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What is depression

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  • 1. What is depression?
    By : Sosun Nayemi
    South Puget sound community college
  • 2. Abstract
    Depression is a psychological problem that has so many possible explanations. Psychoanalytical that says depression is someone taking out their frustrations on themselves. The trait approach says that people are prone to becoming depressed from stressful events. Or the biological, that says people with depression have inherited the exposure to the condition. The humanistic approaches believe that depression is caused by low self esteem. Social behavioral and learning’s theory on depression is that it’s caused by lack of positivity and encouragement in one’s life. Lastly, cognitive theory states that depression is caused by the people who don’t think they can control the events in their life. All six are correct and correlate together as one.
  • 3. Intro
    At point in time, everyone has been depressed in their life, whether it was for four days, four weeks, months even years..
    Yet, one asks why does this happen?
    Although there are many ways to explain depression, 6 theories have been the best explanatory
  • 4. Psychoanalytical approach
    Depression is “anger turned inward”(book)
    When you cant take out your anger on whatever it was that caused your anger in the first place
    The next thing you’d take your anger out on is yourself
    Society looks down on those who take out their anger
    One may “want to strike out at family members” (book)
    A good example would also be media, who influence “girls and often causes them to become dissatisfied with their appearance”(KERR)
    This sometimes can lead to emotions like anger that “extends to more serious eating disordered attitudes and behaviors” (KERR)
    Is “related to self focusing in the situation of being alone”(sakamoto)
    Positives :
    It explains why some people keep to
    them selves
    - It’s the starting point for other theories to develop from
    Negatives:
    Many of the hypotheses generated from the theory aren't testable
  • 5. Positives: isn't trying to understand the behavior of just one person
    Negatives: The results of the big 5 model can be interpreted into many things & there can be an over reliance on scores
    Trait Approach
    Depression happens to those who are “depression-prone individuals”(book)
    which means if you’re depressed at a young age, you’re more likely to be depressed at an older age
    “ Help seeking [is] an active process of using assistance ..to solve problems”(Spendelow)
    The term “optimism bias”(Spendelow) is failing to seek help due to “believing one isn't susceptible to negative events than others”(Spendelow)
    a reason why for this condition is that “individuals are attempting to regulate internal state.
    The big 5 factor model is used to determine ones personality traits
    The “beginning letters of the five labels cover the ocean of the human personality”(book)
  • 6. Biological Approach
    Depression is in a persons genetics and therefore can be inherited or passed on
    Not depression itself but the vulnerability to getting it when under a bad situation
    “ a person born with this vulnerability faces a much greater likelihood ..of reacting to stressful ..events with depression”(book)
    Certain family structures can also be a factor on a persons vulnerability
    “ offspring of parents with MDD [major depression disorder] have greater rates of mood disorder”(Micco)
    “executive functioning deficits(EFD) have been found in adults with ..depression”(Micco)
    Deficits include, “ processing speed..verbal memory impairments..difficulty [with]..completing..schoolwork, organizing and planning for long range projects”(Micco)
    Positive: It explains depression using the human body & mind
    As well as “bridge between the study of personality and the discipline
    Negative: Its limited when it comes to testing out their theories
  • 7. Depression is the lack of self esteem
    Lacking self esteem means failing to “ develop a good sense of their self worth”(book)
    In order for that to happen one has to accept “ones faults and weaknesses”(book)
    “self esteem develops via two routes” ( Johnson)
    “affective route( self-love, self-acceptance)
    or
    “competence based route (self pride, self confidence) ” ( Johnson)
    “self-criticism is associated with low basic self esteem”(Johnson)
    Self esteem is an “important factor in both depressive syndromes”(Johnson)
    Having your feelings hurt “ involve acute emotional responses and can be expressed [as]…introjective and retaliatory”(May)
    Positives : Overall has a positive approach to understanding depression
    - This attitude comes in handy for therapy
    Negatives: Its reliance on free will to explain human behavior
    Humanistic approach
  • 8. Positives: Its foundation in empirical research
    - It covers different aspects of the human personality : thinking, emotions & levels of consciousness
    Negatives: Humans are complex which means decision making can be based on so many things
    Behavioral & Social learning
    Depression is the “lack of positive rein forcers in a persons life”(book)
    This can lead to feeling “ down and unmotivated because you see few activities..worth doing”(book)
    Or it could be that depressed people “are prepared to see the world in the most depressing terms possible”(book)
    It has also been found that those with “ lower levels of positive social behaviors have higher levels of depression”(DENIZ)
    On the other hand those with “ negative social behaviors have higher levels of depression”(DENIZ)
    Which demonstrate that “ positive social behaviors of the students have a preventative effect on depression”(DENIZ)
  • 9. Cognitive theory
    Depression is either
    What people feel when they have the “inability to control events”(book)
    OR
    2. They “are prepared to see the world in the most depressing terms possible”(book)
    There is also an occurrence called “ learned helplessness”(Cemalcilar)
    This is where an “experience with uncontrollable events lead to the expectation that future events will also be uncontrollable”(Cemalcilar)
    Using the Big 5 personality test, its been found that “introverts displayed ..more marked helplessness..than..extroverts”(Cemalcilar)
    Positives : ideas have been developed through empirical research
    Negatives: It has a negative approach to depression and therefore it wont help with therapy
  • 10. Thoughts ….
    All in all, there is no correct answer because they all are and correlate with each other. However I think more research needs to be done on all 6 sections and it can be with surveys and tests. However I seem to agree more with the biological approach because it links psychology through body and mind.
  • 11. Refrences
     
