Introduction to the school-basedAggression Replacement Training?       Knut Gundersen ART- centre at diakonhjemmet       U...
A RT   M ult imodal program consist ing of 3 component sSocial Skills(behavior)        Specific TrainingAnger Control     ...
Goal  – Strengthen social competencies  – Replace aggressive behavior with social    acceptable
Why is it important to work      Situation specific skillswith social competence?
.1. There is a correlation between lack ofsocial competence and…
Loneliness (See Jones,Hobbs & Hockenbury, 1982)                            Social competence is t                         ...
Bullying and aggression. (De-Rosier 2004             Development of             language, Baker             and Cafael 1987
Behavior problems• Meta-analyses from 1200 studies (Durlak,  1998) assessed the most important protection  factors for not...
Drug abuse(Gaffney et al 1998)
Academic performance     (Durlak et al., 2007)                                        75% of children with special        ...
Do changes in social skills correlate with      changes in behavioral problems                              Changes in    ...
What is Social Competences?We know it when we see it                            Concrete: /SSRI                           ...
2 faces of social competence                training1.   Skill Acquisition                          Do you have the skills...
2. Skill performance*                                               The factors that makes the(From skills training to com...
Skills occur right time and place / too seldom too often    Too seldom       Rightmå                           time       ...
Right time and place but lack of vital qualities   To close             Distance /                              må        ...
Emotional adjustment to common norms   High              Adapted                        må             Low emotional   emo...
Perception of other`s intent              Hostile intent          Right                                         må        ...
Adjustment of behaviour according to own and others need in the situation     Thinking              Thinking of           ...
Factors beyond the program is      may be iqual important1.Increaseself-efficacyby..
Being recognized
Only positives
Games where thechildren succeed
Year of 2000, Arnold Goldstein had aseminar in Oslo:Created inspiration because:  • A.R.T. addresses essential risk factor...
–International organization for 10 differentprograms including ART–Securing research and program quality systems  PREPSEC ...
ART program (standard program)• Usually 30 session• -Each component once a week, usually on  different days
ART – 50 social skillsGroup 4: Skill alternatives to aggression   – Helping others   – Using self-controlGroup 5: Skills f...
Choosing social skills• Results from assessment• Which skills do the parents, teachers and the ELEVENS SJEKKLISTE FOR FERD...
Firm structure in each session• Reception• Presentation of eventually guests – reminding the rules• Repetition from last s...
Skills for dealing with stress         Skill nr 42              Dealing with group pressure.                              ...
Anger Control Training
The program is directed towards the participants`                   ability to regulate their     Anger is a natural feeli...
Anger is an emotion
Aggression is an action
General Overview of Anger Control                   TrainingSession 1 IntroductionSession 2 Internal and external triggers...
Structure in anger control trainingexternal STRUCTURE–   Welcome      •   Greetings (with status check)      •   Reminder ...
Name                                          Hassle Log__________DateTime :            Morning ______    Afternoon ______...
Training in                 Moral reasoning• The cognitive component of ART• Discussion were participants are presented to...
Research on programs for training social     competence is not always convincing• There is not always focus on the factors...
Lack of proper implementation,        including training standards• From only reading a book compared to 8 days  of traini...
Variation in working with generalization• Kids need to learn how to reinforce proper  behavior.  – Co actor more important...
Studies in Norway                                                  Scandinavian Journal of Educational ResearchPsychology,...
Recomended as a part of the MultifunC model (Andreassen - 03)Conclusion from Research group from 4 ministries inNorway(Nor...
Washington State’s Evaluation of Evidence-Based Juvenile  Justice Programs (Barnoski, Aos, 2004):  ART delivered competent...
ART-senteret                         Ann Karin                         Sigmundstad      Johannes Finne    Marianne Kalvatn...
Cooperating with former students on                    quality control and training       ART in kindergarten   Mental ret...
60 credits post graduate education for training socialcompetencies for teachers and authorized socialworkers       Two yea...
