrete tools (not merely a ”philosophy”) – Utilizing ICT: virtual learning environments 15
  • 16. KiVa antibullying program• KiVa is more systematic and structured than most existing anti-bullying programs – What to do, when to do it, how to do it,... 16
  • 17. Universal actions• Commitment & coordination at the school level• Signaling that ”we are a KiVa school” – visible vests for teachers supervising recess time – posters• Student online survey – Pre-implementation survey (May) – Survey repeated annually  Automatic feedback to schools 17
  • 18. Universal actions• Student lessons 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Computer games and virtual learningenvironments KiVa Game KiVa Street 21
  • 22. KiVa games and KiVa Street are closely connected to student lessonsEnhancing awareness of the role bystanders play inthe bullying process, as well as empathy for victims Providing self-efficacy and safe strategies to support and defend the victimized peers 22
  • 23. KiVa games and KiVa Street are closely connected to student lessons– Repeating & testing of what has been learnt – ”I KNOW”– Learning to take action – ”I CAN”– Motivation – ”I DO” 23
  • 24. Parents’ guide & website for parents 24
  • 25. Indicated actions – tackling the cases of bullying coming to attention• Individual discussions with the victim and with the bullying children KIVA TEAM• + utilizing prosocial, high-status peers – ”your help is needed” CLASSROOM TEACHER  setting standards for others  making the victim feel better  protecting the victimized child from further attacks 25
  • 26. Evaluation of KiVa• Randomized controlled trial – 2007-2008, 2008-2009• Evaluation during broad rollout; age-cohort design – since 2009 26
  • 27. Randomized controlled trial (RCT)• 234 schools (117 intervention, 117 control) representing all provinces in the mainland Finland and both Finnish- and Swedish- speaking schools• > 30 000 students• Exceptionally wide age range (Grades 1-9, students with 7-15 years of age)• Numerous outcome variables 27
  • 28. RCT: examples of outcome variables• Bullying and victimization (self-reports, peer-reports, dyadic reports)• Bystander behaviors (reinforcing the bully, defending the victim, ...)• Bullying-related attitudes, empathy, self-efficacy and outcome expectations regarding defending behavior• Internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, self- esteem, peer perceptions)• Peer status, loneliness• Academic adjustment (school liking, academic motivation, academic performance) 28
  • 29. RCT: Changes in being bullied by different forms(9 months of implementation, Grades 4 to 6)
  • 30. RCT: Success of the indicated actions• The proportion of cases handled by the school team in which bullying... – Stopped completely 79.4% – Decreased 18.5% – Remained the same 1.9% – Increased 0.3% Garandeau et al., Tackling acute cases of bullying: Comparison of two methods in the context of the KiVa antibullying program. 30
  • 31. Main conclusions (RCT)• KiVa was effective in reducing (self- and peer- reported) bullying and victimization, already during the first nine months of implementation• The effects generalize to multiple forms of victimization• Numerous positive effects on other outcomes, including school liking and academic motivation• Effects varied across grade levels, being strongest in grade 4 and weakest in middle school (grades 7-9)• Indicated actions were often effective, but taken in a minority of bullying cases 31
  • 32. RCT: Success of the indicated actions• However: only a minority of cases came to attention and were directed to school teams• New feature in KiVa computer game: – Virtual ”mailbox”  Possibility to send a message to own school’s KiVa team 32
  • 33. Mailbox in KiVa game
  • 34. Evaluation under broad rollout• RCT 2007-2008, 2008-2009 Student survey -May 2009• 2009 1450 schools -May 2010 N~150 000 students From 880 schools• 2010 + 810 schools• 2011 + 200 schools 34
  • 35. Main conclusions (broad rollout)• Effects weaker than in RCT, but still significant• Again, strongest effects in grade 4 and weakest in middle school (grades 7-9)• Generalized to Finnish population of 500 000 students, the effects of this size would mean a reduction of 12 000 victims and 8 000 bullies after nine months of implementing KiVa 35
  • 36. Primary schools: bullying others (%)
  • 37. Primary schools: being bullied (%)
  • 38. More data comes in every year...• 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015...• ...about bullying and victimization but also about implementation fidelity 38
  • 39. Challenges• Standards of evidence → identifying best programmes at the European level• Supporting high-quality implementation of programs that work – from evidence-based programs to evidence- based practices• Further research is needed – effective ingredients of programs – effects across diverse cultural contexts 39
  • 40. The future of KiVa: Maintaining high-quality implementation in Finland• On-line training for school personnel• Discussion forum for school personnel• Yearly on-line surveys – students – staff  automatic feedback to schools 40
  • 41. The future of KiVa: Maintaining high-quality implementation in Finland (cont.)• Newsletters (4 / school year)• Biannual KiVa Days (since 2010)• Quality recommendations• ”KiVa School of the Year” (since 2011)• KiVa resource schools (piloting begins in 2012)• New products to complement existing KiVa materials 41
  • 42. • KiVa is an example of how commitment from part of politicians, researchers, and educators can make a difference in the lives of numerous children and youth• European Crime Prevention Award, 2009• Three national awards (2008, 2010, 2011)• Social Policy Award for the Best Article, Society for research on Adolescence, 2012• International evaluations underway 42
  • 43. Some references• Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T., Poskiparta, E., Kaljonen, A., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). A large-scale evaluation of the KiVa antibullying program: Grades 4-6. Child Development, 82, 311-330.• Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T., Alanen, E., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (in press). Effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program: Grades 1-3 and 7-9. Journal of Educational Psychology.• Salmivalli, C., Kärnä, A., & Poskiparta, E. (2011). Counteracting bullying in Finland: The KiVa program and its effects on different forms of being bullied. IJBD.• Kärnä, A., Voeten, M., Little, T., Alanen, E., Poskiparta, E., & Salmivalli, C. (2011) Going to Scale: The effectiveness of KiVa antibullying program during the first year of nationwide implementation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.• Williford, Boulton, Noland, Little, & Salmivalli (2012). The effects of KIVa antibullying program on depression, anxiety, and negative peer perceptions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.• Salmivalli, Garandeau, & Veenstra (2012). KiVa antibullying program: Implications for school adjustment. 43
  • 44. More information: www.kivaprogram.netContact: kiva@kivaprogram.net 44

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