Archives • To understand archival repositories, holdings and descrip<ve cataloging, one must ﬁrst understand what archives are and how they diﬀer from libraries.
Archives can be deﬁned in 3 ways: 1. MATERIALS: Noncurrent records of an ins<tu<on/organiza<on preserved because of their enduring value. 2. PLACE: The repository. The building where archived materials are located. 3. AGENCY: The archival agency/ins<tu<on/ program responsible for handling the archives.
The Archival Mission • To iden:fy records and papers of ENDURING VALUE • To preserve them • To make them accessible to patrons
This archival mission includes the following cyclical process: • Appraisal • Access and Reference • Acquisions • Outreach, Promo<on • Accessioning • Reappraisal • Arrangement • Conduc<ng surveys • Preserva<on • Security • Descrip:on
Archival Descrip<on is… • The bridge between preserving records and making them available. • Opportunity for archivist to record what is known about the collec<on and its arrangement in a way that will facilitate access by researchers and users. • OFFICIAL DEFINITION: Process of analyzing, organizing, and recording details about the formal elements of a record or collec<on of records, such as creator, <tle, dates, extent, and contents, to facilitate the works iden<ﬁca<on, management, and understanding. The product of the process.
Material diﬀerences between libraries and archives Category Libraries Archives Nature Published, discrete items, Unpublished, groups of related independent signiﬁcance, items, signiﬁcance from Available elsewhere rela<onship to other items, unique Creator Many diﬀerent individuals or Parent organiza<on or ins<tu<on organiza<ons Method of crea<on Separate, independent ac<ons Organic – normal course of business Method of receipt Selected as single items, decisions Appraised in aggregate revocable Decisions irrevocable Arrangement Predetermined subject Provenance and original order classiﬁca<on Descrip<on Level Individual items Aggregate (record group or series) Descrip<ve Media Built into the published item (<tle Must be prepared by the archivist page, table of contents, index) Guides and inventories, online systems
The KEY diﬀerence: • A collec:on or • fonds • with provenance.
Archives, DACS and EAD A Basic Primer
Archives, DACS and EAD A Basic Primer
A MULTI‐LEVEL, HIERARCHICAL DESCRIPTIVE MODEL
Online Finding Aids, DACS and EAD
Access to the archives Reﬂects the hierarchical structure Online Finding Aids
A forma`ed ﬁnding aid
Crosswalk for DACS‐EAD‐MARC
DACS is the data content standard for archives. Think AACR2.Describing Archives, a Content Standard
EAD is the datastructurestandard forarchives. ThinkMARC21.Encoded Archival Descrip<on
EAD Tags and Marc Encoding Analogs <repository label="Repository:" encodinganalog="852$a"><corpname>Archives of American Art, SmithsonianInstitution</corpname></repository><origination label="Creator:"><persname encodinganalog="100">Romare Bearden</persname></origination><unittitle label="Title:" encodinganalog="245$a">RomareBearden papers</unittitle><unitdate label="Dates:">1937-1982</unitdate><physdesc label="Quantity:" encodinganalog="300$a">2linear feet</physdesc>
EAD code from Archon
MARC dynamic output example from Archon
DACS and its antecedents DACS was published by the Society of American Archivists in 2004 DACS is a revision of Steve Hensen’s / SAA’s manual, Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts (1989), which was created to adapt Chapter 4 of the 2nd ed. of Anglo‐American Cataloging Rules (AACR2) to the needs of the archival community. DACS is a statement of principles. Levels of descrip:on are in statements.
Minimum DACS Requirements • Title (MARC 245) • Date (MARC 245 |f) 260 |c for some formats • Extent (MARC 300) • Name of Creator(s) (MARC 1XX, 7XX) Iden:fying Creators • Scope and Content (MARC 520) • Condi:ons Governing Access (MARC 506)Reference code (MARC 040)Loca:on of repository (MARC 852)
• ISAD(G) – Interna<onal Standard for Archival Descrip<on h`p://www.ica.org/sites/default/.pdf
DACS Elements • IDENTITY ELEMENTS (chapter 2) • Reference code • Name and Loca<on of Repository • Title • Date • Extent • Name of Creators • Administra<ve / Biographical history • CONTENT AND STRUCTURE ELEMENTS (chapter 3) • Scope and content • System of arrangement • CONDITIONS OF ACCESS AND USE ELEMENTS (chapter 4) • Condi<ons governing access • Physical access • Technical Access • Condi<ons Governing Reproduc<on and Use • Languages and Scripts of the Material • Finding Aids
DACS Elements • ACQUISITION AND APPRAISAL ELEMENTS (chapter 5) Condi<ons governing Custodial history • Immediate Source of Acquisi<on • Appraisal, Destruc<on, and Scheduling Informa<on • Accruals • RELATED MATERIAS ELEMENTS (ch 6) • Existence and loca<on of originals • Existence and loca<on of copies • Related archival materials • Publica<on note • NOTES ELEMENT (chapter 7) • Note not deﬁned by other elements • DESCRIPTION CONTROL ELEMENT • Sources used, rules or conven<ons, name of the person who prepared or revised, date created or revised