8 day ART training seminars 4 days Social Skills training and Anger Control training 3 days supervision and Moral Reasonin...
Training abroad      Russia Lithuania   Iceland   Danmark                                             50
SupervisionSupervision in:   - Implementation                    - Generalisation                    - Development of the ...
Family ARTBased on the Canadian version by Calame and Parker.3 days supplementary seminar for ART-trainers. Both incommuni...
Situational Perception Training            Knut Gundersen kull 4 2008   53
6 days junior – ART -training
”ART in the whole schools                          System Recognition                                                     ...
Behaviour Problems. Means and within-groups differences (pretest vs. test)for the ART and comparison groups for the CADBI ...
Social skills. Means and within-groups differences (pretest vs.test) for the ART and comparison groups for the SSRS and HI...
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Riskilaste konverents 2012: Knut Gundersen: Introduction to the school-based aggression replacement training

  1. 1. Introduction to the school-basedAggression Replacement Training? Knut Gundersen ART- centre at diakonhjemmet University College
  2. 2. A RT M ult imodal program consist ing of 3 component sSocial Skills(behavior) Specific TrainingAnger Control Specific Training(emotion)Moralreasoning Specific Training(cognition)
  3. 3. Goal – Strengthen social competencies – Replace aggressive behavior with social acceptable
  4. 4. Why is it important to work Situation specific skillswith social competence?
  5. 5. .1. There is a correlation between lack ofsocial competence and…
  6. 6. Loneliness (See Jones,Hobbs & Hockenbury, 1982) Social competence is t strongest protecting fa for not developing psychiatric illness throughout life. (Hay, Payn Chadwick, 2004)
  7. 7. Bullying and aggression. (De-Rosier 2004 Development of language, Baker and Cafael 1987
  8. 8. Behavior problems• Meta-analyses from 1200 studies (Durlak, 1998) assessed the most important protection factors for not developing deviant behaviour • Good relationship between children and parents • Social Competence • Social Support in general
  9. 9. Drug abuse(Gaffney et al 1998)
  10. 10. Academic performance (Durlak et al., 2007) 75% of children with special needs have a lack of social skills. (Kavale & Forness, 1996)Study of changes after implementation ofHEL-ART in a Primary School in Arendal:*Amount of conflicts and level of conflicsgenerally reduced*30% less commotion / noise in classes*More time for education corresponding to 4 minutes per hour – 2 hours per week*Significal increase in Academic Performance (Nærbøe and Ufford, 2011, University of Agder)
  11. 11. Do changes in social skills correlate with changes in behavioral problems Changes in Changes in Changes in cooperation assertivness self control Changes of behavioral -,24 -,03 -,39 problems reported by teachers Changes of behavioral -,28 -,10 -,41 problems reported by parents Pearson correlation (sign. level)•Less externalized behavioral problems are assosiated with increased : • Cooperation Skills • Self Control (Langeveld, Gundersen and Svartdal 2012)
  12. 12. What is Social Competences?We know it when we see it Concrete: /SSRI Communication, Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, Empathy, Engagement, Self-Control Gresham and Elliot Øverland
  13. 13. 2 faces of social competence training1. Skill Acquisition Do you have the skills that you need?
  14. 14. 2. Skill performance* The factors that makes the(From skills training to competence training difference.
  15. 15. Skills occur right time and place / too seldom too often Too seldom Rightmå time Too often or or wrong and place wrong place place Discrimination Training / Generalization training Social Perception Training –Social Skills training
  16. 16. Right time and place but lack of vital qualities To close Distance / må To fare away SpaceTo fast Tempo To slowTo low Voice tone To high Micro training within the social skills training, empathy training and social perception training
  17. 17. Emotional adjustment to common norms High Adapted må Low emotional emotional emotional arousal level arousal level adjustment Emotional regulation program / Stress Mastering
  18. 18. Perception of other`s intent Hostile intent Right må Friendly intent perceptionUnclear signals are perceived ashostile (Dodge et al 1990) Social Perception Training among others
  19. 19. Adjustment of behaviour according to own and others need in the situation Thinking Thinking of må Thinking what what is good both is good for the for you other Moral Reasoning Training / Empathy Training / Social Perception Training
  20. 20. Factors beyond the program is may be iqual important1.Increaseself-efficacyby..
