Theories, Models, Practices, and StandardsSORAB SADRIDean ResearchLovely Professional UniversityProfessional Ethics
What Is Professional Ethics?Professional ethics concerns the moral issues thatarise because of the specialist knowledge thatprofessionals attain, and how the use of thisknowledge should be governed when providing aservice to the publicAnyone who promises to deliver and delivers aspromised without giving up his/her own values is aprofessional.Professional ethics is about the code of conduct onmoral issues pursued by persons sharing the sameskill, trade or occupation.
When Used In In this context ETHICSIs:1.a. A set of principles of right conduct.b. A theory or a system of moral values: "An ethic of service isat war with a craving for gain" (Gregg Easterbrook).2. ethics (used with a sing. verb) The study of the generalnature of morals and of the specific moral choices to be madeby a person; moral philosophy.3. ethics (used with a sing. or pl. verb) The rules or standardsgoverning the conduct of a person or the members of aprofession: medical ethics
Goals and IntentionsParticipants will…Practice and discuss ethical decision makingExplore the process of decision makingRecognize interactions of multiple personal andprofessional values in making decisions
Ethics Rank Order ExerciseDo on own first (10 min)Come to consensus with small group of 5 people (15min)Large Group Discussion (15 min)Outside Influences/Own Experience?Rules/Laws/Regulations?You decide.
Baddi UNIVERSITYStatement of Ethical ValuesWe At Baddi University are committed to: Integrity. We will conduct ourselves with integrity in ourdealings with and on behalf of the University. Excellence. We will conscientiously strive for excellence in ourwork. Accountability. We will be accountable as individuals and asmembers of this community for our ethical conduct and forcompliance with applicable laws and University policies anddirectives. Respect. We will respect the rights and dignity of others.
Baddi University StandardsFair DealingIndividual Responsibility and AccountabilityRespect for OthersCompliance with Applicable Laws and RegulationsCompliance with Applicable University Policies, Proceduresand other forms of guidanceConflicts of Interest or Commitment
Baddi Univeersity StandardsContinued…Ethical Conduct of ResearchRecords: Confidentiality/ Privacy and AccessInternal ControlsUse of University ResourcesFinancial ReportingReporting Violations and Protection from Retaliation
Baddi University Principles ofCommunityBaddi University is committed to promoting and protecting an environment thatvalues and supports every person in an atmosphere of civility, honesty, cooperation,professionalism and fairness.Baddi University expects that every campus member will practice these Principles ofCommunity.Baddi University aims to give back to society more than what it has received fromsociety.We strive to be:* Diverse: We embrace diversity in all its forms and we strive for an inclusivecommunity that fosters an open, enlightened and productive environment.* Open: We believe free exchange of ideas requires mutual respect andconsideration for our differences.* Purposeful: We are a participatory community united by shared commitmentsto: service to society; preservation and advancement of knowledge; and innovativeteaching and learning.
Baddi University Principles of CommunityContinued…* Caring: We promote mutual respect, trust and support to foster bonds thatstrengthen the community.* Just: We are committed to due process, respect for individual dignity andequitable access to resources, recognition and rewards.* Disciplined: We seek to advance common goals through reasonable andrealistic practices, procedures and expectations.* Celebrative: We celebrate the heritage, achievements and diversity of thecommunity and the uniqueness and contributions of our members.We accept the responsibility to pursue these principles in anatmosphere of personal and intellectual freedom, security,respect, civility and mutual support.
