Topic
5:
 By the end of the topic, students will be able to:
 Explain the meaning of environment;
 Discuss the institutional env...
 Introduction
 Students and their environments
 School effectiveness
 The financing of education
 Educational movemen...
 What is the sociology of
 Learning is referred to activity that increases
the capacity and willingness of …. to acquire...
 What is “Environment”?
 Influence outside school that affects student’s role
in school (Ballantine, 2001)
 Home enviro...
 Factors influencing on achievement?
 Parental involvement
 Parent reading time for children
 Parental education
 Par...
 1966 Coleman report ascertained that the
impact of students’ family background on
student achievement was larger while s...
8
Schools:
Educational level of
teachers, Teaching
experiences, teacher
absenteeism, Professional
development, School stat...
Significant Predictors (Soeung, 2011; Soeung,
2012):
-Teacher absenteeism, repetition, absence,
amount of time working and...
 Different schools achieve different level of
success.
 Parents choose certain schools that have high
academic expectati...
1- Strong leadership;
2- High expectation by teachers for students;
3- An emphasis on basis skills;
4- An orderly environm...
Purkey & Smith, 1983 Scheerens & Bosker, 1997
Instructional leadership Educational leadership
Planned and purposeful curri...
 Education is viewed as an investment for
future.
 Central government provides fund.
 The rich tends to send their kids...
 Ed. Movements are common in countries that
lack centralization of decision-making.
 Social movements are most relevant:...
 1979-1996: 4+3+3
 1997-2006: 5+3+3
 2007-now: 6+3+3
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
AGE
Pre...
 What is “Change”?
 Change is defined as a process of planned and
unplanned qualitative and quantitative alterations
in ...
 Identity
 Level
 Duration
 Direction
 Magnitude
 Rate of change
By persons who have roles
within the system
By persons who have roles
within the system
Within a schoolWithin a school
Hap...
Baldridge & Deal, 1975
Reductive
Is made easier by and
among the target group
Is made easier by and
among the target group
Providing rational
jus...
 A serious assessment of the needs of organization must
be done.
 The environment must be considered.
 Both organizatio...
 What is the change?
 What are the change components?
 How many are perspectives suggested for
bringing about change?
...
25
Sopha_Topic 5_The Sociology of Learning
Sopha_Topic 5_The Sociology of Learning
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  • There were several studies have been conducted to examine the factors influencing student achievement in developed and developing countries. The main literature body is the Coleman report published in 1966. He found the impact of family background was larger than school resource. This report initiated idea for many researchers to conduct the study to the effect of schools in developing countries. Common finding in developing countries was school resources has larger effect on student achievement in developing countries. However, the finding on the effect of family background and school resources is still a controversy on this field of studies.
  • Therefore, this study also adapted those two main factors to create the conceptual framework. The variables were selected based on the careful review of the previous studies which are relevant to Cambodian context.
  • 1- Talk about school choice in Cambodia
  • How can you make your school to be an effective school?
  • Magnitude (n): great size and extend of sth
  • Sopha_Topic 5_The Sociology of Learning

    1. 1. Topic 5:
    2. 2.  By the end of the topic, students will be able to:  Explain the meaning of environment;  Discuss the institutional environments that affect students;  Explain the economics of education in relation to school financing;  Explain the major educational movements and reform that have influenced school systems and education; and  Explore the process of change in educational systems and some methods that have been proposed to bring about change
    3. 3.  Introduction  Students and their environments  School effectiveness  The financing of education  Educational movements and reform  Change and planning in educational systems  Summary
    4. 4.  What is the sociology of  Learning is referred to activity that increases the capacity and willingness of …. to acquire and productively apply new knowledge and skills……  Learning empowers …. to make wise choices, solve problems and break new ground.  Learning includes academic studies and occupational training via school. Learning?
    5. 5.  What is “Environment”?  Influence outside school that affects student’s role in school (Ballantine, 2001)  Home environment is as important as what goes on in school (Hammer, 2003)  Achievement gap?  Not only about what goes on in class, but also what happens to them before and after school.
    6. 6.  Factors influencing on achievement?  Parental involvement  Parent reading time for children  Parental education  Parental encouragement  SES  Home environment (Peng & Wrights, 1994)  Income  Family size  …..