  21. 21. Being recognized
  22. 22. Only positives
  23. 23. Games where thechildren succeed
  24. 24. Year of 2000, Arnold Goldstein had aseminar in Oslo:Created inspiration because: • A.R.T. addresses essential risk factors (Andrews 1990) – Changing antisocial attitudes – Increasing self control – Establishing pro social alternatives to problem behaviour • Matches the responsivity principle – Best modes of training (roleplaying – modeling) – Promising research • Non-profit – Program distributes in book and through books
  25. 25. –International organization for 10 differentprograms including ART–Securing research and program quality systems PREPSEC International
  26. 26. ART program (standard program)• Usually 30 session• -Each component once a week, usually on different days
  27. 27. ART – 50 social skillsGroup 4: Skill alternatives to aggression – Helping others – Using self-controlGroup 5: Skills for dealing with stress – Making a complaint – Answering a complaint – Dealing with group pressureGroup 6: Planning skills – Setting a goal – Deciding what caused a problem – Concentrating on a task
  28. 28. Choosing social skills• Results from assessment• Which skills do the parents, teachers and the ELEVENS SJEKKLISTE FOR FERDIGHETER - UNGDOM © Arnold P. Goldstein (1999). The Prepare Curriculum. Teaching Prosocial Competencies. Revised Edition. youth themselves experience a need for Oversatt av Børge Strømgren og luke moynahan, Glenne Autismesenter. Navn: ______________________________________ Obs. dato: _______________ Fremgangsmåte: Hvert spørsmål dreier seg om hvor godt du klarer å bruke dine sosiale ferdigheter. Det finnes ingen riktige eller gale svar - kun hvordan du virkelig mener at du training bruker ferdigheten eller ei. Ring rundt 1 dersom du aldri bruker ferdigheten. Ring rundt 2 dersom du nesten aldri bruker ferdigheten. Ring rundt 3 dersom du noen ganger bruker ferdigheten. Ring rundt 4 dersom du ofte bruker ferdigheten. Ring rundt 5 dersom du nesten alltid bruker ferdigheten. Noen ganger Nesten alltid Nesten aldri Aldri Ofte 1 1 2 3 4 5 Hører jeg etter når andre snakker til meg? 2 1 2 3 4 5 Starter jeg samtaler med andre? 3 1 2 3 4 5 Snakker jeg med andre om emner som interesserer oss begge? 4 1 2 3 4 5 Spør jeg når jeg trenger eller vil vite noe? 5 1 2 3 4 5 Sier jeg takk når noen gjør meg en tjeneste? 6 1 2 3 4 5 Blir jeg kjent med nye personer? 7 1 2 3 4 5 Hjelper jeg andre med å bli kjent med hverandre? 8 1 2 3 4 5 Forteller jeg andre at jeg liker dem eller liker noe de har gjort ? 9 1 2 3 4 5 Spør jeg om hjelp når noe er vanskelig? 10 1 2 3 4 5 Prøver jeg å bli med når noen gjør noe jeg vil være med på? 11 1 2 3 4 5 Forklarer jeg andre på en forståelig måte hvordan de bør gjøre ting? 12 1 2 3 4 5 Utfører jeg beskjeder fra andre på en rask og korrekt måte? 13 1 2 3 4 5 Sier jeg unnskyld når jeg har gjort noe galt? 14 1 2 3 4 5 Prøver jeg å overbevise andre om at mine forslag er bedre enn deres?