    Spendelow, J., & Jose, P. (2010). Does the Optimism Bias Affect Help-Seeking Intentions for
    Depressive Symptoms in Young People? Journal of General Psychology, 137(2), 190-209. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
     
     
    May, L., Byrd, D., Brown, K., Beckman, T., & Sizemore, J. (2007). Exploring the Relationships
    Among Hurt Reactivity, Social Adjustment, and Psychological Well-Being. Psychology Journal, 4(2), 50-57. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
     
     
    Cemalcilar, Z., Canbeyli, R., & Sunar, D. (2003). Learned Helplessness, Therapy, and
    Personality Traits: An Experimental Study. Journal of Social Psychology, 143(1), 65-81. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
     
    Shinji, S. (2000). Self-Focusing Situations and Depression. Journal of Social Psychology,
    140(1), 107-118. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
     
    Micco, J., Henin, A., Biederman, J., Rosenbaum, J., Petty, C., Rindlaub, L., et al. (2009).
    Executive functioning in offspring at risk for depression and anxiety. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 26(9), 780-790. doi:10.1002/da.20573.
     
     
     
    DENIZ, M., ÖZTÜRK, A., TURAN, D., & ÖZYEŞIL, Z. (2009). EVALUATION OF
    DEPRESSION WITH RESPECT TO DIFFERENT SOCIAL SKILL LEVELS: A TURKISH STUDY. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 37(7), 881-888. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
     
    KERR, K.(2010).Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Depression in Adolescent Girls.
    Priscilla Papers, 24(2), 21-22.Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
     
    Johnson, M. (2010).Depressive Styles, Self-Esteem Structure, and Health: A dynamic Approach
    To Differential Vulnerability in Self –Criticism and Dependency. Individual Differences Research, 8(1), 45-66. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
     
    TILGHMAN-OSBORNE, C., COLE, D., & FELTON, J. (2008). RELATION OF GUILT,
    SHAME, BEHAVIORAL AND CHARACTEROLOGICAL SELF-BLAME TO DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN ADOLESCENTS OVER TIME. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 27(8), 809-842. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database
     
    Burger, J. M. (Ed.). (2008). Personality (8th ed.). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.

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