April 17, 2011
<ul><li>I n 1895, German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) experimented with a cathode ray tube </li></ul><ul><li>Thi...
<ul><li>Cathode ray </li></ul><ul><li>tube </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright 2011 by  crtsite.com </li></ul>
<ul><li>Roentgen used a plate of Barium Platino-Cyanide (fluorescent crystals) on a table six feet away in his workroom, a...
<ul><li>As a result, Roentgen used a  a photographic plate and took his first x-ray picture. </li></ul><ul><li>The picture...
<ul><li>For this miraculous discovery, Roentgen admitted that he did not know the precise nature of these new rays. </li><...
<ul><li>In 1901, Roentgen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics “ in recognition of the extraordinary services he has ren...
<ul><li>The news of discovery spread quickly throughout the world-scientist everywhere duplicated his experiment, and was ...
<ul><li>X-ray was not sophisticated and had limitations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The internal structures were imposed on eac...
<ul><li>In early 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Godfrey Hounsfield and Allen Cormack developed Computer tomography (CT).  </li...
<ul><li>By about 1980 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CT became widely available. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the early 1980’s </li></...
Copyright 2011 by ABCnews.com
Copyright  2010 by Slate.com
<ul><li>With advancement of technology in the 21 st  century, the scans have revolutionized medical imaging and higher res...
<ul><li>Hodgson, W. E. [Artist]. (2011). [Untitled drawing of Professor Roentgen at work]. Retrieved on April 4, 2011, fro...
<ul><li>Roentgen. (2010). Retrieved on April 2, 2011, from  http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1901/ront...
<ul><li>[Untitled photograph of body scanner]. (2010). Retrieved from  http://a.abcnews.com/images/Health/nm_ct_scan_10070...
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History and development

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History and development

  1. 1. April 17, 2011
  2. 2. <ul><li>I n 1895, German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) experimented with a cathode ray tube </li></ul><ul><li>This tube made it possible to screen through human tissue leaving the bones and metals visible to the “naked-eye” (“X-ray, n.d.). </li></ul>Copyright 2010 by The Nobel Foundation
  3. 3. <ul><li>Cathode ray </li></ul><ul><li>tube </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright 2011 by crtsite.com </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Roentgen used a plate of Barium Platino-Cyanide (fluorescent crystals) on a table six feet away in his workroom, and when he activated the tube, it glowed (The Cathode Ray Tube Site, n.d.) . </li></ul><ul><li>Even after covering the tube with black cardboard, it kept glowing (The Cathode Ray Tube Site, n.d.) . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>As a result, Roentgen used a a photographic plate and took his first x-ray picture. </li></ul><ul><li>The picture was his wife's (Anna) hand which clearly revealed her wedding ring and her bones. </li></ul>Copyright 2011 by Afflictor.com
  6. 6. <ul><li>For this miraculous discovery, Roentgen admitted that he did not know the precise nature of these new rays. </li></ul><ul><li>From his experiment, this is how he named this phenomena—the &quot;X-ray” </li></ul><ul><li>(since &quot;X&quot; is the mathematical symbol for the unknown (“X-ray, n.d.)). </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>In 1901, Roentgen was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics “ in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him” (The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901, 2010) . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The news of discovery spread quickly throughout the world-scientist everywhere duplicated his experiment, and was clinically used to in the U.S. (“X-ray, n.d.). </li></ul><ul><li>This was the landmark discovery was recognized as a development of medicine (medical diagnostic tool). </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>X-ray was not sophisticated and had limitations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The internal structures were imposed on each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of depth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientists developed methods with use of computers that made it possible for advance innovation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>In early 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Godfrey Hounsfield and Allen Cormack developed Computer tomography (CT). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between 1974 and 1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First clinical CT scanners were installed (original systems were dedicated to head imaging only). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In1976 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Whole body” systems with larger patient openings became available. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>By about 1980 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CT became widely available. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the early 1980’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A couple of hospitals in Lebanon (including AUBMC) acquired this technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 6,000 CT scanners installed in the U.S. and more than 30,000 installed worldwide (Mostafa, 2007). </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Copyright 2011 by ABCnews.com
  13. 13. Copyright 2010 by Slate.com
  14. 14. <ul><li>With advancement of technology in the 21 st century, the scans have revolutionized medical imaging and higher resolution (producing three-dimensional views of organs and other tissues), speed, and patient comfort (“Problematic medical scans,” 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>The scans have become undeniably of great value in helping doctors diagnose just what is causing a patient's illness or pain (“Problematic medical scans,” 2007). </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Hodgson, W. E. [Artist]. (2011). [Untitled drawing of Professor Roentgen at work]. Retrieved on April 4, 2011, from http://www.crtsite.com/image/roentgen%20at%20work.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Mostafa, G. (2007). Quick history about the CT scanner and its uses . Retrieved from http://www.syndicateofhospitals.org.lb/magazine/issue-1/Page%2040-042.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Problematic medical scans . (2007 November 30). New York Times . pg. A.22 Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.mutex.gmu.edu/pqdweb?index=4&did=1390829971&SrchMode=2&sid=6&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1297038331&clientId=31810 </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Roentgen. (2010). Retrieved on April 2, 2011, from http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1901/rontgen-bio.html# </li></ul><ul><li>Roentgen Wife Hand. (2011). Retrieved on March 6, 2011, from http://afflictor.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Roentgen_wife_hand.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>The cathode ray tube site .(n.d.). Retrieved on April 10, 2011, from http://www.crtsite.com/page5.html </li></ul><ul><li>The nobel prize in physics 1901 . (2010). Nobelprize.org. Retrieved from http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1901/ </li></ul><ul><li>T </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>[Untitled photograph of body scanner]. (2010). Retrieved from http://a.abcnews.com/images/Health/nm_ct_scan_100708_mn.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>[Untitled photograph of body scanner]. (2010). Retrieved on March 6, 2011, from http://www.slate.com/id/2273844/ </li></ul><ul><li>X-ray . (n.d.). Retrieved on February 6 ,2011, from http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/To-Z/X-ray.html </li></ul>
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