  29. 29. Firm structure in each session• Reception• Presentation of eventually guests – reminding the rules• Repetition from last session in same component• Homework 1. Definition of skill or concept• Skill of the day 2. Modeling of the skill• Game Session 3. The purpose of the skill and• Repetition in• Evaluation; what did I do well – which situation it can be used What could I do otherwise 4. Choose of main- and co actor Eventually “Circle of friendship” 5. Preparation of role-play• Closing of session 6. Rehearsal 7. Feedback 8. New main actor 9. Homework / Transfer training
  30. 30. Skills for dealing with stress Skill nr 42 Dealing with group pressure. Suggestion to role play:Steps: • School / Workplace The1. Listen to what others want main actor must tackle you to do. pressure from others that2. Think about what might wants to do ravaging happen. • Home:3. Decide how you should tell Pressure from brother who the group wants to run away4. Carry out your choice. • With friends: Pressure from friends to go into a fight or bullying others
  31. 31. Anger Control Training
  32. 32. The program is directed towards the participants` ability to regulate their Anger is a natural feeling that can`t be regarded as negative,But can be dysfunctional when it interfere our ablility to evaluate a situation and thus act in a rational way.
  33. 33. Anger is an emotion
  34. 34. Aggression is an action
  35. 35. General Overview of Anger Control TrainingSession 1 IntroductionSession 2 Internal and external triggersSession 3 Cues and anger reducersSession 4 RemindersSession 5 Self-evaluationSession 6 ConsequencesSession 7 The angry behavior circle – Identifying own anger-provoking behaviorSession 8 Rehearsal of Full sequence - other solutions than aggressionSession 9 Rehearsal of Full sequence - other solutions than aggressionSession 10 Rehearsal of Full sequence - other solutions than aggression Parent Presentation
  36. 36. Structure in anger control trainingexternal STRUCTURE– Welcome • Greetings (with status check) • Reminder of rules • Introduce any guests • ART cheer, etc.– Review of last session on the same component internal STRUCTURE– Review of homework from previous session in same component 1. Define the day’s topic 2. Demonstrate the day’s topic 3. Discuss the need 4. Select main player and co-player 5. Plan the role-playing and assign observation tasksexternal STRUCTURE contd. 6. Do the role-playing– ART game (here or earlier in the session) 7. Feedback round– Review of this session) 8. Repeat items 4-7 until everyone has been a main player– Wind-up 9. Homework • Evaluation round or “friendship” round • Briefing on next session • Recognition / diplomas • ART cheer
  37. 37. Name Hassle Log__________DateTime : Morning ______ Afternoon ______ Evening ______Where did it happen? _____How angry did you get?Cold _____ Tepid _____ Hot ______ Boiling _____ Burning _____Anger control circle:external triggers _____internal triggers _____cues _____Anger reducers _____Short-term consequences ________ _____Long term consequences ______ _____Prosocial skill _____Self assessment: Excellent! _____ OK _____ Could be better _____What can I say / say to myself when I succeed? ___________________What can I do better next time? ___ _____
  38. 38. Training in Moral reasoning• The cognitive component of ART• Discussion were participants are presented to a dilemma where they have to consider – Shall I take into consideration what is good for my selves, my friend or one that I do not know? – Based on moral stadium which reflects gradually less egocentric and more empathic thinking. – Identification of typical thinking errors like. • minimizing • assuming the worst • blaming others
  39. 39. Research on programs for training social competence is not always convincing• There is not always focus on the factors that are effective – Interpreting social cues – Understanding feelings – Taking other`s perspective – Regulating anger – Developing character traits – Generate social skills – Problem solving skills – Generating social skills
