Music VideoMusic video theorist Andrew Goodwin states that ‘visualscan illustrate, amplify or contradict’ however genres tend tohave their own musical style and iconography explicit intheir video. Artists are able to ‘create and develop an imagethat makes them recognizable.’. Close-ups must also beincluded.Andrew Goodwins main five points are:- Thought beats – seeing sound- Narrative and performance- The star image- Relation of visual to song- Technical aspects of the music video
How age relates to music purchases.0 10-14: 7.3%0 15-19: 10.9%0 20-24:10.1%0 25-29:8.3%0 30-34:8.9%0 35-39:9.8%0 40-44: 11.0%0 45+:33.7%0 This means that our target audience should be between the ages of 15-24 as this is where the highest percentage of youth who have purchased music comes from.http://www.ukmusic.org/assets/media/uk_music_uni_of_he rts_09.pdf
The Male gaze theory - Laura Mulvey (1975).0 The Male gaze Theory focuses on the ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ as well as dealing with the audience views of the people presented.0 This theory looks into:- How men look at women.- How women view themselves.- How women look at other women.
0 Laura Mulvey’s theory states that the audience has to look at the video in a heterosexual males perspective.0 Gender representation seems to be taken for granted textual habits. Women have learned to see themselves as being looked at meaning that they are presented in different ways in order to show they’re strength or in some cases, lack of strength.
0 In many cases, music videos display female characters in much more of a ‘sexy’ role in order to draw people to watch the video although now in some cases males are also portrayed in this way.0 Within storylines of music videos, the majority of cases involve the male character being the protagonist and the female characters desiring their gaze.
How we will apply this to our music video: 0 In our music video we feel that it is best not to include these types of representations. All the characters in our video will be of equal status and will be shown on the same levels throughout the piece.
Todorov’s Narrative Structure (1969)0 Tzvetan Todorov suggests two narrative structures to be found in texts: linear and non-linear.0 Todorov stated that narratives are led by events in a cause and effect format and suggested the following structure:
How we will include this:0 Todorov’s narrative theory will be included in our music video due the video being in a non-linear style.0 The video will jump between different times in order to reflect on the past, as the video will be based around the characters looking back on their past.0 In order to display the different times in the video we will later edit certain scenes in the video to look old by making the scenes black and white or by using an old effect.
Pete Fraser (2004)0 Pete Fraser in Media Magazine first edition states that ‘Different music genres have different conventions’ as this is what makes the genre what it is.0 The conventions used within music videos cause the audience to recognize that the video is aimed at them through the use of costumes, setting and lighting.
James Copeman - Biography0 James Copeman studied Graphic Design at university but he quickly evolved into moving image. After several years as a motion graphics designer and animator for clients such as E4, MTV, 4music and The Box he began directing music videos and his first video was for UK band Noah and The Whale. Soon to follow were videos for Laura Marling, The Mystery Jets and Biffy Clyro.
0 In 2007 Copeman got signed by Black Dog/RSA Films, and went on to direct a series of videos earning him the MVA Award for Best New Director in 2008. James’s style is noticeably distinct; his work consistently delivers strong colour palettes due to a detailed art department.0 He often uses his background in graphics to embellish and heighten the visuals.0 His ever expanding list of clients now includes a broad range of artists such as Paloma Faith, Razorlight, Example, Diana Vickers, Eliza Doolittle, You Me At Six, Wolf Gang and many more.
Examples of James Copeman’s work Wolf Gang – ‘Dancing With The Devil’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dqV3qki4XUY0 This music video is very interesting as it is clearly from the Indie Rock genre due to the conventions used within the video. The use of shots of the band as well as a side story taking place fits in well with this type of genre. The dark lighting and costumes used within fit in well with the genre as well as the use of fire type lighting in the video causing the piece to stand out to the target audience.
How this director has influenced me:0 From looking at James Copeman’s music videos I have decided that it is best to include shots of both the band and also a storyline occurring at the same time in order to maintain the audience’s attention. I also feel that this is a good idea as the shots of the band performing may also work towards persuading the viewer to go to see the artist performing live on tour.
Album Covers/Digipaks0 Album covers are ‘Part packaging, part advertising, often an insight into an artist’s worldview, and usually the happy result of a successful collaboration between creative minds.’ says Christopher Budd in Media Magazine’s September 2012 issue.0 Christopher Budd also mentions that ‘The best album cover art illustrates and accompanies the music in a way that creates a whole package’.
Star Theory - Richard Dyer0 Richard Dyer created a theory about “stars” and their relationship between the music industry and audience. The term “star” is a semi-mythological set of meanings constructed around music performers in order to sell themselves to a large audience. Artists are presented in this way so that the audience are not familiar with the star causing them to purchase the artist’s products or see the star live. Richard Dyer goes on to say that media causes the artist to become an image formed by the media e.g. magazines, TV and films. From positive media coverage more people may feel persuaded to purchase an artist’s album although if the media creates a negative image of the artist, less albums will be sold.
