Strata (plu. Of Stratum): a level/class to which people are assigned according to the social status.
status quo |ˈkwəʊ| noun (usu. the status quo ) the existing state of affairs, especially regarding social or political issues: they have a vested interest in maintaining the status quo .
Talk about “Equality of Educational Opportunity” by Coleman. Then talk about the studies of Barkers and others to argue with the Coleman’s report in 1966
Refer to page 42 for the detail answers Present Coleman report
Deficiency = lack or shortage
Refer to page 45
Refer to page 47 -48
Any writer or designer will tell you that 90% of the creative process…
… is destructive.
Topic 3The School inSociety
ObjectivesBy the end of this topic, students will be able to:•Explain about education and the process ofstratification;•Describe stratification and equality of educationalopportunity;•Explain the issues of race, class, and gender inachieving equality of educational opportunity; and•Discuss ability grouping and teacher expectation2
Introduction• Children keep develop and use their mental,moral and physical powers which they acquirethrough education.• Why “Education”?– Is the process of obtaining the knowledge.– Is the key to move up people to the world, to getbetter job and succeed in life• School functions as the ladder to the future.• School links to occupational and financialsuccess3
3.1. Educational & the Process ofStratification• Education provides a person class position (0neget higher social rank when they have a degree)• From the time children enter formal schooling ithas already been shaped and one of the mostsignificant institution is their families.• These placement have unique characteristicsand subsequently affects individuals’ lifestyle,educational and occupational status.4
Stratification (con.)• Schools are referred to a “Channels of verticalcirculation” which use testing and othermeasures of performance to sort and distributestudents along various strata.• Students are grouped distinctly according totheir past academic performance, performanceon standardized tests, and even anticipatedperformance.• Called Tracking or Ability grouping.5
Stratification (con.)• Stratification describes the different “Layers –are distinguished by unequal reward and lifechance” in that exists in society.• Sociologists describe stratification as theclassification of groups and relationships thatexist between them.• Stratification refers to class, caste, privilege andstatus.• Hierarchy!!!• Stratification of groups in school start withteachers, students and the community itself.6
Stratification Hierarchy:. Administrator: age, sex ranking. Teacher: age, sex. Student: class, race, ethnicgroups, sex, age ..Results:. Class placement, ability grouping. Self-perception. Future option1- Participants in theorganization2- Variables instratification:. Race, ethnicbackground, class,sex, age, attitudes,stereotypes,beliefs, valueGraduate of High SchoolDropoutsCommunity Stratification System:Community leaders – decision makersAverage class citizen – social class distributionMinority and ethnic group compositionEnrollmentINPUTSOUTPUTSFEEDBACK LOOP
3.2. Stratification &Equality Of EducationalOpportunity• Social stratification is a problem affecting differentsocieties for ages. E.g. the king & the farmers• Functionalists assumed that social stratificationprovided positive effect on society.• Social stratification is the condition of beingarranged in social strata or classes.– E.g. doctor and guard• Stratification is necessary for a society to reachpotential economy and society as society is a set ofinterconnected parts to form a whole (Functionalist).8
Stratification and Equality• Parson (1954) – a major functionalisttheorist –explained that socialstratification is important as it sharesvalues and differential ranking ofindividuals who compose socialsystem and their treatment assuperior and inferior to oneanother in a certain socially importantrespect.• Society is a machine (Parson, 1954).9
Conflicts on stratification• Based on Karl Mark’s theory, they concluded thatstratification means that working class people arenot likely to advance socioeconomically while thewealthy may continue to exploit the working classgeneration after generation.• So, these two classes identify their social positionsby their relationship to the means of production.• The maintenance of status quo is achieved byvarious aspects of social control done by rulingclass like ideologies.10
Conflicts (con.)• The conflict theory of social inequality holds thatstratification exists because it benefitsindividuals and groups who have the power todominate and exploit others.• Equalization of educational opportunity is linkedwith the equality notions of social system.• Means that when social system intends to provide equalopportunities for advancement, equal educational opportunitieshave to be given.• Education is provided by state as a matter ofright for all citizens where formal institutions areorganized for this purpose.12
Discussion• Think of any possibilities in achieving Equality ofEducational Opportunity.• Explain the obstacles in achieving Equality ofEducational Opportunity• What are your recommendation to deal withthese mentioned obstacles in CambodianContext?13
3.3. Issues of Race, Class & Gender inAchieving Quality of Opportunity• What affects the individuals’ chance foreducation?– Demographic factors• Gender, race, family status, sex, cultural background, socialclasses ….• Can these affect their future?• Is “Racial Discrimination” a problem ineducation system? If so, why does it exist?• How can we do to deal with these issues?14
3.4. Ability Grouping & TeacherExpectation1- Students learn better when they are with thosewho learn at the same rate.2- Slow learners develop more positive attitudeswhen they do not have to compete with the moreacademically capable.3- Group of students with similar abilities areeasier to teach then students of various abilities.15
Teacher Expectation (con.)• The study – how ability grouping affected theacademic experience – done by Jeannie Oakes(1985) shows that:– Placement– Treatment– Self-image– Achievement16
Factors Influencing Teacher Expectation• Sex• SES• Race/Ethnicity• Type of school• Appearance• Oral Language patterns• Disorganization/Messiness• Readiness• Halo Effect• Seating Position• Negative comments about students• Outdated theories• Tracking or long-term ability group17Brookover, et al. (1982), Cooper(1984) and Good (1987)
18Do you think the slow learners can’t reach his/her goal?