Sopha_Topic 4_The School as a Social System


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  • Institution: with certain roles and expectationsIndividuals: with certain personalities and need-dispositions (person’s existing qualities of mind and character)Ethos: Characteristic spirits of culture or community
  • Discrepancy =
  • Morale = confidence, discipline of a person or group at a particular time
  • Discuss these questions before playing the slide1-Should teachers be empowered? (teacher work alone in the classroom and he/she has to deal with several problems, so could he/she have enough power to make decision)2- How?
  • Sopha_Topic 4_The School as a Social System

    1. 1. Topic 4: Presented by Mr. Soeung Sopha The School as a Social System 1
    2. 2. Objectives: By the end of this topic, students will be able to:  Explain the concept of social system of the school;  Explore the goals of the school system;  Describe the structural elements that make up the school as an organization; and  Compare and contrast the issues of centralized and decentralized decision-making. 2
    3. 3. Content  Introduction  Social System of the School  Goals of the School System  The Purpose of the School  The School as an Organization  Centralized VS. Decentralized Decision-making 3
    4. 4. Introduction  What is “Social System”?  Is a social organization  Is a group of elements and activities that interact and constitute a single social entity (Longress, 2000)  “It is a model of organization that possess creativity beyond its component parts; it is distinguished from its environment by a clearly defined boundary; it is composed of subunits, elements, and subsystems that are interacted within relatively stable patterns of social order” (Olsen, 1970) 4
    5. 5. Introduction (con.)  What does “Social System” refer to?  Refers to Activities and Interaction of groups consisting of member brought together for a common purpose. 5 Individuals Institutions Classroom is an good example of social system.  Ethos  Norm  Values  Psychological aspects
    6. 6. 4.1 Social System of the School  There are some explicit assumptions: 6 Open system Inter - dependent parts Goal- oriented people Structure Political cultures Norms Conceptual & Relative  All formal organizations are social systems but not all social systems are formal organization
    7. 7. Important Elements that Affect Organizational Behavior 7 Structure Individual Culture Politics Core Environment Outputs Feedback Effectiveness
    8. 8. 8 
Source: Hoy, W. K. & Miskel,C. G. (2008). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice. Singapore: McGraw- Hill.
    9. 9. Discussion “ A better school system, a better social system” 9
    10. 10. 10 4.2 Goals of the School System  What is “Goal”?  It is a future state that an individual is striving to attain (Hoy & Miskel, 2008)  Can “Goal” be negotiated?  Why?  Because of the interests of the powerful and the needs of the system.
    11. 11. - Goals are made known to all the involved - Goals vary depending on the role of the individuals in schools - Every society has certain goals. - Functionalist: goals help school function smoothly to support societal system - - Conflict Theorist: schools goals are for the stratification esp. politicians Societal Sectors Influencing School Goals 11
    12. 12. 4.3 The Purpose of the School Perspective #1 12 Society - To socialize the young to perform needed adult roles. - Keep the young occupied. - Delay entry into the job market - Socialize the young into particular societal values, traditions & beliefs - Develop skills needed to live in society - Select & allocate the young to needed roles from professionals to laborers.
    13. 13. Different Perspectives 13 Individual - Provide opportunity to involve with peers and engage in sports and others activities. - Cooperate with adults help socialize students into having acceptable attitude and behavior. Adults provide skills and knowledge to them to fit into society’s competitive bureaucracies Perspective #2
    14. 14. Different Perspectives (con.) 14 Perspective #3 Community & Family - To formalize socialization experiences, especially in formal learning. - Facilitate peer interaction. - Structure socialization experience. - Help meet family goals - Give children more options in the competitive marketplace - Produce the young who will fit into the community
    15. 15. 4.4 The School as an Organization  What’s “Organization”?  A group of people who work together towards a common goal. 15 Management, bureaucratic structure, technology .. Motivation & Learning Develop.of OrganizationTheory  How can one organization be formed?  The presence of people;  The existence of a common goal and a certain regulated structure (Van der Westhuizen, 1996)  School is unlike the industry?  Never concerned with production based on profit motive
    16. 16. Weberian Modal of Bureaucracy  Max Weber (1947) did the classic analysis and help us to understand school as an organization and has characteristics of bureaucracy. 16 Division of Labor Impersonal Orientation Hierarchy of Authority Rules and Regulations Career Orientation Efficiency CharacteristicsofWMB. Leads to specialization and promote expertise Decision based on fact, not feeling or biases. System of superior and subordinates Ensures stability and uniformity of behavior Promotion based on seniority, achievement or both Rational decision making and administrative efficiency
    17. 17. Some Problems for Schools Caused by WMB. 17 They may forget that rules and regulations are only means to achieve goal, not ends in themselves creates an atmosphere where people interact as “non-person” Extreme division of labor Subordinators are reluctant to communicate with their superior High-achievers always complain about seniors who are not productive but being promoted
    18. 18. Two Basic Domains:  A bureaucratic one consisting of institutional and managerial functions of mediating between the school and community, implementing the policies, administering internal affairs, procuring and allocating necessary resources, and mediating between students and teacher.  A professional one involved with the actual technical processes of teaching and learning 18 Bureaucra tic Model Loosely coupled Model
    19. 19. 4.5 Centralize VS. Decentralize Decision-making  What is “Centralization”?  When should this method be used?  What is “Decentralization”?  When should this method be applied? 19 The process of transferring and assigning decision-making authority to the higher level of organization. The process of transferring and assigning decision-making authority to the lower level of organization.
    20. 20. Discussion  What are the advantages and disadvantages of Centralized and Decentralized decision-making system? 20  Which one works better in your context?
    21. 21. Answers  What is “Centralization”?  When should this method be used?  What is “Decentralization”?  What are the pors? 21 Is very helpful for schools which need to be stable or are facing a crisis and need one source of decision-making to lead - Gives people substantial practice at decision- making - Empowers and allow employees to improve their performance - Allows employees to use their first hand knowledge and experience - Allows the multiple individuals to give input for betterment - Trusting the individual No need to wait for approval from the top level
    22. 22. Summary  What does a “Social system” refer to?  What is a “Goal”?  What are the two models of school as an organization?  How many characteristics of WMB?  What is the best way to make functioning of a school more effective and efficient? 22