  40. 40. Lack of proper implementation, including training standards• From only reading a book compared to 8 days of training like in Norway• From proper implementation with – Every staff member, including the leader, participates in the training – Time to prepare the session – Quality systems – Supervision – Implementation in everyday life
  41. 41. Variation in working with generalization• Kids need to learn how to reinforce proper behavior. – Co actor more important than main actor?• Systems for generalization and discrimination• Adoption to the culture where the skill shall be used• Parent-training / Family TIES• Working with the whole school (ART – in the whole school)
  42. 42. Studies in Norway Scandinavian Journal of Educational ResearchPsychology, Crime & Law 2012, 1–19, Social Competence as a Mediating Factor inVol. 16, No. 3, March 2010, p 233-249 Reduction of Behavioral ProblemsDiffusion of treatment interventions: Exploration of “secondary” treatment diffusion Johannes H. Langeveld and Knut K. Gundersen Diakonhjemmet University College Knut Gundersen * and Frode Svartdal * ** Frode Svartdal University of Tromsø Diakonhjemmet College Rogaland * / University of Tromso ** 43
  43. 43. Recomended as a part of the MultifunC model (Andreassen - 03)Conclusion from Research group from 4 ministries inNorway(Nordahl -06)ART evaluated at the highest rate 3:Program with documented effect»
  44. 44. Washington State’s Evaluation of Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Programs (Barnoski, Aos, 2004): ART delivered competently  Reduces 18-month felony recidivism by 24 percent.  Benefit to cost ratio of $11.66. (Regardless of competence: $6.71 savings) (501 I ART-gruppa. 417 I kontrollgruppa)
  45. 45. ART-senteret Ann Karin Sigmundstad Johannes Finne Marianne Kalvatn Knut Gundersen Eskild Johannes Langeveldt Frode Svartdal Tutte Mitchell Olsen
  46. 46. Cooperating with former students on quality control and training ART in kindergarten Mental retardation/ Autism Social Perception Training Family TIESRecidential Institutions Prison Whole School Approach ART/Peace4Kids in school
  47. 47. 60 credits post graduate education for training socialcompetencies for teachers and authorized socialworkers Two years part time study: • 8 x 1 week sessions • A.R.T. / Peace4Kids: principal methods • Conducting A.R.T. program with research • Theoretical basis for the program • Research paper from students 48
  48. 48. 8 day ART training seminars 4 days Social Skills training and Anger Control training 3 days supervision and Moral Reasoning training 1 day examination / practical rehearsal 18 practice sessions with collegues before starting the program 49
  49. 49. Training abroad Russia Lithuania Iceland Danmark 50
  50. 50. SupervisionSupervision in: - Implementation - Generalisation - Development of the method - Theoretical background
  51. 51. Family ARTBased on the Canadian version by Calame and Parker.3 days supplementary seminar for ART-trainers. Both incommunities and institutions 52
  52. 52. Situational Perception Training Knut Gundersen kull 4 2008 53
  53. 53. 6 days junior – ART -training
  54. 54. ”ART in the whole schools System Recognition Rules Cooperations system Social Competence • Skills *Charactertrait Consequenses *Emphaty ’SPT Classroom management
  55. 55. Behaviour Problems. Means and within-groups differences (pretest vs. test)for the ART and comparison groups for the CADBI and CBCL instruments.* = p < .01 CADBI CBCLART Pre Post F Pre Post F Paren 156. 130. 18.03* Paren 18.4 13.8 27.59 t 5 2 t * Teach 143. 124. 8.11* Teach 17.0 12.1 13.49 9 0 . * Youth 72.0 51.6 5.97* Youth 17.6 14.2 14.81 * *Com- Paren 98.9 93.3 0.36 Paren 10.4 9.6 .29 t tpariso Teach 134. 117. 2.13 Teach 13.2 11.8 .39n 0 7 . Youth 50.0 51.6 .02 Youth 17.0 14.1 5.45*
  56. 56. Social skills. Means and within-groups differences (pretest vs.test) for the ART and comparison groups for the SSRS and HITinstruments. * = p < .01 SSRS HITART Pre Post F Pre Post F Paren 25.2 26,4 10.64* Paren t t Teach 22.4 24,1 11.60* Teach . Youth 101. 106. 2.19 Youth 3.30 2.67 9.58* 4 3Com- Paren 27.1 26,7 .42 Paren t tpariso Teach 22.4 23,4 1.73 Teachn . Youth 103, 109. 1.58 Youth 2.93 2.49 7.35* 4 9

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