    7. 7.  1966 Coleman report ascertained that the impact of students’ family background on student achievement was larger while school resources showed modest effect.  There was large effect of school resources on the student performance even after family background was controlled(Heyneman, 1976; Heyneman & Loxley, 1983; Fuller, 1987; Fuller & Clarke, 1994; Casassus et al., 2001;Willm & Somers, 2001; Buchmann, 2002). 7
    8. 8. 8 Schools: Educational level of teachers, Teaching experiences, teacher absenteeism, Professional development, School status Home-school book Principal Absence Students: Gender, Self-esteem, Preschool, Repetition, Absence, Private tutoring, Edu. Aspiration, Homework, Student-teacher interaction, Academic support, Working time, Types of work, Living status Families: Mothers’ education Edu. Aspiration for the child Family economic status Achievement (Soeung, 2012)
    9. 9. Significant Predictors (Soeung, 2011; Soeung, 2012): -Teacher absenteeism, repetition, absence, amount of time working and out-home work were found to have negative association with the achievement. -Teaching experience, teachers’ education, home-school book, Homework completion, educational aspiration, self-esteem, live with mother, student-teacher interaction were positively related with the achievement. 9
    10. 10.  Different schools achieve different level of success.  Parents choose certain schools that have high academic expectation for their kids.  People question about “the effectiveness of the school”.  School administrators offer a varieties of information to prove.
    11. 11. 1- Strong leadership; 2- High expectation by teachers for students; 3- An emphasis on basis skills; 4- An orderly environment; and 5- Frequent, systematic evaluations of students
    12. 12. Purkey & Smith, 1983 Scheerens & Bosker, 1997 Instructional leadership Educational leadership Planned and purposeful curriculum Curriculum quality / opportunity to learn Clear goals and high expectations Achievement orientation Time on task Effective learning time Recognition of academic success Feedback and reinforcement Orderly climate Classroom climate Sense of community School climate Parental support and involvement Parental involvement School site management Independent learning Staff development Evaluative potential Staff stability Consensus and cohesion Collegial and collaborative planning Structured instruction Direct support Adaptive instruction Source: Hoy, W.K & Miskel, C.G. (2008). Educational administration – Theories, research and practice. Singapore: McGraw-Hill
    13. 13.  Education is viewed as an investment for future.  Central government provides fund.  The rich tends to send their kids to private or elite school.  More school for kids, more economic possibility for individuals and nations.
    14. 14.  Ed. Movements are common in countries that lack centralization of decision-making.  Social movements are most relevant:  Reform movement: reforms are necessary  Regressive movement: Aims to put the clock back  Revolutionary movement: dissatisfy with existing  Utopian movement: radically change
    15. 15.  1979-1996: 4+3+3  1997-2006: 5+3+3  2007-now: 6+3+3 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 AGE Pre-School Upper Step Medium Step Lower Step Grade 11 Grade 10 9-YearBasicEduation Lower Secondary Grade 9 Exam Grade 8 Grade 7 Primary Grade 6 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Ed ucation System in Cambodia HigherEducation UniversitiesandInstitutes Publicinstitutions:24 - Universities: 12 - Institutes: 12 - Branches: 4 Private institutions:39 - Universities: 22 - Institutes: 17 - Branches: 28 Entrance Exam Technical/Vocationaltrainining Non-FormalEducation Upper Secondary Grade 12 Exam Source: MoEYS, 2008
    16. 16.  What is “Change”?  Change is defined as a process of planned and unplanned qualitative and quantitative alterations in social phenomena (Vago, 1989).  Change!! Schools need to be adaptable and flexible to survive.  Change affects all aspects of edu. System.
    17. 17.  Identity  Level  Duration  Direction  Magnitude  Rate of change
    18. 18. By persons who have roles within the system By persons who have roles within the system Within a schoolWithin a school Happens in other parts of society Happens in other parts of society In societal attitudes and values In societal attitudes and values
    19. 19. Baldridge & Deal, 1975
    20. 20. Reductive Is made easier by and among the target group Is made easier by and among the target group Providing rational justification for action Providing rational justification for action Through bias in the way in which a message is structured or Through bias in the way in which a message is structured or presented The use of coercion to change The use of coercion to change
    21. 21.  A serious assessment of the needs of organization must be done.  The environment must be considered.  Both organizational structure and the individual attitudes must be concerned about.  The change must be directed at controllable factors.  The change must be both politically and economically feasible.  The change must be effective in solving the problems that were diagnosed. (Baldridge & Deal, 1975)
    22. 22.  What is the change?  What are the change components?  How many are perspectives suggested for bringing about change?  What are the strategies for change?
    23. 23. 25

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