Community Ethics Baddi University , the largest University in India is a diversecommunity of students, faculty and staff dedicated to the pursuit ofknowledge in an atmosphere of open discussion and mutual respect.In the embracing of this diversity, we find stimulation, freedom, andstrength. Freedom to express one’s opinions and beliefs is of theutmost importance. We respect friendship, honesty, community, individual freedom,individual responsibility and academic integrity. Individual freedomin a community requires respect for one another as well as for thebeauty of the college and the campus. Academic integrity fosters apositive learning environment and is essential to the functioning ofthe university. Responsibility for personal actions, regardless ofcircumstances, is required of every member of our community. We believe that the institution is greater than the individual
Ethic of CareGilligan’s Theory of Moral JudgmentConflict between Self and OthersLevel One: Centered on Self: Transition is Selfishness toResponsibility (semi-teleological)Level Two: Goodness as Self Sacrifice: Transition isGoodness to Truth (semi-deontological)Level Three: Care as Universal Obligation: Transition isSelf and Others Independent (semi-praxis)
Ethic of JusticeKohlberg’s Stages of Moral Growth1. Pre-Conventional Level Punishment and Obedience Orientation Instrumental-Relativist Orientation2. Conventional Level Interpersonal Concordance Orientation Law and Order Orientation3. Post-Conventional Level Social Contract, Legalistic Orientation Universal-Ethical-Principle Orientation(Smith, 1978)
Five Ethical PrinciplesRespect Autonomy It is assumed that individualshave the right to decide how they live their lives, aslong as their actions do not interfere with the welfareof others. One, therefore, has the right to act as afree agent, and has freedom of thought and choice.Do No Harm The obligation to avoid inflicting eitherphysical or psychological harm on others may be aprimary ethical principle.
Five Ethical Principles (cont’d)Benefit Others There is an obligation to improve andenhance the welfare of others, even where such mayinconvenience or limit the freedom of the personoffering the assistance.Be Just To be just in dealing with others assumes equaltreatment of all, to afford each individual his or her dueportion, and in general, to observe the golden rule.
Five Ethical Principles (cont’d)Be Faithful One should keep promises, tell the truth, beloyal, and maintain respect and civility in humandiscourse. Only in so far as we sustain faithfulness canwe expect to be seen as truly trustworthy.LET THE PARTICIPANTS NOW ADD ONE MORTHAT IS GENERIC TO LPUKitchener, K.S. (1985). Ethical principles and decisions in student affairs. In H.J. Canonand R.D. Brown (Eds.). Applied ethics in student services (pps. 17-20). San Francisco:Jossey Bass, Inc.
Kitchener’s Ethical PrinciplesKaren Kitchener observes that ethical principles are commonly inconflict with each other as we apply them to real-lifedilemmas. Consequently, there are no absolutes. Further, noone principle is absolute, and there are times when a higherstandard of ethical conduct requires the violation of one ormore principles. Nonetheless, Kitchener notes that violatingany of these principles -- whether because they are in conflictwith each other or because a “higher moral purpose” might beserved -- places a strong burden on the individual to provide arationale for rejecting the principle.
Ethics Check ListIs it Legal?Will I be violating any civil law or institutional policy?Is it balanced?Is it fair to all concerned?Does it promote win/win situations?How will it make me feel about myself?Will I be proud?Would I feel good if my hometown newspaper published my decision?Would I feel good if my family know about my choice?Blanchard, Kenneth and Peale, Norman Vincent (1988). The Power of Ethical Management, page 20. New York: William Morrow Co.
Bell, Book and Candle Test1. Listen for the bells warning you of an ethical issue.2. Check to see if there are any laws, regulations or ruleswhich restrict your choices.3. How will your decision look in the light? Could areasonable fair-minded person conclude you actedimproperly?
REFLECTIONBeliefs Values Actions PrioritiesWhat messagesdid you getgrowing upabout yourselfor others?Who did thosemessages comefrom (individualsor groups)?I believe…Based on yourbeliefs, whatstandards orprinciples doyou hold foryourself?What do you do(how do youbehave) thatwoulddemonstrateyourvalues?List the people,activities orthingsyou spend yourtime(or money) on…
The Golden Rules Confucius: What you do not want done to yourself, do not do unto others. Aristotle: We should behave to other as we wish others to behave to us. Judaism: What you dislike for yourself, do not do to anyone. Hinduism: Do nothing to thy neighbor which though wouldst not have him doto thee thereafter. Islam: No one of you is a believe unless he loves for his brother what we lovesfor himself. Buddhism: Hurt not others with that which pains thyself. Christianity: Do unto other as you would have them do unto you. Social Justice: Do unto others as they would like to have done unto them.
Rule of ThumbWe judge other people by their actions and we judgeourselves by our intent.Never judge others by your values and allow others to judgeyou by theirs.Ref: Jayashree S, Sadri S and Dastoor D S (2008) The Theory and Practice of Managerial Ethics,Jaico Pub. Co., Mumbai