Richard Dyer then says that there are two paradoxes that make the star incoherent, the first is: 0 The star must be simultaneously ordinary and extraordinary for the consumer. This means the star must have ordinary aspects in their life like being a mum, having a boyfriend, smoking, going to thecinema so that people are able to relate to them more. On the other hand, the extraordinary aspect like being rich, having big houses causes audiences to aspire to be them. 0 The star must be simultaneously present and absent for the consumer. This means the star can be present by music, films and gigsbut at the same time absent by never be able to have contactwith the artist. The fan will always try and get to close to the star.
As shown on the diagram, the fan begins by listening and buying the artist’s music. The artist may then star in a film, fans will watch the film trying to find out more about the artist. After this, the fan willstart wanting to know even more about the artist they may watch TV programmes with the artist in and interviews to learn more. Fans may even use the internet to find out more information. They will then finally go to a gig/concert involving the artist, they will be thinking that they may finally be meeting the star and this will complete their journey. Once finished they will figure out whether or not they completed thejourney successfully for example, whether they were able to meet the star. They will then begin to listen to the artist’s songs again, therefore starting the cycle again.
When creating an album cover…0 Listen to the CD for which you are designing the cover. Take note of the sound and style of the music. If the intensity of the music or the lyrics lend themselves to certain visual images, incorporate these into your design. For example, if a CD makes several references to rain, consider incorporating rain or water into your design. (Professional tip: listen to the song and draw a few visual responses to the way you the song makes you feel.)-Choose a font for the recording artist name. The font should bereflective of both the band and the album itself. For example, sharp andmenacing lettering might work for a heavy metal CD, but it might notwork for a folk CD-Choose the colour for the CD cover. Again, attempt to emulate the vibeof the CD and the recording artist. Use eye-catching colours withoutbeing too bold or flashy. (above source: http://www.ehow.com/how_6467960_make- professional-cd-cover.html)
Conventions of Album covers0 A simplistic colour scheme0 A simplistic design0 Few or no characters0 Use of a different colour for band name compared to the rest of the cover0 Hidden meanings0 A title that relates to what the album is about0 Bold simple fonts for band name0 Similar or entirely different font for the band name. http://www.slideshare.net/charlinbeth/conventions-of- an-album-cover
How we will apply this to our album cover0 We will create a very simple album cover with a layout that is easy on the eye, with a image central on the page to draw the audience’s attention.0 There will be very little text on the front cover as we believe that the audience would be much more attracted to the cover if it just includes the band’s name and the album name.0 The colours and choice of image will connote a hidden meaning behind the album.
Universal Records - Biography0 Universal Music Group is the world’s largest music company with market leading positions in recorded music, music publishing, and merchandising.0 The recorded music business discovers and develops recording artists and then markets and promotes their music across a wide array of formats and platforms. UMGs music publishing company, Universal Music Publishing Group, discovers and develops songwriters, and owns and administers copyrights to musical compositions for use in recordings, public performances, and related uses, such as films and advertisements. Bravado, UMG’s merchandising company, sells artist- and music-branded products via multiple sales point such as fashion retail, live performances, and the internet.
Record LabelsUniversal Music Group’s strength andlegacy of music flows from a diversefamily of record labels which include:A&M/Octone, Barclay, Decca, Def JamRecordings, Deutsche Grammophon,Disa, ECM, Emarcy, Fonovisa, GeffenRecords, Interscope, Island Records,Lost Highway, Machete Music, MCANashville, Mercury Nashville,Mercury Records, Motown Records,Polydor Records, Show Dog–Universal Music, Universal MusicLatino, Universal Republic, and VerveMusic Group.
RazorlightEnglish Indie Rock band Razorlight aresigned by Mercury Music/ VertigoRecords (Universal Music Group) . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VG p11BIGhfAThis band’s style of music is verysimilar to the music that will beincluded in my music video. A lot oftheir videos cover the band performingas well as shots of a side storyline.The album cover featured on the righthand side is very similar to the stylethat we will be creating as it involvesvery simplistic colours, images and fontstyles in order to stand out successfully.
Magazine Advertisements0 Wendy Helsby ‘Exploring the Media’ (2008) says that ‘advertising is the financial engine house of commercial media. It’s purpose is to target and deliver markets to producers which it does by converting the messages in an advertising campaign into action on the part of the audience – be it a change of attitude, a change of behavior or a purchase’
When creating an advertisement you must consider:0 Genre – different genres involve different conventions, think wisely about what genre your advertisement falls into and base it around that.0 Narrative themes – Are their any hidden messages you want to include to further persuade your audience, whether it’s a current topic in the news or a small message.0 Representation – Remember, your advertisement must represent the audience in some way. Whether it’s through costumes or colour schemes.
Male Gaze Theory Applied to Magazine Adverts Laura Mulvey(1975)0 Lighting is a key point in magazine adverts, by having light on the model the audience will cast more attention towards the model in the image rather than paying attention to the background. 0 Models in the image are included for visual pleasure by being relatively attractive and wearing similar clothing or be around props that the audience may be interested in.
How we’ll apply this to our magazine advertisement0 In order to draw people into the product we will include images that appear attractive to the target audience however the image will be of both a male and female as our product is aimed at both.0 The costumes, props and makeup will be fashionable for the time in order to attract and draw in more audiences.