Principles of LearningPrinciples of LearningProf. Jayashree Sadriand Dr. Sorab Sadri
What is learning? Learning signifies any relativelypermanent change in skill, attitude andbehavior as a result of study, practice orexperience.
There are several types of learningsituations, each with its own ways ofproducing learning.
Psychologists have identified three kinds oflearning1. Ivan Pavlov : Classical ConditioningEmotional Response to StimuliDOG BELL FOODStimulus can be doctored to achievedesired response.
2. BF Skinner : Operant ConditioningStimulus Response ReinforcementA reinforcer is any stimulus or a situation thatstrengthens the response that precedes it.Rat Pellet Search
3. Kurt Lewin –Field Theory (cognitivelearning) Every person has a “field” that isaccepted and any learning that isassociated with that field is easilyimbibed. So information is processed as aresult of experience a person hashad.
Factors effecting transfer of learning The method chosen must be such thattraining is imparted and imbibed withease. It must fulfill three Cs.
The Three Cs1. Right Content: UsefulnessRelevanceGoal Directed2. Right Context : RelatednessLogicalTask centered3. Right Communication: ClearUnderstandableTranslatable
It is reasonably safe to say that once theCONTEXT, CONCEPTS ANDCOMMUNITATION are taken care of ,transfer of learning automaticallyfollow.
Principles of learning Motivation Involvement Individualized Approach Sequence and Structuring Feedback Transfer of learning
Transfer of learning: Helps and Hinderances The transfer of learning can be helped orhindered by the following aspects which can bevisualized as four coins with each having apositive and negative face to it.
PersonalitydevelopmentOpen mindednessfor each receptionOver confidencebecomes amental blockPerception ofTrainingBelief in trainingas a means toimprovement oftraineeBelief inTrainees’natural gift willhinder transferof training.Organizationalclimate.Open and learningculture forpromotinginnovation withlong runperspective.Bureaucraticand rule boundculture that hasshort termvision only.Imbibing skillsfor improvedresults.Good inter-personal relationsand willingness totake risk.Low analyticalskills and aresistance tochange.
Proactive HRD intervention holds thekey to create conditions and maketransfer of learning possible andongoing.
Learning is a life long activity. Three impediments to learning among adultsare:1. Ego2. Insecurity3. LazinessAll of which combine to resist change.
Pedagogy Greek word Peda means “child”. Trainermakes all assumptions on what, when, howand why anything should be learnt. Traineeswere viewed as dependent personalities thathad little experience but were ready to tolearn.
Androgogy Greek word “Ander” means “man” as in adult.Unlike children adult learnt best when theydetermine what, when, how and why anything shouldbe learnt. Forces in the large environment (customsand attitudes) influenced adult learning.
Pedagogy AndrogogyTrainer acts as ateacherTrainer acts as afacilitatorTrainee isinexperienced andeager to learn.Trainee is matureand knows what hewants to learn.Trainer capitalizes onknowledge andexperience to teach.Trainer usesparticipantsknowledge andexperience totransfer learning.Training is orientedtowards delivery ofskill and knowledge.Training is orientedtowards allowingparticipants to“discover”.
Training is mainlytheoretical.Training is mainlyexperiential.Participantreceives and storesknowledge forfuture recall.Participantreceives skills andlearns how tosolve problems.Knowledge ispower.Power is how youuse knowledge.Theory based. Application based.